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Helen Donald-Smith

Helen Donald-Smith was an English artist who worked in oil and watercolour, was active circa 1890–1925. Her work featured landscapes of Venice, portraits, including that of Brigadier General F. W. Lumsden VC, DSO. On 14 March 1890, The Times reviewed an exhibition of the Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours, finding the exhibition in general to be of "fair average quality. A rather novel feature of it is that some of the best works are contributed by the oldest of the members and the youngest of the outsiders"; the work was commented on individually, the reviewer found "charming examples of the art of three ladies, flower-pieces by Madame Teresa Hegg de Lauderset and Mrs. Duffield, a pair of Thames landscapes by Miss H. Donald-Smith; these last show a marked advance on any of the artist's previous work."She painted Sir William Robert Grove c. 1890s and Mary Mackay in 1897. She painted née Katherine Barnett, she painted Mary Elizabeth Kathleen Dulcie Deamer about 1921. In December 1906, she had a solo exhibition, River and garden: exhibition of water-colours by Miss H. Donald-Smith, at the Modern Gallery, 61 New Bond Street.

This was visited by Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll who viewed on the same premises an exhibition by Percy French and the picture Mater Christi by Herman Salomon. On 10 March 1909, the Baillie Gallery, which had moved from Baker Street to 13 Bruton Street, staged their fourth annual exhibition of flower paintings; the Times described the proprietor as having "an excellent taste in art" and his exhibitions of "a high standard". The flower painting genre was one which had fallen into disfavour, after a high point, but, now being revived again. 148 works were under a third showing gardens and the others depicting flowers. At the same time as this show, two adjacent rooms were given over to 63 drawings of Venice by Donald-Smith, whose reputation had been for her oil paintings her portraits. Venice was a subject in vogue at the time. Donald-Smith’s work was reviewed as "Without any great distinction they are accurate and agreeable, any lover of Venice may spend a most pleasant half-hour amongst these pictures of the beloved city."In July 1913, Donald-Smith was recorded on the First List of Subscriptions, as having given £3.3.0 to the Lord Wolseley Memorial Fund, where she was titled "Miss".

In 1920, the Mess of the Royal Marines commissioned two portraits from Donald-Smith of Brigadier General F. W. Lumsden VC, DSO, of the Royal Marine Artillery; the work is now housed in the Royal Marines Museum in the Royal Marine Artillery Barracks, Portsmouth. In February 1925, there was an exhibition of 90 water colours by Donald-Smith at the Gieves Gallery, 22 Old Bond Street, London; these ranged over a number of English counties, as well as some Italian locations, including Venice. They were described as coming into the genre of "pretty pictures" by The Times, which said: Feeding Pigeons, St Marks Square, Venice, a work on paper, was auctioned at Sotheby's on 18 October 1990, for £1,400. Portrait of Young Mother and Daughter on Marble Garden Seat, work on paper, was auctioned at Graves Son & Pilcher Fine Arts on 28 September 1995, for £900. Portrait of a Young Girl in a Blue Dress and Matching Bonnet, Holding a Lily 1897, was auctioned at Christie's, South Kensington, Continental & Russian Pictures, on 19 July 2006, for £300.

Portrait painting

Treaty of Titalia

The Treaty of Titalia was signed between the Chogyal of Kingdom of Sikkim and the British East India Company. The treaty, negotiated by Captain Barre Latter in February 1817, guaranteed security of Sikkim by the British and returned Sikkimese land annexed by the Nepalese over the centuries, it followed the Anglo-Nepalese War, 1814-1816. In return, the British were given trading rights of passage up to the Tibet frontier; the treaty was signed at Titalia, now known as Tetulia Upazila, in the Rangpur District of present-day Bangladesh. In the Gazette of Sikkim, 1894 by H. H. Risley, it was written that "by the Treaty of Titalia, British India has assumed the position of Lord's paramount of Sikkim and a title to exercise a predominant influence in that State has remained undisputed." Signed by Captain Barre Latter as agent for the EIC and three Sikkimese officials, Nazir Chaina Tenjin, Macha Teinbah and Lama Duchim Longadoo, the primary purpose of the treaty under Article 1 was to return land seized by the Gorkha Kingdom of Nepal to Sikkim.

This land, lying to the east of the Mechi River and the west of the Teesta River had been ceded to the EIC by the Gorkhas under the 1816 Treaty of Sugauli following the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814-16. In exchange, the Sikkimese Chogyal agreed to abstain from aggression towards the Gorkhas and to allow the British to mediate any dispute with its neighbours. Further articles pledged military support to the British, that absconders from British justice, whether criminal or civil, would be arrested in Sikkim and that all EIC company goods shipped through Sikkim would thereafter be free from duty; the treaty transformed Sikkim into a channel for Anglo-Chinese diplomacy. History of Sikkim List of treaties A Lexicon of Vocabulary and Treaties from India and Central Asia History of Sikkim – Government of Sikkim

Mama Mirabelle's Home Movies

Mama Mirabelle's Home Movies is a British animated educational children's television series and an animal jam story. The live action footage comes from the BBC Natural History Unit archives, as well as the National Geographic Society, is shown in the United States on PBS. In the American version, all of the animals except Karla have American voices. Vanessa Williams is the voice of Mama Mirabelle in the US, Floella Benjamin is the voice for Mama Mirabelle in the UK; the series is produced by UK animation company King Rollo Films, whose other shows include Disney's The Adventures of Spot, Maisy, The Extraordinary Adventures of Poppy Cat and Mr. Benn. Mama Mirabelle's Home Movies, the first season runs as 52 11-minute shows on CBeebies, but the show is running on PBS Kids as of 2008 in a thirty-minute slot by combining two ten-minute shows with extra songs and games. Music for this show is written by Lester Barnes, the composer for Horrid Henry, Me Too!, Urmel.) The series was created by Douglas Wood, the author of the companion children's picture book When Mama Mirabelle Comes Home, published by National Geographic Channel Book.

Set in the African savanna, it focuses on an enthusiastic elephant named Mama Mirabelle, who travels around the world to film real wildlife footage and project them onto a screen of fireflies in front of the entire animal kingdom. The "Home Movies" are used for educational purposes not only for the principal young characters but for the target audience at home. Mama Mirabelle the elephant. Voiced by Floella Benjamin in the United Kingdom and Vanessa Williams in the United States. Max the elephant, he is voiced by Phillipa Alexander in the United Kingdom, Teresa Gallagher in the United States, Josephine Schmidt in Germany, Max is Mama Mirabelle's son, he loves some good dirty fun with Karla and Bo. Karla the zebra, voiced by Teresa Gallagher in both the United Kingdom and the United States, Jennifer Wieb in Germany, is a bit of a prim and proper animal but loves mud, her favourite game is called Nuzzle Tag. Bo the cheetah, voiced by Jules de Jongh in both the United States and the United Kingdom, Jesco Spirtgen in Germany, is the adopted son of Mama Mirabelle, who loves to pounce.

Merlin the bat - Is voiced by Kuchi Braaso in the United Kingdom and Tajja Isen in the United States. Kayla the red kangaroo - She is friends with Mama Mirabelle and was voiced by Moya O'Sullivan. Ronjy the tiger - Seen in Muddy Wonderland. Kylie, Kayla's daughter, she is voiced by Gabriella Lewis. Daddy Stripes the zebra, Max, Bo's dad, he is voiced by David Holt in the United Lucien Dodge in the United States. Keisha, Karla's wombat friend, she is voiced by Emma Tate in the United Katie Leigh in the United States. Benny the bird - Loves to help, he is voiced by Lizzy Waterworth. Winnie the cow - Is Karla's Friend from the Cold Area, she is voiced by Sarah Williams. Jacques the walrus - A Fellow Traveller of Mama Mirabelle, he is voiced by Alan Marriott. Mama Bird - Benny's Mum, voiced by Elly Fairman. Edna the Echidna - A young echidna who lives in Australia and is voiced by Felicia Hamilton. 01. Elephant Walk 02; the Sounds Of The Savanna 03. A Little Help From My Friends 04. Baby Of A Different Stripe 05.

Hide And Go Seek 06. Tell Me About It 07. To Sleep With Wombats 08. All Creatures Great And Small 09. Anybody Home? 10. Healthy Habits 11. Play's The Thing 12. Sam Spades Of The Savanna 13. Gourmet Grazing 14. Kings And Queens Of The Savanna 15. I Spy 16. Eyes, Noses, And Trunks 17; the Boy Can Blow 18. I Don't Like Spiders And Snakes 19. What's In A Tail 20. Foot Prints In The Sand 21. Here Today, Gone Tomorrow 22. Nobody's Perfect 23. Things That Go Yip, Howl And Screech In The Night 24. Cracking The Code 25. A Savanna Kwanzaa 26. You Must Have Been A Beautiful Baby 27. Change Is Gonna Come 28. Trumpet While You Work 29. Spot The Difference 30. Hot-And-Cold Running Critters 31. Why Zebras Can't Fly 32. Super Duper Savanna Animals 33. Come Out Of Your Shell 34. Travels With Mama 35. Tails Of The Galápagos 36. Happy Habitats 37. Savanna Lullaby 38, it Gives You Paws 39. Out Of Reach 40. Family Style 41. Curtain Up! 42. Listen Up! 43. Rainy Day Blues 44. Take Me To The Water 45. Find Your Way Home 46; the Nose Knows 47. Jumbled Jungle 48.

Alone Together 49. Muddy Wonderland 50. Do You See What I See? 51. Have You Heard? 52. This Is Mama's World Mama Mirabelle's Home Movies was never commercially released on either VHS or DVD in the United Kingdom. Mama Mirabelle's Home Movies at BBC Programmes Mama Mirabelle's Home Movies at CBeebies Mama Mirabelle at PBS Kids

Butter churn

A butter churn is a device used to convert cream into butter. This is done through a mechanical process via a pole inserted through the lid of the churn, or via a crank used to turn a rotating device inside the churn; the word “butter” is believed to be derived from the Greek word bou-tyron, the approximate meaning of, “cow cheese”. However, some believe the word came from the Scythian culture, as the ancient Greeks tended to herd sheep and goats, whose milk is not as good for butter making as that of cows, which the Scythians herded; the word "churn" is from the Old English ċyrin. This is derived from the Old English cyrnel, "kernel," due to the appearance of butter grains after milk has been churned; the butter churn gave its name to the milk churn, early examples of which were based on butter churns. The milk churn is not, used for the act of churning, but rather to transport milk. Evidence for the use of butter dates back as early as 2000 BC, there is mention of it in biblical works; the butter churn itself may have existed as early as the 6th century AD, as can be seen by what appears to be a churn lid dating from that era.

In the European tradition, the butter churn was a device used by women, the churning of butter was an essential responsibility along with other household chores. In earlier traditions of butter making, nomadic cultures placed milk in skin bags and produced butter either by shaking the bag manually, or by attaching the bag to a pack animal, producing butter through the movement of the animal; some theorists believe. Some cultures still use a process similar to this, whereby a bag is filled with milk, tied to a stick, vigorously shaken; the most prominent types of butter churns are the plunge churn, a container made out of wood, where the butter-making action is created by moving in a vertical motion a staff, inserted into the top. This type of churn is known as an ‘up and down’ churn, churning tub, plunger churn, plumping churn, knocker churn, plump-kirn, or plowt-kirn; the staff used in the churn is known as the dash, dasher-staff, churn-staff, churning-stick, plumper, or kirn-staff. Another prominent type of churn was the paddle churn, a container that contained a paddle, operated by a handle.

The paddle churned the butter inside the container. The barrel churn was used extensively; this type of churn was a barrel turned onto its side with a crank attached. The crank either turned a paddle device inside the churn, as in the paddle churn, or turned the whole barrel either horizontally or vertically, depending on its construction. Agitation of the cream in this manner converted the milk to butter; the barrel churn. One novel invention of note was the rocking chair butter churn; this device, invented by Alfred Clark, consisted of a barrel attached to a rocking chair. While the rocking chair moved, the barrel churned the milk within into butter. Butter-churn tower, named after its similarity to a type of butter churn. Several types of butter churn illustrated and described Traditional Czech butter churn

Herbert and Katherine Jacobs Second House

Herbert and Katherine Jacobs Second House is a historic house located at 3995 Shawn Trail in Madison, United States. Built in 1946-48, the house was the second of two designed by Frank Lloyd Wright for journalist Herbert Jacobs and his wife Katherine; the house's design is unique among Wright's works. The house was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1974 and declared a National Historic Landmark in 2003. Wright was a close personal friend of the Jacobs couple, he designed his first house for them in 1936 and that house was Wright's first experiment with a Usonian design, his vision for affordable housing in the United States. The Jacobses moved to a more rural part of the Madison area in 1942 to become part-time farmers. After proposing an existing plan that another client had not completed, Wright proposed another experimental plan for the new house in 1944. Due to delays on Wright's part, construction did not begin until 1946, most of the work did not take place until 1948.

By this point, Wright had become offended by a comment Herbert had made in We Chose the Country, one of his works, he left the couple to build the house themselves without his guidance. Wright gave the house a unique design which he called a "Solar Hemicycle"; the house's plan is a segment of a circle, a design which Wright borrowed from an unbuilt plan he made for Lloyd Burlingham in 1942. Circular rooms and elements, such as the house's bathroom and pools, came from a 1938 design, built on the grounds of Taliesin West. Wright had the house built from stone and wood, materials which would allow the house to retain solar energy; the house's north berm was proposed as an built stone wall for a community in Detroit. Due to their weight, the house's stone walls were not built on the concrete floor, as was common in other Wright houses. Unlike many of Wright's works, the design was never reused or modified for clients. National Register of Historic Places listings in Madison, Wisconsin List of National Historic Landmarks in Wisconsin Herbert and Katherine Jacobs First House "Making Wright Right" - restoration of Herbert and Katherine Jacobs Second House