In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are composed of atoms, which are made up of interacting subatomic particles, in everyday as well as scientific usage, "matter" includes atoms and anything made up of them, any particles that act as if they have both rest mass and volume; however it does not include massless particles such as photons, or other energy phenomena or waves such as light or sound. Matter exists in various states; these include classical everyday phases such as solid and gas – for example water exists as ice, liquid water, gaseous steam – but other states are possible, including plasma, Bose–Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates, quark–gluon plasma. Atoms can be imagined as a nucleus of protons and neutrons, a surrounding "cloud" of orbiting electrons which "take up space"; however this is only somewhat correct, because subatomic particles and their properties are governed by their quantum nature, which means they do not act as everyday objects appear to act – they can act like waves as well as particles and they do not have well-defined sizes or positions.
In the Standard Model of particle physics, matter is not a fundamental concept because the elementary constituents of atoms are quantum entities which do not have an inherent "size" or "volume" in any everyday sense of the word. Due to the exclusion principle and other fundamental interactions, some "point particles" known as fermions, many composites and atoms, are forced to keep a distance from other particles under everyday conditions. For much of the history of the natural sciences people have contemplated the exact nature of matter; the idea that matter was built of discrete building blocks, the so-called particulate theory of matter, was first put forward by the Greek philosophers Leucippus and Democritus. Matter should not be confused with mass. Matter is a general term describing any'physical substance'. By contrast, mass is not a substance but rather a quantitative property of matter and other substances or systems. While there are different views on what should be considered matter, the mass of a substance has exact scientific definitions.
Another difference is that matter has an "opposite" called antimatter, but mass has no opposite—there is no such thing as "anti-mass" or negative mass, so far as is known, although scientists do discuss the concept. Antimatter has the same mass property as its normal matter counterpart. Different fields of science use the term matter in different, sometimes incompatible, ways; some of these ways are based on loose historical meanings, from a time when there was no reason to distinguish mass from a quantity of matter. As such, there is no single universally agreed scientific meaning of the word "matter". Scientifically, the term "mass" is well-defined. Sometimes in the field of physics "matter" is equated with particles that exhibit rest mass, such as quarks and leptons. However, in both physics and chemistry, matter exhibits both wave-like and particle-like properties, the so-called wave–particle duality. A definition of "matter" based on its physical and chemical structure is: matter is made up of atoms.
Such atomic matter is sometimes termed ordinary matter. As an example, deoxyribonucleic acid molecules are matter under this definition because they are made of atoms; this definition can be extended to include charged atoms and molecules, so as to include plasmas and electrolytes, which are not included in the atoms definition. Alternatively, one can adopt the protons and electrons definition. A definition of "matter" more fine-scale than the atoms and molecules definition is: matter is made up of what atoms and molecules are made of, meaning anything made of positively charged protons, neutral neutrons, negatively charged electrons; this definition goes beyond atoms and molecules, however, to include substances made from these building blocks that are not atoms or molecules, for example electron beams in an old cathode ray tube television, or white dwarf matter—typically and oxygen nuclei in a sea of degenerate electrons. At a microscopic level, the constituent "particles" of matter such as protons and electrons obey the laws of quantum mechanics and exhibit wave–particle duality.
At an deeper level and neutrons are made up of quarks and the force fields that bind them together, leading to the next definition. As seen in the above discussion, many early definitions of what can be called "ordinary matter" were based upon its structure or "building blocks". On the scale of elementary particles, a definition that follows this tradition can be stated as: "ordinary matter is everything, composed of quarks and leptons", or "ordinary matter is everything, composed of any elementary fermions except antiquarks and antileptons"; the connection between these formulations follows. Leptons, quarks combine to form atoms, which in turn form molecules; because atoms and molecules are said to be matter, it is natural to phrase the definition as: "ordinary matter is anything
An ontological argument is a philosophical argument for the existence of God that uses ontology. Many arguments fall under the category of the ontological, they tend to involve arguments about the state of being or existing. More ontological arguments tend to start with a priori theory about the organization of the universe. If that organizational structure is true, the argument will provide reasons; the first ontological argument in the tradition was proposed by Anselm of Canterbury in his 1078 work Proslogion. Anselm defined God as "that than which nothing greater can be thought", argued that this being must exist in the mind in the mind of the person who denies the existence of God, he suggested that, if the greatest possible being exists in the mind, it must exist in reality. If it exists only in the mind an greater being must be possible—one which exists both in the mind and in reality. Therefore, this greatest possible being must exist in reality. Seventeenth-century French philosopher René Descartes deployed a similar argument.
Descartes published several variations of his argument, each of which centred on the idea that God's existence is inferable from a "clear and distinct" idea of a supremely perfect being. In the early eighteenth century, Gottfried Leibniz augmented Descartes' ideas in an attempt to prove that a "supremely perfect" being is a coherent concept. A more recent ontological argument came from Kurt Gödel, who proposed a formal argument for God's existence. Norman Malcolm revived the ontological argument in 1960 when he located a second, stronger ontological argument in Anselm's work. Attempts have been made to validate Anselm's proof using an automated theorem prover. Other arguments have been categorised as ontological, including those made by Islamic philosophers Mulla Sadra and Allama Tabatabai. Since its proposal, few philosophical ideas have generated as much interest and discussion as the ontological argument. Nearly all of the great minds of Western philosophy have found the argument worthy of their attention, a number of criticisms and objections have been mounted.
The first critic of the ontological argument was Gaunilo of Marmoutiers. He used the analogy of a perfect island, suggesting that the ontological argument could be used to prove the existence of anything; this was the first of many parodies, all of which attempted to show that the argument has absurd consequences. Thomas Aquinas rejected the argument on the basis that humans cannot know God's nature. David Hume offered an empirical objection, criticising its lack of evidential reasoning and rejecting the idea that anything can exist necessarily. Immanuel Kant's critique was based on what he saw as the false premise that existence is a predicate, he argued that "existing" adds nothing to the essence of a being, thus a "supremely perfect" being can be conceived not to exist. Philosophers including C. D. Broad dismissed the coherence of a maximally great being, proposing that some attributes of greatness are incompatible with others, rendering "maximally great being" incoherent. Contemporary defenders of the ontological argument include Alvin Plantinga, William Alston and David Bentley Hart.
The traditional definition of an ontological argument was given by Immanuel Kant. He contrasted the ontological argument with physio-theoretical arguments. According to the Kantian view, ontological arguments are those founded on a priori reasoning. Graham Oppy, who elsewhere expressed the view that he "see no urgent reason" to depart from the traditional definition, defined ontological arguments as those that begin with "nothing but analytic, a priori and necessary premises" and conclude that God exists. Oppy admitted, that not all of the "traditional characteristics" of an ontological argument are found in all ontological arguments and, in his 2007 work Ontological Arguments and Belief in God, suggested that a better definition of an ontological argument would employ only considerations "entirely internal to the theistic worldview". Oppy subclassified ontological arguments into definitional, modal, experiential, higher-order, or Hegelian categories, based on the qualities of their premises.
He defined these qualities. He categorised mereological as arguments that "draw on... the theory of the whole-part relation". William Lane Craig criticised Oppy's study as too vague for useful classification. Craig argued that an argument can be classified as ontological if it attempts to deduce the existence of God, along with other necessary truths, from his definition, he suggested that proponents of ontological arguments would claim that, if one understood the concept of God, one must accept his existence. William L. Rowe defined ontological arguments as those that start from the definition of God and, using only a priori principles, conclude with God's existence. Although a version of the ontological argument appears explicitly in the writings of the ancient Greek philosopher Xenophanes and variations appear in writings by Parmenides and the Neoplatonists, t
Immanuel Kant was an influential German philosopher. In his doctrine of transcendental idealism, he argued that space and causation are mere sensibilities. In his view, the mind shapes and structures experience, with all human experience sharing certain structural features, he drew a parallel to the Copernican revolution in his proposition that worldly objects can be intuited a priori, that intuition is therefore independent from objective reality. Kant believed that reason is the source of morality, that aesthetics arise from a faculty of disinterested judgment. Kant's views continue to have a major influence on contemporary philosophy the fields of epistemology, political theory, post-modern aesthetics. In one of Kant's major works, the Critique of Pure Reason, he attempted to explain the relationship between reason and human experience and to move beyond the failures of traditional philosophy and metaphysics. Kant wanted to put an end to an era of futile and speculative theories of human experience, while resisting the skepticism of thinkers such as David Hume.
Kant regarded himself as showing the way past the impasse between rationalists and empiricists which philosophy had led to, is held to have synthesized both traditions in his thought. Kant was an exponent of the idea that perpetual peace could be secured through universal democracy and international cooperation, he believed that this would be the eventual outcome of universal history, although it is not rationally planned. The nature of Kant's religious ideas continues to be the subject of philosophical dispute, with viewpoints ranging from the impression that he was an initial advocate of atheism who at some point developed an ontological argument for God, to more critical treatments epitomized by Nietzsche, who claimed that Kant had "theologian blood" and was a sophisticated apologist for traditional Christian faith. Kant published other important works on ethics, law, aesthetics and history; these include the Universal Natural History, the Critique of Practical Reason, the Metaphysics of Morals, the Critique of Judgment, which looks at aesthetics and teleology.
Kant's mother, Anna Regina Reuter, was born in Königsberg to a father from Nuremberg. Her surname is sometimes erroneously given as Porter. Kant's father, Johann Georg Kant, was a German harness maker from Memel, at the time Prussia's most northeastern city. Kant believed. While scholars of Kant's life long accepted the claim, there is no evidence that Kant's paternal line was Scottish and it is more that the Kants got their name from the village of Kantwaggen and were of Curonian origin. Kant was the fourth of nine children. Kant was born on 22 April 1724 into a Prussian German family of Lutheran Protestant faith in Königsberg, East Prussia. Baptized Emanuel, he changed his name to Immanuel after learning Hebrew, he was brought up in a Pietist household that stressed religious devotion, a literal interpretation of the Bible. His education was strict and disciplinary, focused on Latin and religious instruction over mathematics and science. Kant maintained Christian ideals for some time, but struggled to reconcile the faith with his belief in science.
In his Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, he reveals a belief in immortality as the necessary condition of humanity's approach to the highest morality possible. However, as Kant was skeptical about some of the arguments used prior to him in defence of theism and maintained that human understanding is limited and can never attain knowledge about God or the soul, various commentators have labelled him a philosophical agnostic. Common myths about Kant's personal mannerisms are listed and refuted in Goldthwait's introduction to his translation of Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime, it is held that Kant lived a strict and disciplined life, leading to an oft-repeated story that neighbors would set their clocks by his daily walks. He never married, but seemed to have a rewarding social life — he was a popular teacher and a modestly successful author before starting on his major philosophical works, he had a circle of friends with whom he met, among them Joseph Green, an English merchant in Königsberg.
A common myth is. In fact, between 1750 and 1754 he worked as a tutor in Groß-Arnsdorf. Kant showed a great aptitude for study at an early age, he first attended the Collegium Fridericianum from which he graduated at the end of the summer of 1740. In 1740, aged 16, he enrolled at the University of Königsberg, he studied the philosophy of Gottfried Leibniz and Christian Wolff under Martin Knutzen, a rationalist, familiar with developments in British philosophy and science and introduced Kant to the new mathematical physics of Isaac Newton. Knutzen dissuaded Kant from the theory of pre-established harmony, which he regarded as "the pillow for the lazy mind", he dissuaded Kant from idealism, the idea that reality is purely mental, which most philosophers in the 18th cent
Religion is a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, worldviews, sanctified places, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements. However, there is no scholarly consensus over what constitutes a religion. Different religions may or may not contain various elements ranging from the divine, sacred things, faith, a supernatural being or supernatural beings or "some sort of ultimacy and transcendence that will provide norms and power for the rest of life". Religious practices may include rituals, commemoration or veneration, festivals, trances, funerary services, matrimonial services, prayer, art, public service, or other aspects of human culture. Religions have sacred histories and narratives, which may be preserved in sacred scriptures, symbols and holy places, that aim to give a meaning to life. Religions may contain symbolic stories, which are sometimes said by followers to be true, that have the side purpose of explaining the origin of life, the universe, other things.
Traditionally, faith, in addition to reason, has been considered a source of religious beliefs. There are an estimated 10,000 distinct religions worldwide, but about 84% of the world's population is affiliated with one of the five largest religion groups, namely Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism or forms of folk religion; the religiously unaffiliated demographic includes those who do not identify with any particular religion and agnostics. While the religiously unaffiliated have grown globally, many of the religiously unaffiliated still have various religious beliefs; the study of religion encompasses a wide variety of academic disciplines, including theology, comparative religion and social scientific studies. Theories of religion offer various explanations for the origins and workings of religion, including the ontological foundations of religious being and belief. Religion is derived from the ultimate origins of which are obscure. One possible interpretation traced to Cicero, connects lego read, i.e. re with lego in the sense of choose, go over again or consider carefully.
The definition of religio by Cicero is cultum deorum, "the proper performance of rites in veneration of the gods." Julius Caesar used religio to mean "obligation of an oath" when discussing captured soldiers making an oath to their captors. The Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder used the term religio on elephants in that they venerate the sun and the moon. Modern scholars such as Tom Harpur and Joseph Campbell favor the derivation from ligare bind, connect from a prefixed re-ligare, i.e. re + ligare or to reconnect, made prominent by St. Augustine, following the interpretation given by Lactantius in Divinae institutiones, IV, 28; the medieval usage alternates with order in designating bonded communities like those of monastic orders: "we hear of the'religion' of the Golden Fleece, of a knight'of the religion of Avys'". In the ancient and medieval world, the etymological Latin root religio was understood as an individual virtue of worship in mundane contexts. In general, religio referred to broad social obligations towards anything including family, neighbors and towards God.
Religio was most used by the ancient Romans not in the context of a relation towards gods, but as a range of general emotions such as hesitation, anxiety, fear. The term was closely related to other terms like scrupulus which meant "very precisely" and some Roman authors related the term superstitio, which meant too much fear or anxiety or shame, to religio at times; when religio came into English around the 1200s as religion, it took the meaning of "life bound by monastic vows" or monastic orders. The compartmentalized concept of religion, where religious things were separated from worldly things, was not used before the 1500s; the concept of religion was first used in the 1500s to distinguish the domain of the church and the domain of civil authorities. In the ancient Greece, the Greek term threskeia was loosely translated into Latin as religio in late antiquity; the term was sparsely used in classical Greece but became more used in the writings of Josephus in the first century CE. It was used in mundane contexts and could mean multiple things from respectful fear to excessive or harmfully distracting practices of others.
It was contrasted with the Greek word deisidaimonia which meant too much fear. The modern concept of religion, as an abstraction that entails distinct sets of beliefs or doctrines, is a recent invention in the English language; such usage began with texts from the 17th century due to events such the splitting of Christendom during the Protestant Reformation and globalization in the age of exploration, which involved contact with numerous foreign cultures with non-European languages. Some argue that regardless of its definition, it is not appropriate to apply the term religion to non-Western cultures. Others argue that using religion on non-western cultures distorts what people believe; the concept of religion was formed in the 16th and 17th centuries, despite the fact that ancient sacred texts like the Bible, the Quran, others did not have a word or a concept of religion in the original languages and neither did the peopl
Anselm of Canterbury
Anselm of Canterbury called Anselm of Aosta after his birthplace and Anselm of Bec after his monastery, was an Italian Benedictine monk, abbot and theologian of the Catholic Church, who held the office of archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. After his death, he was canonized as a saint. Beginning at Bec, Anselm composed dialogues and treatises with a rational and philosophical approach, sometimes causing him to be credited as the founder of Scholasticism. Despite his lack of recognition in this field in his own time, Anselm is now famed as the originator of the ontological argument for the existence of God and of the satisfaction theory of atonement, he was proclaimed a Doctor of the Church by a bull of Pope Clement XI in 1720. As archbishop, he defended the church's interests in England amid the Investiture Controversy. For his resistance to the English kings William II and Henry I, he was exiled twice: once from 1097 to 1100 and from 1105 to 1107. While in exile, he helped guide the Greek bishops of southern Italy to adopt Roman rites at the Council of Bari.
He worked for the primacy of Canterbury over the bishops of York and Wales but, though at his death he appeared to have been successful, Pope Paschal II reversed himself and restored York's independence. Anselm was born in or around Aosta in Upper Burgundy sometime between April 1033 and April 1034; the area now forms part of the Republic of Italy, but Aosta had been part of the Carolingian Kingdom of Arles until the death of the childless Rudolph III in 1032. The Emperor and the Count of Blois went to war over his succession. Humbert the White-Handed, count of Maurienne, so distinguished himself that he was granted a new county carved out of the secular holdings of the less helpful bishop of Aosta. Humbert's son Otto was subsequently permitted to inherit the extensive march of Susa through his wife Adelaide in preference to her uncle's families, who had supported the effort to establish an independent Kingdom of Italy under William the Great of Aquitaine. Otto and Adelaide's unified lands controlled the most important passes in the western Alps and formed the county of Savoy whose dynasty would rule the kingdoms of Sardinia and Italy.
Records during this period are scanty, but both sides of Anselm's immediate family appear to have been dispossessed by these decisions in favour of their extended relations. His father Gundulph or Gundulf was a Lombard noble one of Adelaide's Arduinici uncles or cousins; the marriage was thus arranged for political reasons but was incapable of resisting Conrad's decrees after his successful annexation of Burgundy on 1 August 1034. Ermenberga appears to have been the wealthier of the two. Gundulph moved to his wife's town, where she held a palace near the cathedral, along with a villa in the valley. Anselm's father is sometimes described as having a harsh and violent temper but contemporary accounts portray him as having been overgenerous or careless with his wealth. In life, there are records of three relations who visited Bec: Folceraldus and Rainaldus; the first attempted to impose on Anselm's success but was rebuffed owing to his ties to another monastery. At the age of fifteen, Anselm desired to enter a monastery but, failing to obtain his father's consent, he was refused by the abbot.
The illness he suffered has been considered a psychosomatic effect of his disappointment, but upon his recovery he gave up his studies and for a time lived a carefree life. Following the death of his mother at the birth of his sister Richera, Anselm's father repented his earlier lifestyle but professed his new faith with a severity that the boy found unbearable. Once Gundulph had entered a convent, Anselm, at age 23, left home with a single attendant, crossed the Alps, wandered through Burgundy and France for three years, his countryman Lanfranc of Pavia was prior of the Benedictine abbey of Bec. After spending some time in Avranches, he returned the next year, his father having died, he consulted with Lanfranc as to whether to return to his estates and employ their income in providing alms or to renounce them, becoming a hermit or a monk at Bec or Cluny. Professing to fear his own bias, Lanfranc sent him to Maurilius, the archbishop of Rouen, who convinced him to enter the abbey as a novice at the age of 27.
In his first year, he wrote his first work on philosophy, a treatment of Latin paradoxes called the Grammarian. Over the next decade, the Rule of Saint Benedict reshaped his thought. Three years in 1063, Duke William II summoned Lanfranc to serve as the abbot of his new abbey of St Stephen at Caen and the monks of Bec—with some dissenters at first on account of his youth—elected Anselm prior. A notable opponent was a young monk named Osborne. Anselm overcame his hostility first by praising and privileging him in all things despite his hostility and when his affection and trust were gained withdrawing all preference until he upheld the strictest obedience. Along similar lines, he remonstrated a neighboring abbot wh
Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Depending on the specific denomination of Christianity, practices may include baptism, prayer, confirmation, burial rites, marriage rites and the religious education of children. Most denominations hold regular group worship services. Christianity developed during the 1st century CE as a Jewish Christian sect of Second Temple Judaism, it soon attracted Gentile God-fearers, which lead to a departure from Jewish customs, the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion. During the first centuries of its existence Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire, to Ethiopia and some parts of Asia. Constantine the Great decriminalized it via the Edict of Milan; the First Council of Nicaea established a uniform set of beliefs across the Roman Empire.
By 380, the Roman Empire designated Christianity as the state religion. The period of the first seven ecumenical councils is sometimes referred to as the Great Church, the united full communion of the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, before their schisms. Oriental Orthodoxy split after the Council of Chalcedon over differences in Christology; the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church separated in the East–West Schism over the authority of the Pope. In 1521, Protestants split from the Catholic Church in the Protestant Reformation over Papal primacy, the nature of salvation, other ecclesiological and theological disputes. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity was spread into the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, the rest of the world via missionary work and colonization. There are 2.3 billion Christians in the world, or 31.4% of the global population. Today, the four largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy.
Christianity and Christian ethics have played a prominent role in the development of Western civilization around Europe during late antiquity and the Middle Ages. In the New Testament, the names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren", "the faithful", "elect", "saints" and "believers". Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as'The Way' coming from Isaiah 40:3, "prepare the way of the Lord." According to Acts 11:26, the term "Christian" was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD. While Christians worldwide share basic convcitions, there are differences of interpretations and opinions of the Bible and sacred traditions on which Christianity is based. Concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds, they began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.
The Apostles' Creed is the most accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical churches of Western Christian tradition, including the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism and Western Rite Orthodoxy, it is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed between the 9th centuries, its central doctrines are those of God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period; the creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Its main points include: Belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God, the Holy Spirit The death, descent into hell and ascension of Christ The holiness of the Church and the communion of saints Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful; the Nicene Creed was formulated in response to Arianism, at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.
The Chalcedonian Definition, or Creed of Chalcedon, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox churches, taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, unchangeably, inseparably": one divine and one human, that both natures, while perfect in themselves, are also united into one person. The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, Trinity in Unity. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. Most Baptists do not use creeds "in that they have not sought to establish binding
Moses Mendelssohn was a German Jewish philosopher to whose ideas the Haskalah, the'Jewish enlightenment' of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, is indebted. Born to a poor Jewish family in Dessau, Principality of Anhalt, destined for a rabbinical career, Mendelssohn educated himself in German thought and literature and from his writings on philosophy and religion came to be regarded as a leading cultural figure of his time by both Christian and Jewish inhabitants of German-speaking Europe and beyond, he established himself as an important figure in the Berlin textile industry, the foundation of his family's wealth. His descendants include the composers Felix Mendelssohn. Moses Mendelssohn was born in Dessau, his father's name was Mendel, it was Moses who adopted the surname Mendelssohn. Moses's son Abraham Mendelssohn wrote in 1829, "My father felt that the name Moses Ben Mendel Dessau would handicap him in gaining the needed access to those who had the better education at their disposal.
Without any fear that his own father would take offense, my father assumed the name Mendelssohn. The change, though a small one, was decisive."Mendel was an impoverished scribe — a writer of Torah scrolls — and his son Moses in his boyhood developed curvature of the spine. Moses's early education was cared for by his father and by the local rabbi, David Fränkel, who besides teaching him the Bible and Talmud, introduced to him the philosophy of Maimonides. Fränkel received a call to Berlin in 1743. A few months Moses followed him. A refugee Pole, Israel Zamosc, taught him mathematics, a young Jewish physician taught him Latin, he was, however self-taught. He learned to philosophize at the same time. With his scanty earnings he bought a Latin copy of John Locke's An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, mastered it with the aid of a Latin dictionary, he made the acquaintance of Aaron Solomon Gumperz, who taught him basic French and English. In 1750, a wealthy silk-merchant, Isaac Bernhard, appointed him to teach his children.
Mendelssohn soon won the confidence of Bernhard, who made the young student successively his bookkeeper and his partner. It was Gumperz who introduced Mendelssohn to Gotthold Ephraim Lessing in 1754, who became one of his greatest friends, it is said that the first time Mendelssohn met Lessing, they played chess. In Lessing's play Nathan the Wise Nathan and the character Saladin first meet during a game of chess. Lessing had produced the drama Die Juden, whose moral was that a Jew can possess nobility of character; this notion was, in the contemporary Berlin of Frederick the Great ridiculed as untrue. Lessing found in Mendelssohn the realization of his dream. Within a few months, the two became intellectually allied. Lessing brought Mendelssohn to public attention for the first time: Mendelssohn had written an essay attacking Germans' neglect of their native philosophers, lent the manuscript to Lessing. Without consulting the author, Lessing published Mendelssohn's Philosophical Conversations anonymously in 1755.
In the same year there appeared in Danzig an anonymous satire, Pope a Metaphysician, which turned out to be the joint work of Lessing and Mendelssohn. Mendelssohn became the leading spirit of Friedrich Nicolai's important literary undertakings, the Bibliothek and the Literaturbriefe, ran some risk by criticizing the poems of the King of Prussia. In 1762 he married Fromet Guggenheim. In the year following his marriage Mendelssohn won the prize offered by the Berlin Academy for an essay on the application of mathematical proofs to metaphysics, On Evidence in the Metaphysical Sciences. In October 1763 the king granted Mendelssohn, but not his wife or children, the privilege of Protected Jew, which assured his right to undisturbed residence in Berlin; as a result of his correspondence with Abbt, Mendelssohn resolved to write on the immortality of the soul. Materialistic views were at the time rampant and fashionable, faith in immortality was at a low ebb. At this favourable juncture appeared. Modelled on Plato's dialogue of the same name, Mendelssohn's work possessed some of the charm of its Greek exemplar and impressed the German world with its beauty and lucidity of style.
Phaedo was an immediate success, besides being one of the most read books of its time in German was speedily translated into several European languages, including English. The author was hailed as the "German Plato," or the "German Socrates". So far, Mendelssohn had devoted his talents to criticism. In April 1763, Johann Kaspar Lavater a young theology-student from Zurich, made a trip to Berlin, where he visited the famous Jewish philosopher with some companions, they insisted on Mendelssohn telling them his views on Jesus and managed to get from him the statement, provided the historical Jesus had kept himself and his theology wit