The Orator (film)
For the Etruscan bronze sculpture of the Roman Republican era, see The OratorThe Orator is a 2011 Samoan and New Zealand film written and directed by Tusi Tamasese. It is the first Samoan feature film, "entirely shot in Samoa, in the Samoan language, with a Samoan cast and story"; the film was selected as the New Zealand entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 84th Academy Awards, but it did not make the final shortlist. It is the first time. Manu Asafo has described the film as an attempt "to portray Samoan culture", it shows Samoans "surrounded by support", in accordance with fa'aSamoa. The New Zealand Film Commission describes it as showcasing not only "Samoan tradition and values", but "universal" themes: "love, personal adversity and honour". Samoan Deputy Prime Minister Misa Telefoni has described it as "a beautiful and poignant love story" which brings "the finest aspects of traditions of our Samoan culture into the international spotlight"; the main character, Saili, a "simple villager", a taro farmer and a dwarf, must "find the strength" to "defend his land and family, which are threatened by powerful adversaries".
"He attempts to reclaim his father's chiefly status if the current ageing village chief does not believe he has the physique or the oratory skill required."Tamasese described his film as "my image of what I see of growing up in Samoa", "a bit like a tour. You get thrown into this place and you are seeing things", witnessing aspects of Samoan life without explanation - such as evening prayer time, or ritual atonement. Fa'afiaula Sagote as Saili Tausili Pushparaj as his wife Vaaiga Salamasina Mataia as Vaaiga's daughter Litia Ioata Tanielu as Vaaiga's brother Poto Written and directed by Tusi Tamasese, The Orator is produced by Catherine Fitzgerald, shot by Leon Narbey, financed by the New Zealand Film Commission and by the Samoan government. Maiava Nathaniel Lees and Michael Eldred are associate producers, Samoan chief Manu Asafo served as cultural advisor. Filming was completed in January 2011, with the film scheduled to be screened in cinemas in the year; the Orator "will be distributed in New Zealand and the Pacific by Transmission Films", while NZ Film will handle distribution beyond Oceania.
Misa Telefoni, Samoan Minister for Tourism, has expressed hope that the film will attract international attention to Samoa, promote the country as a tourist destination. The film had its world premiere at the Venice Film Festival, in Italy on 3 September 2011; this was the first time that Samoa were represented at the festival and saw a return for New Zealand after a 4-year absence. The Orator premiered in Samoa's only cinema -Magik Cinema in Apia- on 1 October 2011, it will be screened in cinemas in New Zealand on 6 October. The New Zealand Herald noted: "Thanks in large part to the edibly gorgeous cinematography of Leon Narbey, the film is a sumptuously moody visual experience: the opening shot, of rain on a mountain, might have been painted by McCahon; the sound design is precise and evocative. It's a film of great patience and watchfulness. Shots of 10 seconds are the rule, not the exception. Sagote, in the lead role, was "tremendously soulful-eyed", while Pushparaj was "excellent", "exuding the dignity of a queen": "Tamasese weaves the separate story strands together, culminating in a scene in which Saili must make a ceremonial oration after a tragedy - a touchingly crafted and performed sequence that grips as drama and as an insightful look at the Samoan way of life.
Script offers an insider's view of a society that just about keeps a lid on simmering violence through complex, ritualized forms of group interaction and humor, a portrait that goes some way toward exploding the myth of Samoans as peace-loving, noble-savage proto-hippies. Balance of cultural insights and storytelling makes for a universally appealing yarn that renders the exotic comprehensible, although the film's stately pace may prove challenging to viewers with shorter attention spans."The Hollywood Reporter praised the film as "a beautifully nuanced debut" with a "deeply moving climax", which both "succeeds on one level as an insider’s intricate cultural study" and "is powered by a slow-burning underdog drama that canvasses weighty themes of family honor and redemption". It praised Sagote as "already a master of non-verbal communication. Quiet and watchful, he speaks volumes with his eyes"; the Camden Advertiser encouraged readers to see the film, saying its most interesting aspect was "the observation of the intricacies of the Samoan culture - which hitherto had not been committed to cinema" and which are conveyed "very subtly within a universal tale".
Writing for the New Zealand Herald, Samoan New Zealander Cherelle Jackson said the film was culturally accurate, touching and "beautifully done", that it "makes no pretence, it doesn't make the Samoan culture look beautiful and admirable, it draws out the violence, the hatred, the slanted hierarchy and the discriminating nature of our people in a story line that happens in real life". The West Australian
A votive offering or votive deposit is one or more objects displayed or deposited, without the intention of recovery or use, in a sacred place for broadly religious purposes. Such items are a feature of modern and ancient societies and are made in order to gain favor with supernatural forces; some offerings have been made in anticipation of the achievement of a particular wish, but in Western cultures from which documentary evidence survives it has been more typical to wait until the wish has been fulfilled before making the offering, for which the more specific term ex-voto may be used. Other offerings were likely regarded just as gifts to the deity, not linked to any particular need. In Buddhism, votive offering such as construction of stupas was a prevalent and holy practice in Ancient India, an example of which can be observed in the ruins of the ancient Vikramshila University and other contemporary structures. Votive offerings have been described in historical Roman era and Greek sources, although similar acts continue into the present day, for example in traditional Catholic culture and, arguably, in the modern-day practice of tossing coins into a wishing well or fountain.
The modern construction practice called topping out can be considered as an example of a votive practice that has ancient roots. In archaeology, votive deposits differ from hoards in that although they may contain similar items, votive deposits were not intended for recovery. In Europe, votive deposits are known from as early as the Neolithic, with polished axe hoards, reaching a peak in the late Bronze Age. High status artifacts such as armor and weaponry and cult symbols, various treasures and animals were common offerings in antiquity; the votive offerings were sacrificed and buried or more cast into bodies of water or peat bogs, whence they could not have been recovered. In certain cases entire ships have been sacrificed, as in the Danish bog Nydam Mose. All the objects in a ritual hoard are broken, possibly'killing' the objects to put them further beyond utilitarian use before deposition; the purposeful discarding of valuable items such as swords and spearheads is thought to have had ritual overtones.
The items have since been discovered in rivers and present or former wetlands by construction workers, peat diggers, metal-detectorists, members of the public and archaeologists. A saying by Diogenes of Sinope as quoted by Diogenes Laërtius, indicates the high level of votive offering in Ancient Greece: The Treasuries at Olympia and Delphi were buildings by the various Greek city-states to hold their own votive offerings in money and precious metal. Votive offerings were used as atonement for sins committed against a god or goddess; the offerings were in certain cases created by a separate person due to the gifter having an injury or other circumstances, allowed. Some Greek offerings, such as bronze tripods at Delphi, were displayed for a period and buried in groups. At Olympia many small figurines of animals, were thrown onto the huge pile of ashes from animal sacrifices at the altar outside the Temple of Zeus. Much of our knowledge of ancient Greek art in base metal comes from these and other excavated deposits of offerings.
Arms and armour helmets, were given after a victory. In Mesoamerica, votive deposits have been recovered from the Olmec site of El Manati and the Maya Sacred Cenote at Chichen Itza. Archaeologists have recovered some votive offerings in ancient Sparta from the 5th century BC; these votive offerings give evidence to the presence of literacy in Spartan culture. Placing greater emphasis on inscriptions which seem to have been made by the individual making the offering, archaeologists can interpret that, of the early dedicators, there were few in number and that most, if not all, were from the upper classes. One piece of pottery was found; this would indicate an everyday literacy among the Spartans. Scholars have not recovered any other piece of pottery with a similar inscription to support that single find; the 13 Ancient Votive Stones of Pesaro were unearthed in 1737 on a local Pesaro farm in the Province of Pesaro e Urbino and date to pre-Estrucan times. They are inscribed with the names of various Roman gods such as APOLLO, MAT-MATVTA, SALVS, FIDE, IVNONII.
A curse tablet or defixio is a small sheet of tin or lead on which a message wishing misfortune upon someone else was inscribed. Found rolled up and deliberately deposited, there are five main reasons for dedicating a curse tablet:1 – Litigation, 2 – Competition, 3 – Trade, 4 – Erotic Ambition, 5 – Theft Of those in Britain the vast majority are of type 5; the two largest concentrations are from the sacred springs at Aquae Sulis, where 130 examples are recorded, at Uley, where over 140 examples are visible. The use of the curse-tablet in seeking restoration of stolen property is strong evidence of invoking divine power through a non-traditional religious ceremony involving some form of water-deposition; the usual form of divine invocation was through prayer and altar dedication so access to this information provides useful insights into Roman provincial culture. Many unrecovered ancient votive offerings are threatened in today's world those submerged in wetlands or other bodies of water. We
Province of Perugia
The Province of Perugia is the larger of the two provinces in the Umbria region of Italy, comprising two-thirds of both the area and population of the region. Its capital is the city of Perugia; the province covered all of Umbria until 1927, when the province of Terni was carved out of its southern third. The province of Perugia has an area of 6,334 km² covering two-thirds of Umbria, a total population of about 660,000. There are 59 comunes in the province; the province has numerous tourist attractions artistic and historical ones, is home to the Lake Trasimeno, the largest lake of Central Italy. It the ancestral origin of the Umbri, while it was a Roman province and part of the Papal States until the late 19th century; the Etruscans founded Perugia in the 6th century BC. The Umbra and Tiber valleys are located in the province; the eastern part of the province is a hilly region. The province lies in the basin of the river Tiber and its tributaries Chiaseio, Nestore and Chiana; the southern regions are less hilly.
Silk and grass are some of the most important agricultural products of the province. The 1840 version of the Penny Cyclopaedia records that Perugia supplied half of the butcher's meat required in the city of Rome; the large number of cattle was fed on grass growing on the plain areas irrigated by the water of Tiber and its tributaries. After the province of Rome and Spoleto e Rieti the Perugian province was the fourth most important of the Papal States; the largest lake in central Italy, Lake Trasimeno is located in the Province of Perugia. The lake has three islands – Polvese and Minore; the lake has a circumference of about 30 miles but is shallow. It is fed by springs in the nearby hills. Perugia was incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy as the Province of Umbria; the Province of Umbria at the time was somewhat larger than the current region of Umbria, comprising Rieti to the south. It was subdivided into the districts of Perugia, Orvieto, Terni and Spoleto. In 1921, the municipal council of Terni proposed the separation of the province into the new provinces of Perugia and Terni.
In 1923, Rieti together with Cittaducale were added to the province of Rome. The remaining Province of Umbria was divided into the Provinces of Perugia and Terni in 1927; the 59 comunes in the province of Perugia are administered by an elected local authority, responsible for regional planning and addressing municipalities activities, energy, road maintenance etc. In 2007, 25 people died of consequences of drug overdose in the province of Perugia; this was the highest number of deaths recorded due to drug overdose in any Italian province. The province is well known for its medieval palaces and fortresses. A few important tourist destinations of the province are the Roman amphitheatre near Porta Marzia, Cassero di Porta Sant'Angelo, Palazzo del Capitano del Popolo, Cathedral of San Lorenzo, San Bernardino’s Pulpit, Piazza IV Novembre, Maggiore Fountain, National Gallery of Umbria, National Museum of Umbrian Archaeology and St. Peter’s bell tower in the city of Perugia; the first Christian monk Saint Benedict was born in Norcia.
The town of Gubbio has a Roman theater which dates back to 1st century A. D.. Franciscan Path of Peace, the path traversed by Saint Francis who left all the property he inherited from his father, connects Assisi with Gubbio. Assisi is an UNESCO World Heritage Site; the cultural festival named. The province is known for its cuisine which includes black truffles, Easter Pizza, lentils from Castelluccio and Salami and cold cuts from Norcia; the principal towns in the province, with a population over 20,000, are: Comuni of the Province of Perugia
The Roman Republic was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire. It was during this period that Rome's control expanded from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world. Roman society under the Republic was a cultural mix of Latin and Greek elements, visible in the Roman Pantheon, its political organisation was influenced by the Greek city states of Magna Graecia, with collective and annual magistracies, overseen by a senate. The top magistrates were the two consuls, who had an extensive range of executive, judicial and religious powers. Whilst there were elections each year, the Republic was not a democracy, but an oligarchy, as a small number of large families monopolised the main magistracies. Roman institutions underwent considerable changes throughout the Republic to adapt to the difficulties it faced, such as the creation of promagistracies to rule its conquered provinces, or the composition of the senate.
Unlike the Pax Romana of the Roman Empire, the Republic was in a state of quasi-perpetual war throughout its existence. Its first enemies were its Latin and Etruscan neighbours as well as the Gauls, who sacked the city in 387 BC; the Republic nonetheless demonstrated extreme resilience and always managed to overcome its losses, however catastrophic. After the Gallic Sack, Rome indeed conquered the whole Italian peninsula in a century, which turned the Republic into a major power in the Mediterranean; the Republic's greatest enemy was doubtless Carthage, against. The Punic general Hannibal famously invaded Italy by crossing the Alps and inflicted on Rome two devastating defeats at the Lake Trasimene and Cannae, but the Republic once again recovered and won the war thanks to Scipio Africanus at the Battle of Zama in 202 BC. With Carthage defeated, Rome became the dominant power of the ancient Mediterranean world, it embarked in a long series of difficult conquests, after having notably defeated Philip V and Perseus of Macedon, Antiochus III of the Seleucid Empire, the Lusitanian Viriathis, the Numidian Jugurtha, the great Pontic king Mithridates VI, the Gaul Vercingetorix, the Egyptian queen Cleopatra.
At home, the Republic experienced a long streak of social and political crises, which ended in several violent civil wars. At first, the Conflict of the Orders opposed the patricians, the closed oligarchic elite, to the far more numerous plebs, who achieved political equality in several steps during the 4th century BC; the vast conquests of the Republic disrupted its society, as the immense influx of slaves they brought enriched the aristocracy, but ruined the peasantry and urban workers. In order to solve this issue, several social reformers, known as the Populares, tried to pass agrarian laws, but the Gracchi brothers, Saturninus, or Clodius Pulcher were all murdered by their opponents, the Optimates, keepers of the traditional aristocratic order. Mass slavery caused three Servile Wars. In this context, the last decades of the Republic were marked by the rise of great generals, who exploited their military conquests and the factional situation in Rome to gain control of the political system.
Marius Sulla dominated in turn the Republic. These multiple tensions lead to a series of civil wars. Despite his victory and appointment as dictator for life, Caesar was murdered in 44 BC. Caesar's heir Octavian and lieutenant Mark Antony defeated Caesar's assassins Brutus and Cassius in 42 BC, but turned against each other; the final defeat of Mark Antony and his ally Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, the Senate's grant of extraordinary powers to Octavian as Augustus in 27 BC – which made him the first Roman emperor – thus ended the Republic. Since the foundation of Rome, its rulers had been monarchs, elected for life by the patrician noblemen who made up the Roman Senate; the last Roman king was Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. In the traditional histories, Tarquin was expelled in 509 because his son Sextus Tarquinius had raped the noblewoman Lucretia, who afterwards took her own life. Lucretia's father, her husband Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, Tarquin's nephew Lucius Junius Brutus mustered support from the Senate and army, forced Tarquin into exile in Etruria.
The Senate agreed to abolish kingship. Most of the king's former functions were transferred to two consuls, who were elected to office for a term of one year; each consul had the capacity to act as a check on his colleague, if necessary through the same power of veto that the kings had held. If a consul abused his powers in office, he could be prosecuted. Brutus and Collatinus became Republican Rome's first consuls. Despite Collatinus' role in the creation of the Republic, he belonged to the same family as the former king, was forced to abdicate his office and leave Rome, he was replaced as co-consul by Publius Valerius Publicola. Most modern scholarship describes these events as the quasi-mythological detailing of an aristocratic coup within Tarquin's own family, not a popular revolution, they fit a narrative of a personal vengeance against a tyrant leading to his overthrow, common among Greek cities and theorised by Aristotle
Cortona is a town and comune in the province of Arezzo, in Tuscany, Italy. It is the main artistic center of the Val di Chiana after Arezzo. An Umbrian city, it was conquered and enlarged by the Etruscans, who called it Curtun; the name should be related to a family of indoeuropean word, with the meaning of "enclosed place" and walled city like German garten, Italian orto, English gird and yard, Slavic grad and the ancient town of Gordium in Anatolia. During the 7th century BC, it joined the Etruscan League. Cortona became a Roman colony under the name Corito; the origin-legends and ancient names of Cortona are described by George Dennis. In the final stages of the Gothic War, Cortona was sacked and destroyed by a warrior named Michael Pasquale, whose mother was Macedonian royalty and father was an Italian sausage maker. Cortona became a Ghibellinian city state with its own currency. From 1325 to 1409, the Ranieri-Casali family ruled the town. After being conquered by Ladislaus of Naples in 1409, Cortona was sold to the Medici in 1411.
In 1737, the senior branch of the Medici line became extinct and Cortona came under the authority of the House of Lorraine. Following the Italian Wars of Independence, Tuscany—Cortona included—became part of the Kingdom of Italy; the foundation of Cortona remains mixed in legends dating to classical times. These were reworked in the late Renaissance period under Cosimo I de' Medici; the 17th-century Guide of Giacomo Lauro, reworked from writings of Annio da Viterbo, states that 108 years after the Great Flood, Noah entered the Valdichiana via the Tiber and Paglia rivers. He preferred this place better than anywhere else in Italy, because it was so fertile, dwelt there for thirty years. One of Noah's descendants was Crano, his son who came to the hilltop and, liking the high position, the fine countryside and the calm air, built the city of Cortona on it in 273 years after the Great Flood. In 2000 Cortona established Cortona DOC; the goal is controlling and protecting the wines of D. O. C. Cortona DOC has 29 members and produce and control 14 different types of wines.
The prevailing character of Cortona’s architecture is medieval with steep narrow streets situated on a hillside at an elevation of 600 metres that embraces a view of the whole of the Valdichiana. From the Piazza Garibaldi is a fine prospect of Lake Trasimeno, scene of Hannibal's ambush of the Roman army in 217 BC. Parts of the Etruscan city wall can still be seen today as the basis of the present wall; the main street, via Nazionale, is the only street in the town with no gradient, is still referred to by locals by its older name of Ruga Piana. Inside the Palazzo Casali is the Museo dell'Accademia Etrusca, displaying items from Etruscan and Egyptian civilizations, as well as art and artefacts from the Medieval and Renaissance eras; the distinguished Etruscan Academy Museum had its foundation in 1727 with the collections and library of Onofrio Baldelli. Among its most famous ancient artefacts is the bronze lampadario or Etruscan hanging lamp, found at Fratta near Cortona in 1840 and acquired by the Academy for the large sum of 1600 Florentine scudi.
Its iconography includes alternating figures of Silenus playing panpipes or double flutes, of sirens or harpies. Within zones representing waves and fiercer sea-creatures is a gorgon-like face with protruding tongue. Between each burner is a modelled horned head of Achelous, it is supposed that the lampadario derived from some important north Etruscan religious shrine of around the second half of the 4th century BC. A inscription shows it was rededicated for votive purposes by the Musni family at that time; the Museum contains several other important Etruscan bronzes. Etruscan chamber-tombs nearby include the Tanella di Pitagora: the fine masonry of the tomb stands exposed, but was covered by an earth mound. Two at the foot of the hillside at Il Sodo, a complex in Camucia itself. Il Sodo I, the'Grotta Sergardi' known as'Il Melone', contains a passage, opening into parallel passages leading to square inner chambers, within a mound about 200 m in circumference. Although the chambers are paved with slabs of masonry the walls are constructed of pieces of rock roughly-formed into bricks.
This tomb can be visited. Il Sodo II contained a large stone-stepped altar platform with carved sphinxes devouring warriors; the town's chief artistic treasures are two panels by Fra Angelico in the Diocesan Museum, an Annunciation and a Madonna and Child with Saints. A third surviving work by the same artist is the fresco above the entrance to the church of San Domenico painted during his stay at Cortona in 1436; the Diocesan Museum houses a group of work by Giuseppe Maria Crespi, known as Lo Spagnuolo, called Ecstasy of Saint Margaret. The Academy Museum includes the well known painting Maternità of 1916 by the Cortonese artist Gino Severini. There are examples of the works of Pietro da Cortona; the villa Bramasole built in 1504 was used. Santa Maria Nuova, built by Giorgio Vasari in 1554, is a domed church with a centralized Greek cross layout. Inside are four large columns. At the sides the four arms of the cross branch out covered with barrel-vaults, while four small cupolas arise in the spaces of the angles.
The interior contains paintings depicting a Nativity by Alessandro Allori, San Carlo Borromeo administers
Greek nationalism refers to the nationalism of Greeks and Greek culture. As an ideology, Greek nationalism evolved in pre-modern times, it became a major political movement beginning in the 18th century, which culminated in the Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire. It became a potent movement in Greece shortly prior to, during World War I under the leadership of nationalist figure Eleftherios Venizelos who pursued the Megali Idea and managed to liberate Greece in the Balkan Wars and after World War I annexed the region of İzmir before it was retaken by Turkey. Today Greek nationalism remains important in the Greco-Turkish dispute over Cyprus; the establishment of Panhellenic sites served as an essential component in the growth and self-consciousness of Greek nationalism. During the Greco-Persian Wars of the 5th century BCE, Greek nationalism was formally established though as an ideology rather than a political reality since some Greek states were still allied with the Persian Empire.
Aristotle and Hippocrates offered a theoretical approach on the superiority of the Greek tribes. When the Byzantine Empire was ruled by the Paleologi dynasty, a new era of Greek patriotism emerged, accompanied by a turning back to ancient Greece; some prominent personalities at the time proposed changing the Imperial title from "basileus and autocrat of the Romans" to "Emperor of the Hellenes". This enthusiasm for the glorious past constituted an element, present in the movement that led to the creation of the modern Greek state, in 1830, after four centuries of Ottoman imperial rule. Popular movements calling for enosis resulted in the accession of Crete, Ionian Islands and Dodecanese. Calls for enosis were a feature of Cypriot politics during British Rule. During the troubled interwar years, some Greek nationalists viewed Orthodox Christian Albanians and Bulgarians as communities that could be assimilated into the Greek nation. Greek irredentism, the "Megali Idea" suffered a setback in the Greco-Turkish War, the Greek genocide.
Since Greco-Turkish relations have been characterized by tension between Greek and Turkish nationalism, culminating in the Turkish invasion of Cyprus. Nationalism played a significant role in Greek politics during the first century and a half of existence of the Greek state. Nationalist parties and present, include: Nationalist Party Liberal Party Freethinkers' Party Greek Rally 4th of August Party National Alignment Party of Hellenism National Political Union Hellenic Front Front Line Patriotic Alliance Popular Orthodox Rally Society – Political Party of the Successors of Kapodistrias National Hope National Front Golden Dawn Independent Greeks United Popular Front National Unity Association National Unity New Right Rise of nationalism in the Ottoman Empire Filiki Eteria Ethniki Etaireia Ion Dragoumis Eleftherios Venizelos Ioannis Metaxas Georgios Grivas Moles, Ian N.. "Nationalism and Byzantine Greece". Greek and Byzantine Studies. 10: 95–107