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The Open Source Definition

The Open Source Definition is a document published by the Open Source Initiative, to determine whether a software license can be labeled with the open-source certification mark. The definition was taken from the exact text of the Debian Free Software Guidelines and adapted by Bruce Perens with input from the Debian developers on a private Debian mailing list; the document was created 9 months before the formation of the Open Source Initiative. Open source doesn't just mean access to the source code; the distribution terms of open-source software must comply with the following criteria: Free Redistribution The license shall not restrict any party from selling or giving away the software as a component of an aggregate software distribution containing programs from several different sources. The license shall not require a royalty or other fee for such sale. Source Code The program must include source code, must allow distribution in source code as well as compiled form. Where some form of a product is not distributed with source code, there must be a well-publicized means of obtaining the source code for no more than a reasonable reproduction cost preferably, downloading via the Internet without charge.

The source code must be the preferred form. Deliberately obfuscated source code is not allowed. Intermediate forms such as the output of a preprocessor or translator are not allowed. Derived Works The license must allow modifications and derived works, must allow them to be distributed under the same terms as the license of the original software. Integrity of The Author's Source Code The license may restrict source-code from being distributed in modified form only if the license allows the distribution of "patch files" with the source code for the purpose of modifying the program at build time; the license must explicitly permit distribution of software built from modified source code. The license may require derived works to carry a different name or version number from the original software. No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups The license must not discriminate against any person or group of persons. No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor The license must not restrict anyone from making use of the program in a specific field of endeavor.

For example, it may not restrict the program from being used in a business, or from being used for genetic research. Distribution of License The rights attached to the program must apply to all to whom the program is redistributed without the need for execution of an additional license by those parties. License Must Not Be Specific to a Product The rights attached to the program must not depend on the program's being part of a particular software distribution. If the program is extracted from that distribution and used or distributed within the terms of the program's license, all parties to whom the program is redistributed should have the same rights as those that are granted in conjunction with the original software distribution. License Must Not Restrict Other Software The license must not place restrictions on other software, distributed along with the licensed software. For example, the license must not insist that all other programs distributed on the same medium must be open-source software.

License Must Be Technology-Neutral No provision of the license may be predicated on any individual technology or style of interface. The open source movement's definition of open source software by the Open Source Initiative and the official definitions of free software by the Free Software Foundation refer to the same software licenses, both definitions stand therefore for the same qualities and values. Despite that, FSF founder Richard Stallman stresses underlying philosophical differences when he comments: The term “open source” software is used by some people to mean more or less the same category as free software, it is not the same class of software: they accept some licences that we consider too restrictive, there are free software licences they have not accepted. However, the differences in extension of the category are small: nearly all free software is open source, nearly all open source software is free. Open Knowledge International described in their Open Definition for open content, open data, open licenses, "open/free" as synonymous in the definitions of open/free in the Open Source Definition, the FSF and the Definition of Free Cultural Works: This essential meaning matches that of "open" with respect to software as in the Open Source Definition and is synonymous with “free” or “libre” as in the Free Software Definition and Definition of Free Cultural Works.

Comparison of free and open-source software licenses Debian Free Software Guidelines The Free Software Definition The Open Source Definition The Open Source Definition by Bruce Perens, Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution, January 1999, ISBN 1-56592-582-3

Old Fauquier County Jail

Built in Warrenton in 1808, the sixth jail in Fauquier County, Virginia ran for only fifteen years before a new jail was erected behind it after a lawsuit with the Commonwealth of Virginia. In those fifteen years the four-cell jail saw disease from neglectful conditions. Soon after the 1823 jail was constructed, the 1808 jail was transformed into a jailer's house, so that he and his family could move in and care for the prisoners. A two-story sandstone addition was added onto the original brick structure to serve as a kitchen and second floor bedroom, it was operated as a jail until 1966, when the Fauquier Historical Society saved it from demolition and created a museum. The museum was known as The Old Jail Museum before it was rebranded as the Fauquier History Museum at the Old Jail in 2014, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. The first execution of criminals condemned to suffer capital punishment in Virginia since the passage of the law, by the last General Assembly, requiring the sentence to be executed in private, occurred at the jail on July 11, 1879.

Fauquier History Museum at the Old Jail Site - official website

Li Haojie

Li Haojie is a Chinese footballer of Korean descent who plays for China League Two side Yanbian Beiguo. Li Haojie started his professional football career in 2012 when he was promoted to China League One side Yanbian FC's first squad. On 26 June 2012, he made his senior debut in a 2012 Chinese FA Cup match which Yanbian lost to Dalian Shide 8–0, he committed a foul to concede a penalty in the match. On 20 April 2013, Li made his league debut in a 0–0 draw against Shenyang Shenbei, he played. On 2 April 2016, Li made his Super League debut in a 1–0 home victory against Beijing Guoan. On 1 March 2019, Li transferred to China League Two side Yanbian Beiguo. Statistics accurate as of match played 12 October 2019. Yanbian FundeChina League One: 2015 Li Haojie at Soccerway

Robert Mooney

Robert Henry Mooney was a politician in Manitoba, Canada. He served in the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba from 1922 to 1953. Mooney was born on August 10, 1873 in Wingham, the son of Alexander Mooney and Susan Orr, he was educated in Manitoba. Upon the conclusion of his education, he worked as a farmer, he worked as an educator for three years, was a councillor in the Rural Municipality of Pipestone from 1911 to 1922. He was first elected to the Manitoba assembly in the 1922 provincial election for the constituency of Virden. Running as a candidate of the United Farmers of Manitoba, he defeated Liberal incumbent George Clingan by 677 votes; the United Farmers of Manitoba won the election, governed as the "Progressive Party". The Progressives and Liberals merged prior to the 1932 provincial election. Again running as a candidate of the governing coalition, Mooney defeated Conservative candidate G. H. Heenan by 432 votes in this election. In the 1936 election, he defeated Conservative O. S. Ross by 205 votes.

Mooney was returned by acclamation in the 1941 and 1949 elections, defeated a candidate of the CCF in 1945. He served as a government backbencher throughout his entire career in the legislature. Mooney died on January 30, 1953. In its obituary notice, the Winnipeg Free Press described him as "one of the quietest men in the house"

Arthur Haygarth

Arthur Haygarth was a noted amateur cricketer who became one of cricket's most significant historians. He played first-class cricket for the Marylebone Cricket Club and Sussex between 1844 and 1861, as well as numerous other invitational and representative teams including an England XI and a pre-county Middlesex. A right-handed bat, Haygarth played 136 games now regarded as first-class, scoring 3,042 runs and taking 19 wickets with his part-time bowling, he was educated at Harrow, which had established a rich tradition as a proving ground for cricketers. He served on many MCC committees and was elected a life member in 1864. Outside his playing career, Haygarth was historian, he spent over sixty years compiling information and statistics. Of particular note was his compilation: Frederick Lillywhite's Cricket Scores and Biographies, published in 15 volumes between 1862 and 1879. Haygarth was born in Sussex, he was the youngest of three children of William Haygarth, who died before he was born, his wife Frances Parry, with older brothers Henry William Haygarth and Colonel Francis Haygarth.

Though only he out of his brothers would go on to play cricket, he had two cousins John Haygarth and Edward Haygarth, who played. Haygarth attended Harrow School, where he played cricket and enjoyed compiling information and statistics of current and past cricketers, he played several matches for Harrow through 1842 and 1843 against Eton College, Winchester School and the MCC. In his playing days he was considered, according to Wisden, a "capable exponent of the game." From 1844 he played for the MCC against pre-county teams, made his first-class debut in a Gentlemen of England v Gentlemen of Kent fixture considered now to be first-class. Played at Lord's, Haygarth made four and 19 batting for the Gentlemen of England though he did not bowl. Haygarth would go on to play for a great multitude of teams in his career; as well as the MCC and Middlesex, he played at the invitation of Fuller Pilch for the F Pilch's XI in 1846, for the Earl of Winterton and the Earl of Leicester, Viscount Mountgarret and the Earl of Stamford, for the Fast Bowlers XI, South of England, Old Harrovians.

Though he played three matches for Sussex, twelve matches for the England XI, the vast majority of his cricket was for the MCC. He played 69 matches for the club in total, scoring over 1,600 runs including four half-centuries and his career best 97 which came in 1855. Haygarth assisted with cricket coaching until 1870, walking to Harrow from his home in central London. Meanwhile, he preoccupied himself with amassing information on cricket. A hobby, it grew to become a profession as more and more of his works were published; the then-captain of Surrey requested a copy of his collections with the intention to publish them in 1852, however several delays postponed the publication by ten years. The first volume of Frederick Lillywhite's Cricket Scores and Biographies was published 1862, with the next thirteen editions being released at intervals until 1895, it contains all the information obtainable from 1746 to 1878, with a supplement concerning notable players for the next 20 years. The volumes appeared at regular intervals between 1862 and 1879.

The first four, bound in purple cloth, were published by son of William Lillywhite. Volume 1 covering the 1744 to 1826 seasons is by far the most significant as it is the main source of reference data for late 18th century cricket; the last 11 editions, bound in red cloth, with gilded lettering and ornamented with an armorial design of a shield embodying the stumps and ball, were produced at the sole expense of the MCC. At this point, the MCC opted to discontinue funding as the works were no longer profitable; the fifteenth and last volume of Scores and Biographies did not appear until 23 years after Haygarth's death. Haygarth died in 1903 in Pimlico, London. Wisden in its obituary named him "a famous cricketer, whose name will always be gratefully recalled as long as the game continues to be played." He is buried at West Brompton Cemetery. A green plaque, unveiled in November 2003, commemorates his home. Notes SourcesArthur Haygarth, Scores & Biographies, Volumes 1–15, Lillywhite, 1862–79 Arthur Haygarth at ESPNcricinfo Arthur Haygarth at CricketArchive

Custer Creek train wreck

The Custer Creek train wreck is the worst rail disaster in Montana history. It occurred on June 19, 1938 when a bridge, its foundations washed away by a flash flood, collapsed beneath Milwaukee Road's Olympian as it crossed Custer Creek, near Saugus, south-west of Terry, killing at least 47 people; the bridge, number AA-438, had been constructed 25 years earlier. It consisted of two 50-foot plate girder spans and five reinforced concrete trestle slab spans carrying the single track across the creek resting on concrete piers. An inspection of the bridge earlier that year had concluded the bridge was in good condition with sufficient rip-rap in place to prevent scouring. Custer Creek itself runs dry for nine months of the year and had never been known to rise to a depth of more than five feet, but on the night in question a cloudburst deposited an estimated 4 to 7 inches of rain on the area drained by the creek. The previous train had crossed the bridge at 10:15 p.m. at which point the engineer estimated the water to be about three or four feet deep.

Twenty minutes in view of the heavy rainfall experienced the section foreman performed an inspection of the track and estimated the depth of water to be six or seven feet beneath the level of the girders of the bridge, giving no indication of the trouble to come. The westbound Olympian that night was hauled by Class S-2 4-8-4 No.220 and comprised eleven cars. It was traveling from Chicago to Tacoma and carrying 155 passengers when it neared Custer Creek at a speed of 50 mph. There was no water on the track to warn the engineer that beneath was a torrent of water thirty feet high, battering at the bridge foundations, no brake application was made; as the Olympian crossed at 12:35 a.m. the bridge collapsed. The wreck happened so that when the body of the engineer was recovered he was still sitting in his seat with his hand on the throttle. "Two other cars ended up deep in the roaring creek". Rescue efforts were mounted by uninjured passengers. Although the official death toll stands at 47, this is an estimate as several bodies were swept into the Yellowstone River, one body being recovered at Glendive 50 miles downstream.

75 people were injured. Newspapers reported the paradox that modern air-conditioned rolling stock requiring sealed windows, the use of shatterproof glass was responsible for some deaths The investigation determined that the volume and velocity of water flowing beneath the bridge that night was "much in excess of any, experienced before or might be anticipated at this place"; the bridge structure was still intact when the train reached it but two of the central piers had been undermined. The weight of the locomotive caused the piers to the bridge to collapse. Custer Creek, MT Washout Of Trestle Causes Wreck, June 1938 ICC Investigation No.2278 British Pathe newsreel