Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American film studio based in Hollywood, a subsidiary of the American media conglomerate Viacom since 1994. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world, the second oldest in the United States, the sole member of the "Big Five" film studios still located in the Los Angeles neighborhood of Hollywood. In 1916, film producer Adolph Zukor put 22 actors and actresses under contract and honored each with a star on the logo. In 2014, Paramount Pictures became the first major Hollywood studio to distribute all of its films in digital form only; the company's headquarters and studios are located at 5555 Melrose Avenue, California, United States. Paramount Pictures is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world after the French studios Gaumont Film Company and Pathé, followed by the Nordisk Film company, Universal Studios, it is the last major film studio still headquartered in the Hollywood district of Los Angeles.
Paramount Pictures dates its existence from the 1912 founding date of the Famous Players Film Company. Hungarian-born founder Adolph Zukor, an early investor in nickelodeons, saw that movies appealed to working-class immigrants. With partners Daniel Frohman and Charles Frohman he planned to offer feature-length films that would appeal to the middle class by featuring the leading theatrical players of the time. By mid-1913, Famous Players had completed five films, Zukor was on his way to success, its first film was Les Amours de la reine Élisabeth. That same year, another aspiring producer, Jesse L. Lasky, opened his Lasky Feature Play Company with money borrowed from his brother-in-law, Samuel Goldfish known as Samuel Goldwyn; the Lasky company hired as their first employee a stage director with no film experience, Cecil B. DeMille, who would find a suitable site in Hollywood, near Los Angeles, for his first feature film, The Squaw Man. Starting in 1914, both Lasky and Famous Players released their films through a start-up company, Paramount Pictures Corporation, organized early that year by a Utah theatre owner, W. W. Hodkinson, who had bought and merged several smaller firms.
Hodkinson and actor, producer Hobart Bosworth had started production of a series of Jack London movies. Paramount was the first successful nationwide distributor. Famous Players and Lasky were owned while Paramount was a corporation. In 1916, Zukor maneuvered a three-way merger of his Famous Players, the Lasky Company, Paramount. Zukor and Lasky bought Hodkinson out of Paramount, merged the three companies into one; the new company Lasky and Zukor founded, Famous Players-Lasky Corporation, grew with Lasky and his partners Goldwyn and DeMille running the production side, Hiram Abrams in charge of distribution, Zukor making great plans. With only the exhibitor-owned First National as a rival, Famous Players-Lasky and its "Paramount Pictures" soon dominated the business; because Zukor believed in stars, he signed and developed many of the leading early stars, including Mary Pickford, Marguerite Clark, Pauline Frederick, Douglas Fairbanks, Gloria Swanson, Rudolph Valentino, Wallace Reid. With so many important players, Paramount was able to introduce "block booking", which meant that an exhibitor who wanted a particular star's films had to buy a year's worth of other Paramount productions.
It was this system that gave Paramount a leading position in the 1920s and 1930s, but which led the government to pursue it on antitrust grounds for more than twenty years. The driving force behind Paramount's rise was Zukor. Through the teens and twenties, he built the Publix Theatres Corporation, a chain of nearly 2,000 screens, ran two production studios, became an early investor in radio, taking a 50% interest in the new Columbia Broadcasting System in 1928. In 1926, Zukor hired independent producer B. P. Schulberg, an unerring eye for new talent, to run the new West Coast operations, they purchased the Robert Brunton Studios, a 26-acre facility at 5451 Marathon Street for US$1 million. In 1927, Famous Players-Lasky took the name Paramount Famous Lasky Corporation. Three years because of the importance of the Publix Theatres, it became Paramount Publix Corporation. In 1928, Paramount began releasing Inkwell Imps, animated cartoons produced by Max and Dave Fleischer's Fleischer Studios in New York City.
The Fleischers, veterans in the animation industry, were among the few animation producers capable of challenging the prominence of Walt Disney. The Paramount newsreel series Paramount News ran from 1927 to 1957. Paramount was one of the first Hollywood studios to release what were known at that time as "talkies", in 1929, released their first musical, Innocents of Paris. Richard A. Whiting and Leo Robin composed the score for the film. By acquiring the successful Balaban & Katz chain in 1926, Zukor gained the services of Barney Balaban, his brother A. J. Balaban, their partner Sam Katz (who would run the Paramount-Publix theatre chain in New York City from the thirty-five-stor
A ghetto is a part of a city in which members of a minority group live as a result of social, legal, or economic pressure. The term was used in Venice to describe the part of the city to which Jews were restricted and segregated. However, early societies may have formed their own versions of the same structure. Ghettos in many cities have been nicknamed "the hood", colloquial slang for neighborhood. Versions of ghettos appear across the world, each with their own names and groupings of people; the word "ghetto" comes from the Jewish area of Venice, the Venetian Ghetto in Cannaregio, traced to a special use of Venetian ghèto, or "foundry". By 1899 the term had been extended to crowded urban quarters of other minority groups; the etymology of the word is uncertain, as there is no agreement among etymologists about the origins of the Venetian language term. According to various theories it comes: from the above-mentioned Venetian ghèto. Another possibility is from the Italian Egitto in memory of the exile of the Israelites in Egypt.
A Jewish quarter is the area of a city traditionally inhabited by Jews in the diaspora. Jewish quarters, like the Jewish ghettos in Europe, were the outgrowths of segregated ghettos instituted by the surrounding authorities. A Yiddish term for a Jewish quarter or neighborhood is Di yiddishe gas, or "The Jewish street". Many European and Middle Eastern cities once had a historical Jewish quarter. Jewish ghettos in Europe existed; as a result, Jews were placed under strict regulations throughout many European cities. The character of ghettos has varied through times. In some cases, the ghetto was a Jewish quarter with a affluent population. In other cases, ghettos were places of terrible poverty and during periods of population growth, ghettos had narrow streets and tall, crowded houses. Residents had their own justice system. During World War II, ghettos were established by the Nazis to confine Jews and Romani people into packed areas of the cities of Eastern Europe; the Nazis most referred to these areas in documents and signage at their entrances as "Jewish quarter".
These Nazi ghettos sometimes coincided with traditional Jewish ghettos and Jewish quarters, but not always. On June 21, 1943, Heinrich Himmler issued a decree ordering the dissolution of all ghettos in the East and their transformation into Nazi concentration camps. A mellah is a walled Jewish quarter of a city in an analogue of the European ghetto. Jewish populations were confined to mellahs in Morocco beginning from the 15th century and since the early 19th century. In cities, a mellah was surrounded by a wall with a fortified gateway; the Jewish quarter was situated near the royal palace or the residence of the governor in order to protect its inhabitants from recurring riots. In contrast, rural mellahs were separate villages inhabited by the Jews; the Shanghai Ghetto was an area of one square mile in the Hongkou District of Japanese-occupied Shanghai to which about 20,000 Jewish refugees were relocated by the Japanese-issued Proclamation Concerning Restriction of Residence and Business of Stateless Refugees after having fled from German-occupied Europe before and during World War II.
The development of ghettos in the United States is associated with different waves of immigration and internal urban migration. The Irish and German immigrants of the mid-19th century were the first ethnic groups to form ethnic enclaves in United States cities; this was followed by large numbers of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe, including many Italians and Poles between 1880 and 1920. These European immigrants were more segregated than blacks in the early twentieth century. Most of these remained in their established immigrant communities, but by the second or third generation, many families were able to relocate to better housing in the suburbs after World War II; these ethnic ghetto areas included the Lower East Side in Manhattan, New York, which became notable as predominantly Jewish, East Harlem, which became home to a large Puerto Rican community in the 1950s. Little Italys across the country were predominantly Italian ghettos. Many Polish immigrants moved to sections like Polish Hill of Pittsburgh.
Brighton Beach in Brooklyn is the home of Russian and Ukrainian immigrants. During the Great Depression, many people would congregate in large open parking lots, they built shelters out of whatever materials they could find at the time. These congregations of shelters were called "ghettos". A used definition of a ghetto is a community distinguished by a homogeneous race or ethnicity. Additionally, a key feature that developed throughout the postindustrial era and continues to symbolize the demographics of American ghettos is the prevalence of poverty. Poverty constitutes the separation of ghettos from suburbanized or private neighborhoods; the high percentage of poverty justifies the difficulty of out-migration, which tends to reproduce constraining social opportunit
Profanity is offensive language, which may be called curse words or swearing, cuss words, swear words, crude language, coarse language, blasphemous language, vulgar language, lewd language, choice words, or expletives. Used in this sense, profanity is language, considered by certain parts of a culture to be impolite, rude or offensive, it can show a debasement of someone or something, or be considered as an expression of strong feeling towards something. In its older, more literal sense, "profanity" refers to a lack of respect for things that are held to be sacred, which implies anything inspiring deserving of reverence, as well as behaviour showing similar disrespect or causing religious offense; the term "profane" originates from classical Latin "profanus" "before the temple". It carried the meaning of either "desecrating what is holy" or "with a secular purpose" as early as the 1450s. Profanity represented secular indifference to religion or religious figures, while blasphemy was a more offensive attack on religion and religious figures, considered sinful, a direct violation of The Ten Commandments.
Moreover, many Bible verses speak against swearing. Profanities, in the original meaning of blasphemous profanity, are part of the ancient tradition of the comic cults which laughed and scoffed at the deity or deities: an example of this would be Lucian's "Dialogues of the Gods" satire. In English, swear words and curse words tend to have Germanic, rather than Latin etymology "Shit" has a Germanic root, as does "fuck"; the more technical alternatives are Latin in origin, such as "defecate" or "excrete" and "fornicate" or "copulate" respectively. Because of this, profanity is sometimes referred to colloquially as "Anglo-Saxon"; this is not always the case. For example, the word "wanker" is considered profane in Britain, but it dates only to the mid-20th century; the history of curse words and profanity was part of spoken words in medieval era. The word fuck was used in English in the fifteenth century, though the usage in earlier times of 13th century wasn't with abusive intent; the word shit is the oldest of words in use with early references found in German and Scandinavia languages.
Analyses of recorded conversations reveal that an average of 80–90 words that a person speaks each day – 0.5% to 0.7% of all words – are swear words, with usage varying from 0% to 3.4%. In comparison, first-person plural pronouns make up 1% of spoken words. A three-country poll conducted by Angus Reid Public Opinion in July 2010 found that Canadians swear more than Americans and British when talking to friends, while Britons are more than Canadians and Americans to hear strangers swear during a conversation. Swearing performs certain psychological functions, uses particular linguistic and neurological mechanisms. Functionally similar behavior can be observed in chimpanzees, may contribute to our understanding, notes New York Times author Natalie Angier. Angier notes that swearing is a widespread but underappreciated anger management technique. Swearing overt time may gain roots as a habit with involuntary utterance of obscene words or inappropriate and derogatory remarks; this has been referred to as Coprolalia, an occasional charecteristic of tic disorders.
Keele University researchers Stephens and Kingston found that swearing relieves the effects of physical pain. Stephens said "I would advise people, if they hurt themselves, to swear". However, the overuse of swear words tends to diminish this effect; the Keele team won the Ig Nobel Peace Prize in 2010 for their research. A team of neurologists and psychologists at the UCLA Easton Center for Alzheimer's Disease Research suggested that swearing may help differentiate Alzheimer's disease from frontotemporal dementia. Neurologist Antonio Damasio noted that despite loss of language due to damage to the language areas of the brain, patients were still able to swear. A group of researchers from Wright State University studied why people swear in the online world by collecting tweets posted on Twitter, they found that cursing is associated with negative emotions such as sadness and anger thus showing people in the online world use curse words to express their sadness and anger towards others. An interdisciplinary team of researchers from the University of Warsaw investigated bilingual swearing: why is it easier to swear in a foreign language?
Their finding that bilinguals strengthen the offensiveness of profanities when they switch into their second language, but soften it when they switch into their first tongue, but do both statistically only in the case of ethnophaulisms led the scientist to the conclusion that switching into the second language exempts bilinguals from the social norms and constraints such as political correctness, makes them more prone to swearing and offending others. According to Steven Pinker, there are five possible functions of swearing: Abusive swearing, intended to offend, intimidate or otherwise cause emotional or psychological harm Cathartic swearing, used in response to pain or misfortune Dysphemistic swearing, used to convey that the speaker thinks negatively of the subject matter, to make the listener do the same Emphatic swearing, intended to draw additional attention to what is considered to be worth paying attention to Idiomatic swearing, used for no other particular purpose, but as
Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible. Golf, unlike most ball games and does not utilize a standardized playing area, coping with the varied terrains encountered on different courses is a key part of the game; the game at the usual level is played on a course with an arranged progression of 18 holes, though recreational courses can be smaller having 9 holes. Each hole on the course must contain a tee box to start from, a putting green containing the actual hole or cup 4 1⁄4 inches in diameter. There are other standard forms of terrain in between, such as the fairway, rough and various hazards but each hole on a course is unique in its specific layout and arrangement. Golf is played for the lowest number of strokes by an individual, known as stroke play, or the lowest score on the most individual holes in a complete round by an individual or team, known as match play. Stroke play is the most seen format at all levels, but most at the elite level.
The modern game of golf originated in 15th century Scotland. The 18-hole round was created at the Old Course at St Andrews in 1764. Golf's first major, the world's oldest tournament in existence, is The Open Championship known as the British Open, first played in 1860 in Ayrshire, Scotland; this is one of the four major championships in men's professional golf, the other three being played in the United States: The Masters, the U. S. Open, the PGA Championship. While the modern game of golf originated in 15th-century Scotland, the game's ancient origins are unclear and much debated; some historians trace the sport back to the Roman game of paganica, in which participants used a bent stick to hit a stuffed leather ball. One theory asserts that paganica spread throughout Europe as the Romans conquered most of the continent, during the first century BC, evolved into the modern game. Others cite chuiwan as the progenitor, a Chinese game played between the eighth and fourteenth centuries. A Ming Dynasty scroll dating back to 1368 entitled "The Autumn Banquet" shows a member of the Chinese Imperial court swinging what appears to be a golf club at a small ball with the aim of sinking it into a hole.
The game is thought to have been introduced into Europe during the Middle Ages. Another early game that resembled modern golf was known as chambot in France; the Persian game chaugán is another possible ancient origin. In addition, kolven was played annually in Loenen, beginning in 1297, to commemorate the capture of the assassin of Floris V, a year earlier; the modern game originated in Scotland, where the first written record of golf is James II's banning of the game in 1457, as an unwelcome distraction to learning archery. James IV lifted the ban in 1502 when he became a golfer himself, with golf clubs first recorded in 1503–1504: "For golf clubbes and balles to the King that he playit with". To many golfers, the Old Course at St Andrews, a links course dating to before 1574, is considered to be a site of pilgrimage. In 1764, the standard 18-hole golf course was created at St Andrews when members modified the course from 22 to 18 holes. Golf is documented as being played on Musselburgh Links, East Lothian, Scotland as early as 2 March 1672, certified as the oldest golf course in the world by Guinness World Records.
The oldest surviving rules of golf were compiled in March 1744 for the Company of Gentlemen Golfers renamed The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers, played at Leith, Scotland. The world's oldest golf tournament in existence, golf's first major, is The Open Championship, first played on 17 October 1860 at Prestwick Golf Club, in Ayrshire, with Scottish golfers winning the earliest majors. Two Scotsmen from Dunfermline, John Reid and Robert Lockhart, first demonstrated golf in the U. S. by setting up a hole in an orchard in 1888, with Reid setting up America's first golf club the same year, Saint Andrew's Golf Club in Yonkers, New York. A golf course consists of either 9 or 18 holes, each with a teeing ground, set off by two markers showing the bounds of the legal tee area, fairway and other hazards, the putting green surrounded by the fringe with the pin and cup; the levels of grass are varied to increase difficulty, or to allow for putting in the case of the green. While many holes are designed with a direct line-of-sight from the teeing area to the green, some holes may bend either to the left or to the right.
This is called a "dogleg", in reference to a dog's knee. The hole is called a "dogleg left" if the hole angles leftwards and "dogleg right" if it bends right. Sometimes, a hole's direction may bend twice. A regular golf course consists of 18 holes, but nine-hole courses are common and can be played twice through for a full round of 18 holes. Early Scottish golf courses were laid out on links land, soil-covered sand dunes directly inland from beaches; this gave rise to the term "golf links" applied to seaside courses and those built on sandy soil inland. The first 18-hole golf course in the United States was on a sheep farm in Downers Grove, Illinois, in 1892; the course is still there today. Every round of golf is based on playing a number of holes in a given order. A "round" consists of 18 holes that are played in the order determined by the course layout; each hole is played once in the round on a standard course of 18 holes. The game can be played by any number of people, although a typ
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite. It is the fifth-largest natural satellite in the Solar System, the largest among planetary satellites relative to the size of the planet that it orbits; the Moon is after Jupiter's satellite Io the second-densest satellite in the Solar System among those whose densities are known. The Moon is thought to have formed not long after Earth; the most accepted explanation is that the Moon formed from the debris left over after a giant impact between Earth and a Mars-sized body called Theia. The Moon is in synchronous rotation with Earth, thus always shows the same side to Earth, the near side; the near side is marked by dark volcanic maria that fill the spaces between the bright ancient crustal highlands and the prominent impact craters. After the Sun, the Moon is the second-brightest visible celestial object in Earth's sky, its surface is dark, although compared to the night sky it appears bright, with a reflectance just higher than that of worn asphalt.
Its gravitational influence produces the ocean tides, body tides, the slight lengthening of the day. The Moon's average orbital distance is 1.28 light-seconds. This is about thirty times the diameter of Earth; the Moon's apparent size in the sky is the same as that of the Sun, since the star is about 400 times the lunar distance and diameter. Therefore, the Moon covers the Sun nearly during a total solar eclipse; this matching of apparent visual size will not continue in the far future because the Moon's distance from Earth is increasing. The Moon was first reached in September 1959 by an unmanned spacecraft; the United States' NASA Apollo program achieved the only manned lunar missions to date, beginning with the first manned orbital mission by Apollo 8 in 1968, six manned landings between 1969 and 1972, with the first being Apollo 11. These missions returned lunar rocks which have been used to develop a geological understanding of the Moon's origin, internal structure, the Moon's history. Since the Apollo 17 mission in 1972, the Moon has been visited only by unmanned spacecraft.
Both the Moon's natural prominence in the earthly sky and its regular cycle of phases as seen from Earth have provided cultural references and influences for human societies and cultures since time immemorial. Such cultural influences can be found in language, lunar calendar systems and mythology; the usual English proper name for Earth's natural satellite is "the Moon", which in nonscientific texts is not capitalized. The noun moon is derived from Old English mōna, which stems from Proto-Germanic *mēnô, which comes from Proto-Indo-European *mḗh₁n̥s "moon", "month", which comes from the Proto-Indo-European root *meh₁- "to measure", the month being the ancient unit of time measured by the Moon; the name "Luna" is used. In literature science fiction, "Luna" is used to distinguish it from other moons, while in poetry, the name has been used to denote personification of Earth's moon; the modern English adjective pertaining to the Moon is lunar, derived from the Latin word for the Moon, luna. The adjective selenic is so used to refer to the Moon that this meaning is not recorded in most major dictionaries.
It is derived from the Ancient Greek word for the Moon, σελήνη, from, however derived the prefix "seleno-", as in selenography, the study of the physical features of the Moon, as well as the element name selenium. Both the Greek goddess Selene and the Roman goddess Diana were alternatively called Cynthia; the names Luna and Selene are reflected in terminology for lunar orbits in words such as apolune and selenocentric. The name Diana comes from the Proto-Indo-European *diw-yo, "heavenly", which comes from the PIE root *dyeu- "to shine," which in many derivatives means "sky and god" and is the origin of Latin dies, "day"; the Moon formed 4.51 billion years ago, some 60 million years after the origin of the Solar System. Several forming mechanisms have been proposed, including the fission of the Moon from Earth's crust through centrifugal force, the gravitational capture of a pre-formed Moon, the co-formation of Earth and the Moon together in the primordial accretion disk; these hypotheses cannot account for the high angular momentum of the Earth–Moon system.
The prevailing hypothesis is that the Earth–Moon system formed after an impact of a Mars-sized body with the proto-Earth. The impact blasted material into Earth's orbit and the material accreted and formed the Moon; the Moon's far side has a crust, 30 mi thicker than that of the near side. This is thought to be; this hypothesis, although not perfect best explains the evidence. Eighteen months prior to an October 1984 conference on lunar origins, Bill Hartmann, Roger Phillips, Jeff Taylor challenged fellow lunar scientists: "You have eighteen months. Go back to your Apollo data, go back to your computer, do whatever you have to, but make up your mind. Don't come to our conference unless you have something to say about the Moon's birth." At the 1984 conference at Kona, the giant impact hypothesis emerged as the most consensual theory. Before the conference, there were parti
A wedding is a ceremony where two people are united in marriage. Wedding traditions and customs vary between cultures, ethnic groups, religions and social classes. Most wedding ceremonies involve an exchange of marriage vows by the couple, presentation of a gift, a public proclamation of marriage by an authority figure or celebrant. Special wedding garments are worn, the ceremony is sometimes followed by a wedding reception. Music, prayers or readings from religious texts or literature are commonly incorporated into the ceremony, as well as superstitious customs originating in Ancient Rome; some cultures have adopted the traditional Western custom of the white wedding, in which a bride wears a white wedding dress and veil. This tradition was popularized through the marriage of Queen Victoria; some say Victoria's choice of a white gown may have been a sign of extravagance, but may have been influenced by the values she held which emphasized sexual purity. Within the modern'white wedding' tradition, a white dress and veil are unusual choices for a woman's second or subsequent wedding.
The use of a wedding ring has long been part of religious weddings in Europe and America, but the origin of the tradition is unclear. One possibility is the Roman belief in the Vena amoris, believed to be a blood vessel that ran from the fourth finger directly to the heart. Thus, when a couple wore rings on this finger, their hearts were connected. Historian Vicki Howard points out that the belief in the "ancient" quality of the practice is most a modern invention. "Double ring" ceremonies are a modern practice, a groom's wedding band not appearing in the United States until the early 20th century. The wedding ceremony is followed by wedding reception or a wedding breakfast, in which the rituals may include speeches from the groom, best man, father of the bride and the bride, the newlyweds' first dance as a couple, the cutting of an elegant wedding cake. In recent years traditions has changed to include a father-daughter dance for the bride and her father, sometimes a mother-son dance for the groom and his mother.
Kua, Chinese traditional formal wear Batik and Kebaya, a garment worn by the Javanese people of Indonesia and by the Malay people of Malaysia Hanbok, the traditional garment of Korea Barong Tagalog, an embroidered, formal men's garment of the Philippines Kimono, the traditional garments of Japan Sari/Lehenga, Indian popular and traditional dress in India Dhoti, male garment in South India Dashiki, the traditional West African wedding attire Seshweshe, female dress worn by the Basotho women during special ceremonies. Although it has been adopted to men attire as well. Ao dai, traditional garments of Vietnam Ribbon shirt worn by American Indian men on auspicious occasions, such as weddings, another common custom is to wrap bride and groom in a blanket Kilt, male garment particular to Scottish culture Kittel, a white robe worn by the groom at an Orthodox Jewish wedding; the kittel is worn only under the Chupah, is removed before the reception. Topor, a type of conical headgear traditionally worn by grooms as part of the Bengali Hindu wedding ceremony Western code Morning dress, western daytime formal dress Stroller White tie Evening Suits Black tie Non-traditional "tuxedo" variants Lounge suit Sherwani, a long coat-like garment worn in South Asia Wedding crown, worn by Syrian and Greek couples and Scandinavian brides Wedding veil Wedding dress Langa oni, traditional two piece garment worn by unmarried Telugu Hindu women.
Different wedding clothing around the world Music played at Western weddings includes a processional song for walking down the aisle either before or after the marriage service. An example of such use is reported in the wedding of Nora Robinson and Alexander Kirkman Finlay in 1878; the "Bridal Chorus" from Lohengrin by Richard Wagner is used as the processional and is known as "Here Comes the Bride". Richard Wagner is said to have been anti-Semitic, as a result, the Bridal Chorus is used at Jewish weddings. UK law forbids music with any religious connotations to be used in a civil ceremony. Johann Pachelbel's Canon in D is an alternative processional. Other alternatives include various contemporary melodies, such as Bob Marley's One Love, sometimes performed by a steel drum band. In the United States 2 million people get married each year and close to 70 million people attend a wedding and spend more than $100 on a gift. Most religions recognize a lifelong union with established rituals; some religions permit same-sex marriages.
Many Christian faiths emphasize the raising of children as a priority in a marriage. In Judaism, marriage is so important. Islam recommends marriage highly; the Bahá'í Faith sees marriage as a foundation of the structure of society, considers it both a physical and spiritual bond that endures into the afterlife. Hinduism sees marriage as a sacred duty that entails both social obligations. By contrast, Buddhism does not encourage or discourage marriage, although it does teach how one might live a ma
Shelton Jackson "Spike" Lee is an American film director, producer and actor. His production company, 40 Acres and a Mule Filmworks, has produced over 35 films since 1983, he made his directorial debut with She's Gotta Have It, has since directed such films as Do the Right Thing, Jungle Fever, Malcolm X, He Got Game, The Original Kings of Comedy, 25th Hour, Inside Man, Chi-Raq, BlacKkKlansman. Lee had starring roles in ten of his own films. Lee's films have examined race relations, colorism in the black community, the role of media in contemporary life, urban crime and poverty, other political issues, he has won numerous accolades for his work, including an Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, a Student Academy Award, a BAFTA Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, two Emmy Awards, two Peabody Awards, the Cannes Grand Prix. He has received an Academy Honorary Award, an Honorary BAFTA Award, an Honorary César, the Dorothy and Lillian Gish Prize. Lee was born in Atlanta, the son of Jacqueline Carroll, a teacher of arts and black literature, William James Edward Lee III, a jazz musician and composer.
Lee has three younger siblings, Joie and Cinqué, who all worked in many different positions in Lee's films. Director Malcolm D. Lee is his cousin; when he was a child, the family moved to New York. His mother nicknamed him "Spike" during his childhood, he attended John Dewey High School in Brooklyn's Gravesend neighborhood. Lee enrolled in Morehouse College, a black college, where he made his first student film, Last Hustle in Brooklyn, he took film courses at Clark Atlanta University and graduated with a B. A. in mass communication from Morehouse. He did graduate work at New York University's Tisch School of the Arts, where he earned a Master of Fine Arts in film & television. Lee's independent film, Joe's Bed-Stuy Barbershop: We Cut Heads, was the first student film to be showcased in Lincoln Center's New Directors/New Films Festival. In 1985, Lee began work on his first feature film, She's Gotta Have It. With a budget of $175,000, he shot the film in two weeks; when the film was released in 1986, it grossed over $7,000,000 at the U.
S. box office. Lee's 1989 film Do the Right Thing was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay in 1989. Many people, including Hollywood's Kim Basinger, believed that Do the Right Thing deserved a Best Picture nomination. Driving Miss Daisy won Best Picture that year. Lee said in an April 7, 2006, interview with New York magazine that the other film's success, which he thought was based on safe stereotypes, hurt him more than if his film had not been nominated for an award. After the 1990 release of Mo' Better Blues, Lee was accused of antisemitism by the Anti-Defamation League and several film critics, they criticized the characters of the club owners Josh and Moe Flatbush, described as "Shylocks". Lee denied the charge, explaining that he wrote those characters in order to depict how black artists struggled against exploitation. Lee said that Lew Wasserman, Sidney Sheinberg, or Tom Pollock, the Jewish heads of MCA and Universal Studios, were unlikely to allow antisemitic content in a film they produced.
He said he could not make an antisemitic film because Jews run Hollywood, "that's a fact". His 1997 documentary 4 Little Girls, about the children killed in the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1963, was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Feature Documentary. On May 2, 2007, the 50th San Francisco International Film Festival honored Spike Lee with the San Francisco Film Society's Directing Award. In 2008, he received the Wexner Prize. In 2013, he won The Dorothy and Lillian Gish Prize, one of the richest prizes in the American arts worth $300,000. In 2015, Lee received an Academy Honorary Award from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences for his contributions to film. Lee directed and produced the MyCareer story mode in the video game NBA 2K16. Lee's film BlacKkKlansman, a drama thriller set in the 1970s, won the Grand Prix at the 2018 Cannes Film Festival, opened the following August, it received nominations for the Academy Award for Best Picture and Best Director, with Lee winning his first competitive Academy Award in the category Best Adapted Screenplay.
In 1991, Lee taught a course at Harvard about filmmaking, in 1993, he began to teach at New York University’s Tisch School of the Arts in the Graduate Film Program. It was there that he received his master of fine arts and was appointed artistic director in 2002, he is now a tenured professor at NYU. In mid-1990, Levi's began producing a series of TV commercials directed by Lee for their 501 button-fly jeans. Marketing executives from Nike offered Lee a job directing commercials for the company, they wanted to pair Lee's character, the Michael Jordan–loving Mars Blackmon, Jordan in a marketing campaign for the Air Jordan line. Lee was called on to comment on the controversy surrounding the inner-city rash of violence involving youths trying to steal Air Jordans from other kids, he said that, rather than blaming manufacturers of apparel that gained popularity, "deal with the conditions that make a kid put so much importance on a pair of sneakers, a jacket and gold". Through the marketing wing of 40 Acres and a Mule, Lee has directed commercials for Converse, Taco Bell, Ben & Jerry's.
Lee's films have examined race relations, colorism in the black community, the role of media in contemporary life, urban crime and poverty, other political issues. His films are noted for their unique stylistic elements, including the use of dolly shots to portray the characters "f