The Osbournes

The Osbournes is an American reality television program featuring the domestic life of heavy metal singer Ozzy Osbourne and his family. The series premiered on MTV on March 5, 2002, and, in its first season, was cited as the most-viewed series on MTV; the final episode aired on March 21, 2005. In addition to heavy metal music musician Ozzy Osbourne, the show features his wife and manager Sharon, their children Jack and Kelly; the Osbournes have another daughter, who refused to participate in the show and publicly criticized her parents for their antics on the show. In most family photos shown on the show, she is either blurred; the series followed the family as they dealt with major events such as Sharon's battle with cancer, the aftermath of an ATV accident that nearly killed Ozzy. The theme song for the show is a cover of Ozzy's song "Crazy Train", done in a jazz-swing style reminiscent of Pat Boone. Concurrent with the success of the series, Kelly Osbourne launched a brief career as a singer, while Sharon Osbourne hosted The Sharon Osbourne Show.

The family parodied their TV series during cameo appearances at awards shows, in the film Austin Powers in Goldmember. Jack and Kelly's friend Robert made regular appearances on the show. While a constant presence in front of the camera, few plots revolved around Robert and he had few lines. After the series ended, it was reported that the Osbournes had sent Robert back to Rhode Island to live with his father after spending a week at a psychiatric ward; the Osbournes were assumed to have adopted Robert. Another person who makes recurring appearances on the show is Melinda, Sharon's executive assistant and nanny, married to Ozzy's tour manager, she is seen trying to get Jack out of bed while he berates and belittles her, telling her to "get a real job." Melinda is from Australia. Ozzy confirmed in an interview on BBC Radio 2 in May 2009 that he was "stoned during the entire filming of The Osbournes" and will not watch the episodes for this reason. Profanity was censored during MTV broadcasts of the series in the United States.

In an interview, Ozzy stated that while he was happy that the Canadian broadcasts were uncensored, he preferred the censored version because the cursing was more noticeable due to the bleeps. The Canadian broadcasts on CTV and UK broadcasts on MTV and Channel 4 are uncensored; some episodes were aired uncensored to Australian audiences when shown on Network Ten. It is broadcast uncensored on MTV Australia. 9==Staging== It was long suspected in fan circles that The Osbournes was staged. These suspicions were confirmed by Jack and Kelly, who stated in an interview that some of the antics on the show, including the visit from the dog therapist, were arranged by MTV producers. Ozzy Osbourne's publicist denied these claims. One episode, in which Sharon's prized dog Minnie is killed, was revealed to be a prank in outtakes aired after the show. On November 30 and December 1, 2007, items belonging to the Osbournes and featured in the show were auctioned off to the public; the two-day event listed memorabilia as well as furnishings of the home.

Bidders could bid through the Auction Network. In 2009, the Osbournes reunited for the debut of their new variety show Osbournes Reloaded for the Fox network. Produced by Fremantle Media North America, the series debuted on March 31, 2009 at 9:25PM ET/PT, following American Idol, it consisted of sketches, celebrity cameos, music performances, pretaped segments. The show was canceled after airing its first episode. On its debut, 26 Fox affiliates pre-empted or delayed the program due to its racy content, which the stations felt was more appropriate for older viewers. Since 2016, Ozzy and Jack have starred in Ozzy & Jack's World Detour, a reality-series that aired on History before moving to A&E for its second season. On January 23, 2018, Jack revealed on his official Instagram page that the series had been picked up for a third season. On October 7, 2014, Sharon Osbourne announced on Loose Women that eight new episodes would be filmed in January 2015. However, Sharon said in 2015 that the show's filming would not continue, that she and MTV had not continued their discussion about the show since they announced its revival.

The new episodes that were filmed may be released in the future. In October 2015, Kelly Osbourne stated that she was open to the idea of a revival, new and different, saying that "we did it on MTV and that had never been done before so if we're going to come back, we'd want to do it in a way that has never been done before either."On March 5, 2018. It is a weekly podcast, with a new episode added on Mondays, they talk about various topics including: reminiscing about The Osbournes glory days and Jack's World Detour, personal struggles, current events, funny stories and more. They have guests on as well such as Melinda and Dave. Only seasons one and two have been released on DVD; the Osbourne Family Album, a various artists compilation based on the show, was released in June 2002. As well as achieving the highest ratings in MTV history, The Osbournes won a 2002 Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Reality Program; the series aired on CTV in Canada

Oriskany Formation

The Oriskany Sandstone is a Middle Devonian age unit of sedimentary rock found in eastern North America. The type locality of the unit is located at Oriskany Falls in New York; the Oriskany Sandstone extends throughout much of the Appalachian Basin. The unit name usage by the U. S. Geological Survey is the Oriskany Sandstone. Butts stated that the Oriskany Sandstone "corresponds with the Ridgely Sandstone" and that the rules of stratigraphic nomenclature dictate that the name Oriskany Sandstone should be applied to these strata. Appalachian Basin: New York, Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky List of fossiliferous stratigraphic units in West Virginia Devonian shallow marine Oil, glass sand Various Contributors to the Paleobiology Database. "Fossilworks: Gateway to the Paleobiology Database". Archived from the original on 31 July 2014. Retrieved 22 June 2014. "Oriskany Formation". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 25 September 2015. "Oriskany Group including Ridgeley Sandstone and Shriver Chert".

United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 25 September 2015. "Oriskany Sandstone and Huntersville Chert". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 25 September 2015

Socialism with Chinese characteristics

The theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics is a broad term for political theories and policies that are seen by their proponents as representing Marxism–Leninism adapted to Chinese circumstances and specific time periods. For instance, in this view Xi Jinping Thought is considered to represent Marxist–Leninist policies suited for China's present condition while Deng Xiaoping Theory was considered relevant for the period when it was formulated; the term entered common usage during the era of Deng Xiaoping and was associated with Deng's overall program of adopting elements of market economics as a means to foster growth using foreign investment and to increase productivity while the Communist Party of China retained both its formal commitment to achieve communism and its monopoly on political power. In the party's official narrative, socialism with Chinese characteristics is Marxism–Leninism adapted to Chinese conditions and a product of scientific socialism; the theory stipulated that China was in the primary stage of socialism due to its low level of material wealth and needed to engage in economic growth before it pursued a more egalitarian form of socialism, which in turn would lead to a communist society described in Marxist orthodoxy.

The concept of a primary stage of socialism was conceived. In the early 1950s, economists Yu Guangyuan, Xue Muqiao and Sun Yefang raised the question of socialist transformation in which China's economy of low productive force was in a transitional period, a position which Mao Zedong endorsed until 1957; when discussing the necessity of commodity relations at the 1st Zhengzhou Conference, for example, Mao—the Chairman of the Communist Party of China's Central Committee—said that China was in the "initial stage of socialism". However, Mao never elaborated on the idea and his successors were left to do this. On 5 May 1978, the article "Putting into Effect the Socialist Principle of Distribution According to Work" elaborated on the idea that China was still at the first stage of reaching pure communism and that it had not become a socialist society; the article was written by members in the State Council's Political Research Office led by economist Yu Guangyuan on the orders of Deng Xiaoping so as to "criticize and repudiate" the beliefs of the communist left.

After reading it, Deng himself authored a brief memo saying that it was "well-written, shows that the nature of distribution by labor is not capitalist, but socialist to implement this principle, many things are to be done, many institutions to be revived. In all, this is to give incentives for us to do better"; the term reappeared at the 6th plenum of the 11th Central Committee on 27 June 1981 in the document "Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of our Party since the Founding of the PRC". Hu Yaobang, the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, used the term in his report to the 12th National Congress on 1 September 1982, it was not until the "Resolution Concerning the Guiding Principle in Building Socialist Spiritual Civilization" at the 6th plenum of the 12th Central Committee that the term was used in the defense of the economic reforms which were being introduced. At the 13th National Congress, acting General Secretary Zhao Ziyang on behalf of the 12th Central Committee delivered the report "Advance Along the Road of Socialism with Chinese characteristics".

He wrote that China was a socialist society, but that socialism in China was in its primary stage, a Chinese peculiarity, due to the undeveloped state of the country's productive forces. During this phase of development, Zhao recommended introducing a planned commodity economy on the basis of public ownership; the main failure of the communist right according to Zhao was that they failed to acknowledge that China could reach socialism by bypassing capitalism. The main failure of the communist left was that they held the "utopian position" that China could bypass the primary stage of socialism in which the productive forces are to be modernized. On 5 October 1987, Yu Guangyuan, a major author of the concept, published an article entitled "Economy in the Initial Stage of Socialism" and speculated that this historical stage will last for two decades and much longer; this represents, says Ian Wilson, "a severe blight on the expectations raised during the early 70s, when the old eight-grade wage scale was being compressed to only three levels and a more distributive system was assumed to be an important national goal".

On 25 October, Zhao further expounded on the concept of the primary stage of socialism and said that the party line was to follow "One Center, Two Basic Points"—the central focus of the Chinese state was economic development, but that this should occur through centralized political control and upholding the policy of reform and opening up. General Secretary Jiang Zemin further elaborated on the concept ten years first during a speech to the Central Party School on 29 May 1997 and again in his report to the 15th National Congress on 12 September. According to Jiang, the 3rd plenum of the 11th Central Committee analyzed and formulated a scientifically correct program for the problems facing China and socialism. In Jiang's words, the primary stage of socialism was an "undeveloped stage"; the fundamental task of socialism is to develop the productive forces, therefore the main aim during the primary stage should be the further development of the national productive forces. The primary contradiction in Chinese society during the primary stage of socialism i