West Africa, called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost subregion of Africa. Early human settlers from northern Holocene societies arrived in West Africa around 12,000 B. C, sedentary farming began in, or around the fifth millennium B. C, as well as the domestication of cattle. By 1500 B. C, ironworking technology allowed an expansion of productivity. Northern tribes developed walled settlements and non-walled settlements that numbered at 400, in the forest region, Iron Age cultures began to flourish, and an inter-region trade began to appear. The desertification of the Sahara and the change of the coast cause trade with upper Mediterranean peoples to be seen. Local leather and gold contributed to the abundance of prosperity for many of the following empires. Also, based on the archaeology of city of Kumbi Saleh in modern-day Mauritania, three great kingdoms were identified in Bilad al-Sudan by the ninth century. They included Ghana and Kanem, the Sosso Empire sought to fill the void, but was defeated by the Mandinka forces of Sundiata Keita, founder of the new Mali Empire.
In the 15th century, the Songhai would form a new dominant state based on Gao, in the Songhai Empire, under the leadership of Sonni Ali, further east, Oyo arose as the dominant Yoruba state and the Aro Confederacy as a dominant Igbo state in modern-day Nigeria. The Kingdom of Nri was a West African medieval state in the present-day southeastern Nigeria, the Kingdom of Nri was unusual in the history of world government in that its leader exercised no military power over his subjects. The kingdom existed as a sphere of religious and political influence over a third of Igboland, the Eze Nri managed trade and diplomacy on behalf of the Nri people, and possessed divine authority in religious matters. The Oyo Empire was a Yoruba empire of what is today Western, established in the 15th century, the Oyo Empire grew to become one of the largest West African states. It rose through the organizational skills of the Yoruba, wealth gained from trade. The Benin Empire was an empire located in what is now southern Nigeria.
Its capital was Edo, now known as Benin City, Edo and it should not be confused with the modern-day country called Benin, formerly called Dahomey. The Benin Empire was one of the oldest and most highly developed states in the hinterland of West Africa. Olfert Dapper, a Dutch writer, describing Benin in his book Description of Africa and its craft was the most adored and treasured bronze casting in the history of Africa. It was annexed by the British Empire in 1897 during the invasion, in the early 19th century, a series of Fulani reformist jihads swept across Western Africa
JSTOR is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of journals, it now includes books and primary sources. It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals, more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries have access to JSTOR, most access is by subscription, but some older public domain content is freely available to anyone. William G. Bowen, president of Princeton University from 1972 to 1988, JSTOR originally was conceived as a solution to one of the problems faced by libraries, especially research and university libraries, due to the increasing number of academic journals in existence. Most libraries found it prohibitively expensive in terms of cost and space to maintain a collection of journals. By digitizing many journal titles, JSTOR allowed libraries to outsource the storage of journals with the confidence that they would remain available long-term, online access and full-text search ability improved access dramatically. Bowen initially considered using CD-ROMs for distribution, JSTOR was initiated in 1995 at seven different library sites, and originally encompassed ten economics and history journals. JSTOR access improved based on feedback from its sites.
Special software was put in place to make pictures and graphs clear, with the success of this limited project and Kevin Guthrie, then-president of JSTOR, wanted to expand the number of participating journals. They met with representatives of the Royal Society of London and an agreement was made to digitize the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society dating from its beginning in 1665, the work of adding these volumes to JSTOR was completed by December 2000. The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation funded JSTOR initially, until January 2009 JSTOR operated as an independent, self-sustaining nonprofit organization with offices in New York City and in Ann Arbor, Michigan. JSTOR content is provided by more than 900 publishers, the database contains more than 1,900 journal titles, in more than 50 disciplines. Each object is identified by an integer value, starting at 1. In addition to the site, the JSTOR labs group operates an open service that allows access to the contents of the archives for the purposes of corpus analysis at its Data for Research service.
This site offers a facility with graphical indication of the article coverage. Users may create focused sets of articles and request a dataset containing word and n-gram frequencies and they are notified when the dataset is ready and may download it in either XML or CSV formats. The service does not offer full-text, although academics may request that from JSTOR, JSTOR Plant Science is available in addition to the main site. The materials on JSTOR Plant Science are contributed through the Global Plants Initiative and are only to JSTOR
Colleton County, South Carolina
Colleton County is a county located in the Lowcountry region of the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, its population was 38,892, the county is named after Sir John Colleton, 1st Baronet, one of the eight Lords Proprietor of the Province of Carolina. After two previous incarnations, the current Colleton County was created in 1800, in 1682, Colleton was created as one of the three original proprietary counties, located in the southwestern coastal portion of the new South Carolina Colony and bordering on the Combahee River. In 1706, the county was divided between the new Saint Bartholomew and Saint Paul parishes and this area was developed for large plantations devoted to rice and indigo cultivation as commodity crops. The planters depended on the labor of African slaves transported to Charleston for that purpose, in the coastal areas, black slaves soon outnumbered white colonists, as they did across the colony by 1708. In 1734, most of the portion of Saint Pauls Parish was separated to form the new Saint Johns Colleton Parish.
In 1769, the three parishes were absorbed into the Charleston Judicial District, the portion of which was referred to as Saint Bartholomews. In 1800, the new Colleton District was formed from the half of the Charleston District. In 1816, it annexed a portion of northwestern Charleston District. In 1868, under the Reconstruction era new state constitution, South Carolina districts were reorganized as counties, officials were to be elected by the resident voters rather than by state officials, as was done previously, thus giving more democratic power to local residents. In 1897, the portion of the county was separated to form the new Dorchester County. In 1911, the portion of the county east of the Edisto River was annexed by Charleston County, in 1919 and again in 1920, tiny portions of northwestern Colleton County were annexed to Bamberg County. In March 1975, the town of Edisto Beach was annexed to Colleton County from Charleston County, thus bringing the county to its present size. According to the U. S.
Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,133 square miles. It is the fifth-largest county in South Carolina by land area, located at 8377 State Cabin Rd, Edisto Island, SC29438 Phone, 869-2156 Has 113 improved campsites. As of the census of 2000, there were 38,264 people,14,470 households, the population density was 36 people per square mile. There were 18,129 housing units at a density of 17 per square mile. 1. 44% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,24. 00% of all households were made up of individuals and 10. 10% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older
Colonial Williamsburg is a living-history museum and private foundation presenting part of a historic district in the city of Williamsburg, United States. Colonial Williamsburgs 301-acre Historic Area includes buildings from the century, as well as 17th-century, 19th-century, Colonial Revival structures. The Historic Area is an interpretation of a colonial American city, with exhibits of dozens of restored or re-created buildings related to its colonial, Colonial Williamsburgs motto has been That the future may learn from the past. One of the largest history projects in the nation and a tourist attraction, it is part of the Historic Triangle of Virginia, the site was once used for conferences by world leaders and heads of state, including U. S. presidents. It was designated a National Historic Landmark District in 1960, costumed employees work and dress as people did in the era, sometimes using colonial grammar and diction. Colonial Williamsburgs portion of the Historic Area begins east of the College of William & Marys College Yard, Colonial Williamsburg is a historical landmark and a living history museum.
Its core runs along Duke of Gloucester Street and the Palace Green that extends north and south perpendicular to it and this area is largely flat, with ravines and streams branching off on the periphery. Surviving colonial structures have been restored as close as possible to their 18th-century appearance, with traces of buildings, many of the missing colonial structures were reconstructed on their original sites beginning in the 1930s. Animals and dependencies add to the environment, four taverns have been reconstructed for use as restaurants and two for inns. There are craftsmens workshops for period trades, including a shop, a shoemakers, blacksmiths, a cooperage, a cabinetmaker, a gunsmiths, a wigmakers. There are merchants selling tourist souvenirs, reproduction toys, pottery, the Public Gaol served as a jail for the colonists. Former notorious inmates include the pirate Blackbeards crew who were kept in the jail while they awaited trial in 1704, Colonial Williamsburg operations extend to Merchants Square, a Colonial Revival commercial area designated a historic district in its own right.
Nearby are the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Museum and DeWitt Wallace Decorative Arts Museum, locals and employees frequently call Colonial Williamsburg CW. The Jamestown statehouse, housing Virginias government at the time, burned down on October 20,1698, the legislators consequently moved their meetings to the College of William and Mary in Virginia at Middle Plantation, putting an end to Jamestowns 92-year run as Virginias colonial capital. Interested Middle Plantation landowners donated some of their holdings to advance the plan, Middle Plantation was renamed Williamsburg by Governor Francis Nicholson, who was first among the proponents of the change, in honor of King William III of England. Nicholson said that at Williamsburg clear and crystal springs burst from the champagne soil, by champagne, he meant excellent or fertile. Nicholson had the city surveyed and a laid out by Theodorick Bland taking into consideration the brick College Building. The grid seems to have obliterated all but the remnants of a plan that laid out the streets in the monogram of King William and Queen Mary
Williamsburg is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,068, in 2014, the population was estimated to be 14,691. Located on the Virginia Peninsula, Williamsburg is in the part of the Hampton Roads metropolitan area. It is bordered by James City County and York County, Williamsburg was founded in 1632 as Middle Plantation, a fortified settlement on high ground between the James and York rivers. The city served as the capital of the Colony of Virginia from 1699 to 1780 and was the center of events in Virginia leading to the American Revolution. S. Presidents as well as other important figures in the nations early history. The citys tourism-based economy is driven by Colonial Williamsburg, the restored Historic Area of the city, along with nearby Jamestown and Yorktown, Williamsburg forms part of the Historic Triangle, which attracts more than four million tourists each year. Modern Williamsburg is a town, inhabited in large part by William & Mary students.
Prior to the arrival of the English colonists at Jamestown in the Colony of Virginia in 1607, by the 1630s, English settlements had grown to dominate the lower portion of the Virginia Peninsula, and the Powhatan tribes had abandoned their nearby villages. Jamestown was the capital of Virginia Colony, but was burned down during the events of Bacons Rebellion in 1676. The members of the House of Burgesses discovered that the location was both safer and more pleasant environmentally than Jamestown, which was humid and plagued with mosquitoes. A school of education had long been an aspiration of the colonists. An early attempt at Henricus failed after the Indian Massacre of 1622, the location at the outskirts of the developed part of the colony had left it more vulnerable to the attack. In the 1690s, the colonists tried again to establish a school and they commissioned Reverend James Blair, who spent several years in England lobbying, and finally obtained a royal charter for the desired new school.
It was to be named the College of William & Mary in honor of the monarchs of the time, when Reverend Blair returned to Virginia, the new school was founded in a safe place, Middle Plantation in 1693. Classes began in temporary quarters in 1694, and the College Building, four years later, in 1698, the rebuilt Statehouse in Jamestown burned down again, this time accidentally. The government again relocated temporarily to Middle Plantation, and in addition to the better climate now enjoyed use of the Colleges facilities. The College students made a presentation to the House of Burgesses, a village was laid out and Middle Plantation was renamed Williamsburg in honor of King William III of England, befitting the towns newly elevated status
Folk art encompasses art produced from an indigenous culture or by peasants or other laboring tradespeople. In contrast to fine art, folk art is primarily utilitarian, Folk Art is characterized by a naïve style, in which traditional rules of proportion and perspective are not employed. The varied geographical and temporal prevalence and diversity of folk art make it difficult to describe as a whole, though some patterns have been demonstrated. On the other hand, many 18th- and 19th-century American folk art painters made their living by their work, including itinerant portrait painters, some of whom produced large bodies of work. Terms that might overlap with folk art are naïve art, tribal art, primitive art, popular art, outsider art, traditional art, tramp art and working-class art/blue-collar art. As one might expect, these terms can have multiple and even controversial connotations but are used interchangeably with the term folk art. Folk art expresses cultural identity by conveying shared community values and aesthetics and it encompasses a range of utilitarian and decorative media, including cloth, paper, clay and more.
If traditional materials are inaccessible, new materials are often substituted, Folk art reflects traditional art forms of diverse community groups — ethnic, religious, geographical, age- or gender-based — who identify with each other and society at large. Folk artists traditionally learn skills and techniques through apprenticeships in informal community settings, antique folk art is distinguished from traditional art in that, while collected today based mostly on its artistic merit, it was never intended to be art for art’s sake at the time of its creation. Many folk art traditions like quilting, ornamental picture framing, and decoy carving continue to thrive, contemporary folk artists are frequently self-taught as their work is often developed in isolation or in small communities across the country. Folk artworks and motifs have inspired various artists, for example, Pablo Picasso was inspired by African tribal sculptures and masks, while Natalia Goncharova and others were inspired by traditional Russian popular prints called luboks.
In music, Igor Stravinskys seminal The Rite of Spring was inspired by religious rites. CIOFF, International Council of Organizations of Folklore Festivals and Folk Arts
Abby Aldrich Rockefeller
Abigail Greene Abby Aldrich Rockefeller was an American socialite and philanthropist. Through her marriage to financier and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller Jr. she was a prominent member of the Rockefeller family. Referred to as the woman in the family, she was known for being the force behind the establishment of the Museum of Modern Art, on 53rd Street in New York. Abby was born in Providence, Rhode Island to Senator Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich and Abigail Pearce Truman Chapman and she was a sister of Congressman Richard Steere Aldrich and banker/financier Winthrop Williams Aldrich. Her early education came at the hands of Quaker governesses, in 1891, she enrolled at the Miss Abbotts School for Young Ladies in Providence, Rhode Island. While there she studied English composition and literature, German, art history and ancient history and she graduated in 1893 and made her debut in November 1893. On June 30,1894, she sailed for Liverpool, beginning a lifetime of extensive European, the aesthetic education she gained from abroad, initially fostered by her father, helped to inform her future discernment as an art collector.
This initial four-month sojourn included the countries of England, the Netherlands, Austria, Switzerland and they went through a protracted engagement, during which they were invited for a trip to Cuba in 1900, on President William McKinley Jr. s yacht. They resided at Number 10 until 1938, when moved to a 40-room triplex apartment at 740 Park Avenue. She was buried in Sleepy Hollow, New York and she became a prominent patron of modern art. In 1928, she employed a designer to create a suite of art deco rooms, called the Topside Gallery, it allowed her to display and organize changing exhibitions of her growing collection, integrating modern and folk art. Visitors took the elevator directly to the 7th floor, bypassing the private domain of the rest of her family, the news of her interests and activities spread quickly from this period, and many subsequent collectors began to follow her lead. Lillie P. Bliss, Mary Quinn Sullivan, and Abby banded together to conceptualize, most notable was her avid interest in becoming the driving force in the establishment and ongoing operations of the institution on November 7,1929.
Since JDR Jr. only gave Abby a relatively small allowance she could not solely rely on her husband to finance this undertaking and his financial support was especially limited due to his dislike for modern art. Financing for the museum and acquisition of paintings came from her solicitation of the public, alfred Barr, the museums first director, claimed that Abby was crucial to the institutions success. She was elected to MoMAs Board of Trustees in October 1929, other roles included terms as First Vice-President and First Vice-Chairman. Her son Nelson subsequently became its president and involved himself in its financing and her son Nelson named the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Sculpture Garden in her honor. It was designed by architect Philip Johnson and opened in 1953, Johnson designed The Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Gallery at the Rhode Island School of Design Museum which showcases Japanese woodblock prints that she donated to the permanent collection
Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Museum
The Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Museum is a museum located in Colonial Williamsburg, United States. Initially based on donations from Abby Aldrich Rockefeller, it was founded in 1957, today it includes more than 3,000 objects. Four years later, she donated such collection, which remained in the Ludwell-Paradise House until 1956, Rockefeller had donated to the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Museum of Modern Art. The museum opened its doors in May 1957 as the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Collection and it changed names in 1977 to the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center and again in 2000 as Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Museum. The 424 objects, collected by Abby Rockefeller between 1929 and 1942 remain the core of the collection, however the museum has grown into containing more than 3,000 objects today. Now the museum works of portraiture and African American folk art, fraktur. Various exhibitions of the museum regarded 18th and 19th-century painters such as Zedekiah Belknapp, James Sanforth Elsworth, the museum includes notable 18th-century watercolor paintings such as The Old Plantation, by South Carolina slave owner John Rose.
One of the most notable curators of the museum has been Thomas N. Armstrong III, Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center. American folk portraits and drawings from the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center, Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center, Beatrix T. Rumford, Carolyn J. Weekley. Treasures of American folk art from the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center, Brown in association with the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation
Cahill was born Sveinn Kristjan Bjarnarsson in Skógarströnd, Iceland on January 13,1890. Extreme poverty, lack of education and domestic strife marked Cahill’s early childhood. When he was young, his father abandoned the family and his mother sent the young Cahill to live and his mother remarried and had another child, Anna. That marriage did not last, after two years with the Icelandic farmers, Cahill ran away at first to neighboring farms where he found work and eventually to Winnipeg, in search of distant cousins. The cousins refused to him in and he ended up in an orphanage. A Gaelic-speaking family in a cooperative farm community adopted Cahill. After several years with the Gaelic family, he returned to North Dakota in search of his mother only to discover that his mother and step-sister had moved, eventually he found them working on a nearby tenant farm in 1902. His mother had remarried to a man named Samson, and she. Once again, he left home and did not see his mother again for 45 years, as a former journalist, Cahill knew how to write and effectively create new interest in the Society’s exhibitions.
The following year, he was hired by John Cotton Dana to become his assistant at the Newark Museum, during his tenure at Newark, he continued to write fiction and short stories including art criticism for Shadowland magazine, International Studio and the New York Herald Tribune. He published a novel, Profane Earth in 1927 and, in 1930, at Newark, he met his future wife, Dorothy Canning Miller whom he married in 1938. In 1932–33, Cahill served as acting director of the Museum of Modern Art when the founding director, when Cahill left Newark, he employed Dorothy Miller as his assistant on his various projects. From August 1935 until April 1943, Cahill was the director of the Federal Art Project. His contributions to the research and understanding of the arts in America were wide ranging—from the earliest crafts of the Native Americans to the abstract expressionists. In the 1920s, his endorsement of American folk art as well as the early American modernists introduced their work to a larger public through exhibitions, catalogues.
During his tenure of the WPA, his oversight of the Index of American Design established an understanding of the variety and quality of American iconographic imagery. Cahill proved to be an imaginative and skillful administrator, an entire generation of artists was nurtured, their work exhibited, and an expanded public for art was created. In 1938, Cahill married Dorothy Canning Miller, curator of painting, the following year, he took a leave of absence from the WPA to stay in New York City and direct a large survey exhibition at the 1939 World’s Fair, American Art Today
Slavery in the United States
Slavery had been practiced in British North America from early colonial days, and was legal in all Thirteen Colonies at the time of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. By the time of the American Revolution, the status of slave had been institutionalized as a racial caste associated with African ancestry, when the United States Constitution was ratified, a relatively small number of free people of color were among the voting citizens. During and immediately following the Revolutionary War, abolitionist laws were passed in most Northern states, most of these states had a higher proportion of free labor than in the South and economies based on different industries. They abolished slavery by the end of the 18th century, some with gradual systems that kept adults as slaves for two decades. But the rapid expansion of the industry in the Deep South after the invention of the cotton gin greatly increased demand for slave labor. Congress during the Jefferson administration prohibited the importation of slaves, effective in 1808, domestic slave trading, continued at a rapid pace, driven by labor demands from the development of cotton plantations in the Deep South.
More than one million slaves were sold from the Upper South, which had a surplus of labor, New communities of African-American culture were developed in the Deep South, and the total slave population in the South eventually reached 4 million before liberation. As the West was developed for settlement, the Southern state governments wanted to keep a balance between the number of slave and free states to maintain a balance of power in Congress. The new territories acquired from Britain and Mexico were the subject of major political compromises, by 1850, the newly rich cotton-growing South was threatening to secede from the Union, and tensions continued to rise. When Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 election on a platform of halting the expansion of slavery, the first six states to secede held the greatest number of slaves in the South. Shortly after, the Civil War began when Confederate forces attacked the US Armys Fort Sumter, four additional slave states seceded. In the early years of the Chesapeake Bay settlements, colonial officials found it difficult to attract and retain laborers under the frontier conditions.
Most laborers came from Britain as indentured servants, having signed contracts of indenture to pay with work for their passage, their upkeep and training and these indentured servants were young people who intended to become permanent residents. In some cases, convicted criminals were transported to the colonies as indentured servants, the indentured servants were not slaves, but were required to work for four to seven years in Virginia to pay the cost of their passage and maintenance. Historians estimate that more than half of all immigrants to the English colonies of North America during the 17th and 18th centuries came as indentured servants. The number of indentured servants among immigrants was particularly high in the South, many Germans, Scots-Irish, and Irish came to the colonies in the 18th century, settling in the backcountry of Pennsylvania and further south. The planters in the South found that the problem with indentured servants was that many left after several years, just when they had become skilled.
In addition, an economy in England in the late 17th
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker