Étretat is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in Normandy in north-western France. It is a tourist and farming town situated about 32 km north-east of Le Havre, at the junction of the D 940, D 11 and D 139 roads, it is located on the coast of the Pays de Caux area. Étretat is best known for its chalk cliffs, including three natural arches and a pointed formation called L'Aiguille or the Needle, which rises 70 metres above the sea. The Etretat Chalk Complex, as it is known, consists of a complex stratigraphy of Turonian and Coniacian chalks; some of the cliffs are as high as 90 metres. These cliffs and the associated resort beach attracted artists including Eugène Boudin, Gustave Courbet and Claude Monet, they were featured prominently in the 1909 Arsène Lupin novel The Hollow Needle by Maurice Leblanc. They feature in the 2014 film Lucy, directed by Luc Besson. Two of the three famous arches are visible from the town, the Porte d'Aval, the Porte d'Amont; the Manneporte is the third and the biggest one, cannot be seen from the town.
The GR 21 long-distance hiking path passes through the town. Étretat is known for being the last place in France from which the 1927 biplane The White Bird was seen. French World War I war heroes Charles Nungesser and François Coli were attempting to make the first non-stop flight from Paris to New York City, but after the plane's 8 May 1927 departure, it disappeared somewhere over the Atlantic, it is considered one of the great unexplained mysteries of aviation. A monument to the flight was established in Étretat, but destroyed during World War II, during German occupation. A new and taller monument was constructed in 1963, along with a nearby museum
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Luxe, Calme et Volupté
Luxe, Calme et Volupté is an oil painting by the French artist Henri Matisse. Both foundational in the oeuvre of Matisse and a pivotal work in the history of art, Calme et Volupté is considered the starting point of Fauvism; this painting is a vibrant work created early on in his career as a painter. It displays an evolution of the Neo-Impressionist style mixed with a new conceptual meaning based in fantasy and leisure that had not been seen in works before. Prior to the beginning of his Fauvist period Matisse had been formally educated in the arts and started his career copying works from old masters, his first original works resembled those from his education. After he left school, influence from Impressionism developed into his work and led him to the Post-Impressionist movement where this style stuck with him until it evolved into Fauvism. Matisse purchased works from artists such as Cézanne, Van Gogh, Gauguin during his time before Fauvism that influenced his painting and the development of his style over time.
Luxe, Calme et Volupté was painted by Matisse in 1904, after a summer spent working in St. Tropez on the French Riviera alongside the Neo-Impressionist painters Paul Signac and Henri-Edmond Cross. Signac purchased the work, exhibited in 1905 at the Salon des Indépendants; the painting's title comes from the poem L'Invitation au voyage, from Charles Baudelaire's volume Les Fleurs du mal: The painting is Matisse's most important work in which he used the Divisionist technique advocated by Signac. Divisionism is created by individual dots of colors placed strategically on the canvas in order to appear blended from a distance, he first adopted the style after reading Signac's essay "D'Eugène Delacroix au Néo-impressionisme" in 1898. The simplification of form and details is a trademark of Fauvist landscapes in which artists intentionally created artificial structures that distorted the reality of images. Many of these same qualities can be found in Matisse’s other works. Other Fauvist painters worked on large scale landscapes that did not focus as much on figures within the composition as with Matisse’s works.
Details, lower center and lower left Scholars suggest that interpreting the paintings requires the viewer to acknowledge its resistance to interpretation. Matisse's previous works were all rooted in the visual aspects of Post-Impression leading scholars to question how his work had taken such a drastic turn into a depiction of fantasy. David Carrier writes that the painting is ambiguous and lacks reference to any of its supposed sources of inspiration. Despite the literary source for the work’s title, Calme, et Volupté, it is not related to the narrative of poem in any way. 1905, in the collection of Paul Signac, purchased from Matisse Collection Ginette Signac, daughter of the artist 1982, accepted by the French state for Les Musées Nationaux 1982 to 1985, attributed to the Musée National d'Art Moderne, Paris 1985, moved to Musée d'Orsay Salon de la Société des artistes indépendants. 21st exhibition, France, 1905 Henri Matisse, peintures, sculptures, France, 1950 Le Fauvisme, France, 1951 Henri Matisse, New York, USA, 1951 Henri Matisse, Cleveland, USA, 1952 Henri Matisse, Chicago, USA, 1952 Henri Matisse, San Francisco, USA, 1952 Salon d'automne, France, 1955 Henri Matisse, retrospective exhibition, Paris, 1956 Cent chefs-d'oeuvre de l'art français, 1750-1950, Paris, 1957 Les sources du XXème siècle - les arts en Europe de 1884 à 1914, Paris, 1960 Les Fauves, Paris, 1962 Le Fauvisme français et les débuts de l'Expressionnisme allemand, Paris, 1966 Le Fauvisme français et les débuts de l'Expressionisme allemand, Germany, 1966 Neo-Impressionism, New York, 1968 Baudelaire, Paris, 1968 Henri Matisse.
Exposition du centenaire, Paris, 1970 Henri Matisse, Switzerland, 1982 Henri Matisse, Düsseldorf, Germany, 1983 De Manet à Matisse, 7 ans d'enrichissement au musée d'Orsay, Paris, 1990 Le Fauvisme ou "l'épreuve du feu", éruption de la modernité en Europe, Paris, 1999 1900, Paris, 2000 Méditerranée - De Courbet à Matisse, Paris, 2000 Le néo-impressionnisme de Seurat à Paul Klee, Paris, 2005 Schneider, P. Matisse, Paris, 1984 Mathieu, Guide du Musée d'Orsay, Paris, 1986 Laclotte, Michel, Le Musée d'Orsay, Paris, 1986 Compin, Isabelle - Lacambre, Geneviève - Roquebert, Musée d'Orsay. Catalogue sommaire illustré des peintures, Paris, 1990 Lobstein Dominique, 48/14 La revue du Musée d'Orsay, no. 20, Paris, 2005 Lobstein Dominique, Les Salons au XIXe siècle. Paris, capitale des arts, Paris, 2006 Cogeval Guy, Le Musée d'Orsay à 360 degrés, Paris, 2013 Monod-Fontaine, Matisse. La figura, Ferrare, 2014 Benjamin, Roger. “The Decorative Landscape and the Arabesque of Observation.” The Art Bulletin 75, no. 2: 295-316.
Carrier, David. "Luxe, Calme, et Volupté" Notes in the History of Art 17, no. 1: 34-38. Https://www.jstor.org/stable/23205161. Dorra, Henri. "The Wild Beasts -- Fauvism and Its Affinities at the Museum of Modern Art." Art Journal 36, no. 1: 50-54. Doi:10.2307/776115. Henning, Edward B. "Pablo Picasso: Fan, Salt Box, Melon." The Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art 56, no. 8: 273-286. Https://www.jstor.org/stable/25152288. Trapp, Frank Anderson. "Art Nouveau Aspects of Early Matisse." Art Journal 26, no. 1: 2-8. Doi:10.2307/775008. UCLA Art Council, Leymarie, J. Read, H. E. & Lieberman, W. S.. Henri Matisse retrospective 1966. Los Angeles: UCLA Art Gallery. OCLC 83777407 Watkins, Nicholas. "Matisse, Henri." Grove Art Online. Http://www.oxfordartonline.com. Henri Matisse, Calme et Volupté, Musée d'Orsay, P
Jean Puy was a French Fauvist artist. He studied architecture at the École nationale des beaux-arts de Lyon and painting with Jean-Paul Laurens at l'Académie Julian between 1897 and 1898, he met Henri Matisse and other like-minded artists when he transferred to the l'Académie Carrière in 1899. He exhibited his work in 1901 in an Impressionist style, at the Salon des Indépendants. L'Illustration related the Salon d'Automne "scandal" and published reproductions of several paintings dubbed Fauve, among which Jean Puy's Flânerie sous les pins, together with Louis Vauxcelles' comment: "Mr. Puy, whose nude at the seashore reminds us of Cézanne's wide schematism, is presenting outdoor scenes where the volumes of things and beings are established." Colors! Engaging, bewitching, entrancing, ravishing colors! It seems we'll never stop feasting our eyes on them…
Collioure is a commune in the southern French department of Pyrénées-Orientales. The town of Collioure is on the Côte Vermeille, in the canton of La Côte Vermeille and in the arrondissement of Céret. Collioure is named Cotlliure in Catalan. There is a record of the castle at "Castrum Caucoliberi" having been mentioned as early as 673, indicating that the settlement here was of strategic and commercial importance during the Visigoth ascendancy. Collioure used to be divided into two villages separated by the river Douy, the old town to the south named Port d'Avall and the upstream port, Port d'Amunt. Collioure was taken in 1642 by the French troops of Maréchal de la Meilleraye. A decade the town was surrendered to France by the 1659 Treaty of Pyrenees; because of its strategic importance, the town's fortifications, the Château Royal de Collioure and the Fort Saint-Elme stronghold, were improved by the military engineer Vauban during the reign of Louis XIV. Collioure was besieged and occupied by the Spanish troops in 1793, marking the last Spanish attempt to take the city.
The blockade was broken a year by general Jacques François Dugommier. In 1823, the territory of Port-Vendres became a commune, taking parts from the communes of Collioure and Banyuls-sur-Mer. On 21 January 1870, an exceptional climatic phenomenon occurred in Collioure, as observed by Charles Naudin at the time. Many orchards as well as cork oak woodlands were damaged. Soria, Castile and León, Spain. Collioure is the name of an Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée situated around the town, producing red, rosé and a few white wines; the ancient terraced vines in the hills behind the town provide grapes for the apéritif and dessert wines of the appellation, which shares its boundaries with the Collioure appellation. Collioure is famous for its anchovies, its once-thriving fisheries is referenced in Mark Kurlansky's book Salt; as the town has a strong Catalan culture, its own motto has been adopted by one of the local Catalan rugby teams: Sempre endavant, mai morirem. Under Michel Moly's leadership, the town has an alternative motto, Collioure sera toujours Collioure quoting French singer Maurice Chevalier's famous song titled Paris sera toujours Paris.
The annual Saint Vincent festival is held around August 15, attracting twice the town's population in visitors for several days of celebration with music and fireworks. In the early 20th century Collioure became a center of artistic activity, with several Fauve artists making it their meeting place. André Derain, Georges Braque, Othon Friesz, Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, Charles Rennie Mackintosh, James Dickson Innes and Tsuguharu Fujita have all been inspired by Collioure's royal castle, medieval streets, its lighthouse converted into the church of Notre-Dame-des-Anges and its typical Mediterranean bay. Collioure's cemetery contains the tomb of Spanish poet Antonio Machado, who fled here to escape advancing Francoist troops at the end of the Spanish Civil War in 1939; the British novelist Patrick O'Brian lived in the town from 1949 until his death in 2000, his novel The Catalans describes Collioure life as it was in the past. He wrote a biography of Picasso, an acquaintance. O'Brian and his wife Mary are buried in the town cemetery.
Part of the action in Stephen Clarke's fourth comic novel featuring Paul West, Dial M for Merde, takes place in Collioure. Ninety-eight reproductions of Matisse’s and Derain’s works are exposed where these two masters of Fauvism painted the originals, in the early 20th century. Antonio Machado, Spanish poet died in Collioure. René Llense, football player born in Collioure. Patrick O'Brian, English novelist and translator and was buried in Collioure. Communes of the Pyrénées-Orientales department INSEE commune file Tourist office website Webpage about the fortifications of Collioure Photos of Collioure Information of the Royal Castle of Collioure Cotlliure History and information in Catalan Encyclopaedia
Georges Henri Rouault was a French painter and printer, whose work is associated with Fauvism and Expressionism. Rouault was born in Paris into a poor family, his mother encouraged his love for the arts, in 1885 the fourteen-year-old Rouault embarked on an apprenticeship as a glass painter and restorer, which lasted until 1890. This early experience as a glass painter has been suggested as a source of the heavy black contouring and glowing colours, likened to leaded glass, which characterize Rouault's mature painting style. During his apprenticeship, he attended evening classes at the School of Fine Arts, in 1891, he entered the École des Beaux-Arts, the official art school of France. There he became his favorite student. Rouault's earliest works show a symbolism in the use of colour that reflects Moreau's influence, when Moreau died in 1898, Rouault was nominated as the curator of the Moreau Museum in Paris. Georges Rouault met Henri Matisse, Albert Marquet, Henri Manguin, Charles Camoin; these friendships brought him to the movement of Fauvism, the leader of, considered to be Matisse.
In 1891 Rouault painted The Way to Calvary. From 1895 on, he took part in major public exhibitions, notably the Salon d'Automne, where paintings with religious subjects and still lifes were shown. In 1905 he exhibited his paintings at the Salon d'Automne with the other Fauvists. While Matisse represented the reflective and rationalized aspects in the group, Rouault embodied a more spontaneous and instinctive style, his use of stark contrasts and emotionality is credited to the influence of Vincent van Gogh. His characterizations of overemphasized grotesque personalities inspired the expressionist painters. In 1907, Rouault commenced a series of paintings dedicated to courts and prostitutes; these paintings are interpreted as social criticism. He became attracted to Spiritualism and the dramatic existentialism of the philosopher Jacques Maritain, who remained a close friend for the rest of his life. After that, he dedicated himself to religious subjects. Human nature was always the focus of his interest.
Rouault said: "A tree against the sky possesses the same interest, the same character, the same expression as the figure of a human." In 1910, Rouault had his first works exhibited in the Druet Gallery. His works were studied by German artists from Dresden, who formed the nucleus of expressionism. From 1917, Rouault dedicated himself to painting; the Christian faith informed his work in his search for inspiration and marks him out as the most passionate Christian artist of the 20th century: first of all, in the theme of the passion of Christ. The face of Jesus and the cries of the women at the feet of the cross are symbols of the pain of the world, which for Rouault was relieved by belief in resurrection. In 1929 Rouault created the designs for Diaghilev's ballet The Prodigal Son, with music by Prokofiev and choreography by Balanchine. In 1930 he began to exhibit in foreign countries in London, New York and Chicago. In 1937 Rouault painted The Old King, arguably his finest expressionist work, he exhibited his cycle Miserere in 1948.
At the end of his life he burned 300 of his pictures. His reason for doing this was not profound, as he felt he would not live to finish them. Rouault died in Paris in 1958. Dyrness, William A. Rouault: A Vision of Suffering and Salvation. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans, 1971. Maritain, Jacques. Georges Rouault; the Pocket Library of Great Art. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. 1954. Getlein and Dorothy Getlein. George Rouault's Miserere. Milwaukee: Bruce, 1964. San Lazzaro, G. di. Homage to George Rouault. New York: Tudor, 1971. Courthion, Pierre. Rouault. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. 1961. Kochno, Boris. Diaghilev and the Ballets Russes. New York: Harper & Row. 1979. Works by or about Georges Rouault at Internet Archive Georges Rouault Foundation Georges Rouault Online at Artcyclopedia.com Images hosted by Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco Information on Rouault and the German Expressionist movement Works by Georges Rouault
Jean Dominique Antony Metzinger was a major 20th-century French painter, writer and poet, who along with Albert Gleizes wrote the first theoretical work on Cubism. His earliest works, from 1900 to 1904, were influenced by the Neo-impressionism of Georges Seurat and Henri-Edmond Cross. Between 1904 and 1907 Metzinger worked in the Divisionist and Fauvist styles with a strong Cézannian component, leading to some of the first proto-Cubist works. From 1908 Metzinger experimented with the faceting of form, a style that would soon become known as Cubism, his early involvement in Cubism saw him both as an influential artist and an important theorist of the movement. The idea of moving around an object in order to see it from different view-points is treated, for the first time, in Metzinger's Note sur la Peinture, published in 1910. Before the emergence of Cubism, painters worked from the limiting factor of a single view-point. Metzinger, for the first time, in Note sur la peinture, enunciated the interest in representing objects as remembered from successive and subjective experiences within the context of both space and time.
Jean Metzinger and Albert Gleizes wrote the first major treatise on Cubism in 1912, entitled Du "Cubisme". Metzinger was a founding member of the Section d'Or group of artists. Metzinger was at the center of Cubism both because of his participation and identification of the movement when it first emerged, because of his role as intermediary among the Bateau-Lavoir group and the Section d'Or Cubists, above all because of his artistic personality. During the First World War Metzinger furthered his role as a leading Cubist with his co-founding of the second phase of the movement, referred to as Crystal Cubism, he recognized the importance of mathematics in art, through a radical geometrization of form as an underlying architectural basis for his wartime compositions. The establishing of the basis of this new perspective, the principles upon which an non-representational art could be built, led to La Peinture et ses lois, written by Albert Gleizes in 1922–23; as post-war reconstruction began, a series of exhibitions at Léonce Rosenberg's Galerie de L'Effort Moderne were to highlight order and allegiance to the aesthetically pure.
The collective phenomenon of Cubism—now in its advanced revisionist form—became part of a discussed development in French culture, with Metzinger at its helm. Crystal Cubism was the culmination of a continuous narrowing of scope in the name of a return to order. In terms of the separation of culture and life, this period emerges as the most important in the history of Modernism. For Metzinger, the classical vision had been an incomplete representation of real things, based on an incomplete set of laws and theorems, he believed the world was dynamic and changing in time, that it appeared different depending on the point of view of the observer. Each of these viewpoints were valid according to underlying symmetries inherent in nature. For inspiration, Niels Bohr, the Danish physicist and one of the principle founders of quantum mechanics, hung in his office a large painting by Metzinger, La Femme au Cheval, a conspicuous early example of "mobile perspective" implementation. Jean Metzinger came from a prominent military family.
His great-grandfather, Nicolas Metzinger, Captain in the 1st Horse Artillery Regiment, Chevalier of the Legion of Honour, had served under Napoleon Bonaparte. A street in the Sixième arrondissement of Nantes was named after Jean's grandfather, Charles Henri Metzinger. Following the early death of his father, Eugène François Metzinger, Jean pursued interests in mathematics and painting, though his mother, a music professor by the name of Eugénie Louise Argoud, had ambitions of his becoming a medical doctor. Jean's younger brother Maurice would become a musician. By 1900 Jean was a student at Académie Cours Cambronne in Nantes, working under Hippolyte Touront, a well-known portrait painter who taught an academic, conventional style of painting. Metzinger, was interested in the current trends in painting. Metzinger sent three paintings to the Salon des Indépendants in 1903, subsequently moved to Paris with the proceeds from their sale. From the age of 20, Metzinger supported himself as a professional painter.
He exhibited in Paris from 1903, participating in the first Salon d'Automne the same year and taking part in a group show with Raoul Dufy and Torent, from 19 January-22 February 1903 at the gallery run by Berthe Weill, with another show November 1903. Metzinger exhibited at Berthe Weill's gallery 23 November-21 December 1905 and again 14 January-10 February 1907, with Robert Delaunay, in 1908 with André Derain, Fernand Léger and Pablo Picasso, 28 April-28 May 1910 with Derain, Georges Rouault and Kees van Dongen, he would show four more times at Weill's gallery, 17 January-1 February 1913, March 1913, June 1914 and February 1921. It is at Berthe Weill's. Berthe Weill was the first Parisian art dealer to sell works of Picasso. Along with Picasso and Metzinger, she helped discover Matisse, Amedeo Modigliani and Utrillo. In 1904 Metzinger exhibited six paintings in the Divisionist style at the Salon des Indépendants and the Salon d’Automne. In 1905 Metzinger exhibited eight paintings at Salon des Indépendants.
In this exhibition Metzinger is directly asso