Thomas Alan Waits is an American singer, musician and actor. Waits' music is characterized by his distinctive deep, gravelly singing voice and lyrics focusing on the underside of U. S. society. During the 1970s, he worked in jazz, but since the 1980s his music has reflected greater influence from blues and experimental genres. Waits was raised in a middle-class family in California. Inspired by the work of Bob Dylan and the Beat Generation, as a teenager he began singing on the San Diego folk music scene. Relocating to Los Angeles in 1972, he worked as a songwriter before signing a recording contract with Asylum Records, his first albums, the jazz-oriented Closing Time and The Heart of Saturday Night, reflected his lyrical interest in nightlife and criminality. Touring the U. S. Europe, Japan, he attracted greater critical recognition and commercial success with Small Change, which he followed with Blue Valentine and Heartattack and Vine, he produced the soundtrack for Francis Ford Coppola's 1981 film One from the Heart and subsequently made cameo appearances in several Coppola films.
During the 1970s, he had relationships with two prominent performers, Bette Midler and Rickie Lee Jones. In the early 1980s, Waits married Kathleen Brennan, broke from his manager and record label, moved to New York City. Under Brennan's encouragement, he pursued a new, more experimental and eclectic musical aesthetic influenced by the work of Harry Partch and Captain Beefheart; this was reflected in a series of albums released by Island Records: Swordfishtrombones, Rain Dogs, Franks Wild Years. He continued taking a leading role in Jim Jarmusch's Down by Law. In the 1990s, his albums Bone Machine, The Black Rider, Mule Variations earned him increasing critical acclaim and various Grammy Awards. In the late 1990s, he switched to the record label Anti-, who released Blood Money, Real Gone, Bad as Me. Waits' albums have met with mixed commercial success in the U. S. although they have achieved gold status in other countries. He has a cult following and has influenced many singer-songwriters, despite having little radio or music video support.
In 2011, Waits was inducted into the Roll Hall of Fame. He was included among the 2010 list of Rolling Stone's 100 Greatest Singers, as well as the 2015 list of Rolling Stone's 100 Greatest Songwriters of All Time. Thomas Alan Waits was born on December 1949, in Pomona, California, he has one younger sister. His father, Jesse Frank Waits, was a Texas native of Scots-Irish descent, while his mother, Alma Fern, hailed from Oregon and had Norwegian ancestry. Alma was regular church-goer. Jesse was an alcoholic; the family lived at 318 North Pickering Avenue in California. He described having a "very middle-class" upbringing and "a pretty normal childhood", he attended Jordan Elementary School. There, he learned to play the guitar, while his father taught him to play the ukulele. During the summers, he visited maternal relatives in Marysville, he recalled that it was an uncle's raspy, gravelly voice that inspired the manner in which he sang. In 1959, his parents separated and his father moved away from the family home, a traumatic experience for 10-year-old Waits.
Alma relocated to Chula Vista, a middle-class suburb of San Diego. Jesse visited the family there. In Chula Vista, Waits attended O'Farrell Community School, where he fronted a school band, the Systems describing the group as "white kids trying to get that Motown sound", he developed a love of R&B and soul singers like Ray Charles, James Brown, Wilson Pickett, as well as country music and Roy Orbison. Bob Dylan became a strong influence, with Waits placing transcriptions of Dylan's lyrics on his bedroom walls, he was an avid watcher of The Twilight Zone. By the time he was studying at Hilltop High School, he related, he was "kind of an amateur juvenile delinquent", interested in "malicious mischief" and breaking the law, he described himself as a "rebel against the rebels", for he eschewed the hippie subculture, growing in popularity and was instead inspired by the 1950s Beat generation, having a love of Beat writers like Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, William S. Burroughs. In 1968, at age 18, he dropped out of high school.
Waits worked at Napoleone's pizza restaurant in National City and both there and at a local diner developed an interest in the lives of the patrons, writing down phrases and snippets of dialogue he overheard. He has claimed that he worked in the forestry service as a fireman for three years. For a time, he served with the Coast Guard, he enrolled at Chula Vista's Southwestern Community College to study photography, for a time considering a career in the field. He continued taking piano lessons, he began frequenting folk music venues around San Diego, becoming drawn into the city's folk music scene. In 1969, he gained employment as an occasional doorman for the Heritage coffeehouse, which held regular performances from folk musicians, he began to sing at the Heritage. In time he performed his own material as well parodies of country songs or bittersweet ballads influenced by
Ralph George Macchio Jr. is an American actor, known for his roles as Daniel LaRusso in The Karate Kid and Cobra Kai, Eugene Martone in Crossroads, Bill Gambini in My Cousin Vinny, Johnny Cade in The Outsiders. Additionally, he competed on the twelfth season of Dancing with the Stars. Macchio was born in New York, he is the son of Sr. who owned a ranch. His father is of half Greek and half Italian descent, his mother is of Italian ancestry. In a 1980 screen test, Macchio stated. Macchio first appeared on American television commercials for products such as Bubble Yum and Dr Pepper, his on-screen debut was in the 1980 film Up the Academy, his first major role was playing Jeremy Andretti in the television series Eight Is Enough. In 1983, he appeared as Johnny Cade in The Outsiders alongside many young actors who had yet to become major stars, such as C. Thomas Howell, Tom Cruise, Emilio Estevez, Patrick Swayze, Rob Lowe, Matt Dillon. In 1984, Macchio became known internationally following the release of the first Karate Kid film.
Playing high school senior Daniel LaRusso, Macchio was in his early twenties when the film was made. He continued this success with the film's sequels, The Karate Kid Part II and The Karate Kid Part III. In the mid-1980s, Macchio's face began appearing on the covers of many teen "bubblegum" magazines such as Tiger Beat, 16, Teen Beat. Macchio appeared in the 1986 film Crossroads. In 1992, he starred opposite Joe Pesci and Marisa Tomei in the hit comedy My Cousin Vinny, playing Billy Gambini, wrongfully accused of murder while passing through a small Alabama town. In 1993, Macchio portrayed Chris, the sexually confused best friend of Eric Stoltz's character, in the indie film Naked in New York, along with such notable actors as Mary-Louise Parker, Jill Clayburgh, Kathleen Turner, Tony Curtis. In 1996, Macchio performed the lead role of J. Pierrepont Finch in the U. S. tour revival of the 1962 Tony Award-winning musical How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying, received positive reviews.
Referring to his performance as a chorister in a high school production of the same musical, Macchio said, "I was known as the'Dancing Kid,' not that I was all that great. But I had been dancing since the age of three, taking lessons at the June Claire School of Dance in Babylon, Long Island." Since the mid-1990s, Macchio's film appearances have been occasional cameo or supporting roles, notably and A Good Night to Die and Beer League. In 2005, Macchio played himself in Entourage. On May 1, 2007, Macchio played himself in an episode of Head Case. In 2008, he appeared in a VitaminWater commercial. Macchio was depicted as Edwards' "spiritual advisor" and dressed in his Karate Kid clothes. Since October 2008, he has appeared in several episodes of the ABC Network television series Ugly Betty as Archie Rodriguez, a local politician, with a semi-regular role as Hilda's love interest on the show; as of November 2008, Macchio was ranked No. 80 among VH1's 100 Greatest Teen Stars. In June 2010, Macchio appeared in Funny or Die's online short, "Wax On, F*ck Off", in which his loved ones stage an intervention to turn the former child star from a well-adjusted family man into an addict besieged with tabloid scandal, all in order to help his career.
During the video Macchio reacts to seeing a poster for the 2010 Karate Kid remake. A recurring joke in the sketch is; the short was lauded by TV Guide's Bruce Fretts, who referred to the video as "sidesplitting" and "comic gold". On September 20, 2010, Macchio played the adult Carl Morelli in a staged reading of the Charles Messina play A Room of My Own presented by the Bleecker Street Theater Company. In February 2011 it was announced, he was eliminated during the semi-finals. Macchio appeared in Canadian band Danko Jones' music videos for "Had Enough" and "I Think Bad Thoughts" featuring Elijah Wood and Jena Malone. In April 2012, Macchio was cast in the film Hitchcock, based on the non-fiction book Alfred Hitchcock and the Making of Psycho, co-starring Anthony Hopkins, Helen Mirren, Jessica Biel and Toni Collette, directed by Sacha Gervasi. Macchio portrays Psycho screenwriter Joseph Stefano. In April 2013, Macchio appeared in the popular sitcom How I Met Your Mother in the episode entitled "The Bro-Mitzvah".
From February to March 2016, Macchio co-stars with Mario Cantone in the Off-Broadway production A Room of My Own, after having read the play in 2010 and 2014. Macchio reprises his role as Daniel LaRusso in Cobra Kai, a television sequel to the movie trilogy, that YouTube Premium released on May 2, 2018, with a ten-episode first season, he is a co-executive producer of the series, along with William Zabka. The series is set 34 years after the events of the 1984 All Valley Karate Tournament and revolves around a down-and-out Johnny Lawrence who – seeking to get his life back on track, obtain redemption for his defeat in the 1984 tournament – reopens the Cobra Kai dojo; this reignites his rivalry with a now-successful LaRusso, struggling to maintain balance in his life without the guidance of his mentor, Mr. Miyagi, whose death in the series took place seven years before episode 1. Macchio was introduced to Phyllis Fierro, by his grandmother when he was fifteen, they married on April 5, 1987, have two children and Daniel.
Fierro is a nurse practitioner. At a celebration of the 30th anniversary of Karate Kid at the Japanese American National Museum in 2
C. Thomas Howell
Christopher Thomas Howell, is an American actor and director. He has starred in the films Soul Man, The Hitcher, Grandview U. S. A. Red Dawn, Secret Admirer and The Outsiders, he has appeared in Gettysburg as Thomas Chamberlain, E. T. the Extra-Terrestrial, The Amazing Spider-Man, Justice League: The Flashpoint Paradox and Suicide Squad: Hell to Pay. Howell was born in Los Angeles to Christopher N. and Candice Howell. He has two sisters and Candy, a brother, John, his father worked as a stunt rodeo performer. As a young boy, Howell was a child stunt performer, he began acting at the age of four, when he was cast in the Brian Keith Show episode, "The Little People". When Howell was young, his parents divorced. Howell graduated from Saugus High School in 1984. Howell's showbiz debut was acting in The Brian Keith Show episode "The Little People" as a little boy whose ears are being checked out by a doctor; when he got older, he worked on commercials for a while. He tried rodeo riding for a few years. In 1982, he made his film debut as Tyler in Steven Spielberg's E.
T. the Extra-Terrestrial. Afterward, he was cast as the lead role Ponyboy Curtis in Francis Ford Coppola's The Outsiders, which earned him a Young Artist Award. In 1984 he and Outsiders co-star, Patrick Swayze, reunited for Grandview, U. S. A. with Jamie Lee Curtis, Red Dawn, with Charlie Sheen and Lea Thompson. Howell had a pivotal role in Tank, with James Garner and Jenilee Harrison. In 1985 he again starred in the lead role in Secret Admirer, opposite Lori Loughlin and Kelly Preston. Howell was one of two final actors in the running to play Marty McFly in Back to the Future the other being Eric Stoltz, selected. Michael J. Fox would go on to replace Stoltz after filming had begun. In 1986, he played a hitchhiker's target in the film The Hitcher; the sequel, in which he starred, was released in 2003. He starred as a white student who pretends to be black to receive a scholarship in the poorly received Soul Man, which holds an aggregated score of 14% at Rotten Tomatoes. Howell has since stated that he does not regret playing the main character in blackface and that Soul Man was "an important part of life" and "an important film" for racial relations in the United States.
In 1988, Howell played the young Arturo Toscanini in the story of the world-renowned conductors debut in Franco Zeffirelli's Giovane Toscanini with Irma Capece Minutolo and Elizabeth Taylor. The film was never released domestically. At the end of the 1980s and beginning of the 1990s, Howell appeared in The Return of the Musketeers and Side Out. In 1993, he starred with Nancy Allen in the campy thriller Acting on Impulse. After several straight-to-video features and a starring role in That Night, he achieved success again in the film Gettysburg, popular with history buffs and history classrooms, he starred as a motorcycle courier in Mad Dogs and Englishmen with Elizabeth Hurley. His made-for-television film credits include Suspect Sealed with a Kiss and Dead Fire, he starred in an unsold pilot. He appeared in the short-lived TV series Kindred: The Embraced, he started an interest in crime-thrillers after starring in Payback and playing gangster Baby Face Nelson in a film of the same name. He went on to direct and star in the 1996 direct-to-video release, Pure Danger, featuring alongside Teri Ann Linn and prop comic, Carrot Top.
Howell returned to acting in the 2000s in films such as Asylum Days, the Gods and Generals prequel to Gettysburg, The Hillside Strangler, in which he played serial killer Kenneth Bianchi. In 2006, Howell starred in Hoboken Hollow, he became a supporter of the production company The Asylum, which produced his straight-to-DVD films. In 2005, he starred in H. G. Wells' War of the Worlds, one of three 2005 adaptations of the novel The War of the Worlds by H. G. Wells. Howell directed and starred in a straight-to-DVD sequel War of the Worlds 2: The Next Wave in 2008. In 2005, he reunited with his Secret Admirer co-star Lori Loughlin, when he had a recurring role on her television show Summerland as Zac Efron's father. After War of the Worlds, he spent time directing straight to-DVD films. In 2008, he directed and starred in The Day the Earth Stopped, a mockbuster intended to capitalize on The Day the Earth Stood Still, he appeared as a doctor in an adaptation of the 1972 film of the same name. His father's first stunt co-ordination was for the original film, albeit uncredited.
He hosted a show on KLSX that year. Howell appeared in the 2012 film The Amazing Spider-Man. After filming The Outsiders, Howell co-starred in his own television series, Two Marriages, which ended after four episodes, but letters of support got it back on air, he expressed disappointment in the series, but found it more satisfying. After Two Marriages, Howell made guest appearances in shows like The Hitchhiker. In 2000, Howell played a doctor stranded on a deserted island after a plane crash in Amazon, he turned down a guest role in ER after missing out on a role he wanted, but his wife signed him up after yet another offer. Following ER, he guest appeared in 24, he guest starred in five episodes of Criminal Minds on CBS as serial killer George Foyet, a recurring villain based on the Zodiac Killer. Howell has played the role of Officer Bill'Dewey' Dudek, a police officer recovering from alcoholism, in the L. A. police drama Southland since 2009. He appeared in Seasons 1, 2, 3, 4 and was promoted to a series regular for Season 5, which began in February 2013.
The series was cancelled on Ma
Tulsa is the second-largest city in the state of Oklahoma and 45th-most populous city in the United States. As of July 2016, the population was 413,505, an increase of 12,591 over that reported in the 2010 Census, it is the principal municipality of the Tulsa Metropolitan Area, a region with 991,005 residents in the MSA and 1,251,172 in the CSA. The city serves as the county seat of Tulsa County, the most densely populated county in Oklahoma, with urban development extending into Osage and Wagoner counties. Tulsa was settled between 1836 by the Lochapoka Band of Creek Native American tribe. For most of the 20th century, the city held the nickname "Oil Capital of the World" and played a major role as one of the most important hubs for the American oil industry. A robust energy sector fueled Tulsa's economy. Two institutions of higher education within the city have sports teams at the NCAA Division I level, Oral Roberts University and the University of Tulsa, it is situated on the Arkansas River between the Osage Hills and the foothills of the Ozark Mountains in northeast Oklahoma, a region of the state known as "Green Country".
Considered the cultural and arts center of Oklahoma, Tulsa houses two art museums, full-time professional opera and ballet companies, one of the nation's largest concentrations of art deco architecture. The city has been called one of America's most livable large cities by Partners for Livable Communities and Relocate America. FDi Magazine in 2009 ranked the city no. 8 in the U. S. for cities of the future. In 2012, Tulsa was ranked among the top 50 best cities in the United States by BusinessWeek. People from Tulsa are called "Tulsans"; the area where Tulsa now exists was considered Indian Territory when it was first formally settled by the Lochapoka and Creek tribes in 1836. They established a small settlement under the Creek Council Oak Tree at the present day intersection of Cheyenne Avenue and 18th Street; this area and this tree reminded Chief Tukabahchi and his small group of the Trail of Tears survivors of the bend in the river and their previous Creek Council Oak Tree back in the Talisi, Alabama area.
They named their new settlement Tallasi, meaning "old town" in the Creek language, which became "Tulsa". The area around Tulsa was settled by members of the other so-called "Five Civilized Tribes", relocated to Oklahoma from the Southern United States. Most of modern Tulsa is located in the Creek Nation, with parts located in the Cherokee and Osage Nations. Although Oklahoma was not yet a state during the Civil War, the Tulsa area saw its share of fighting; the Battle of Chusto-Talasah took place on the north side of Tulsa and a number of battles and skirmishes took place in nearby counties. After the War, the tribes signed Reconstruction treaties with the federal government that in some cases required substantial land concessions. In the years after the Civil War and around the turn of the century, the area along the Arkansas River, now Tulsa was periodically home to or visited by a series of colorful outlaws, including the legendary Wild Bunch, the Dalton Gang, Little Britches. On January 18, 1898, Tulsa was incorporated and elected its first mayor, Edward Calkins.
Tulsa was still a small town near the banks of the Arkansas River in 1901 when its first oil well, named Sue Bland No. 1, was established. Much of the oil was discovered on land whose mineral rights were owned by members of the Osage Nation under a system of headrights. By 1905, the discovery of the large Glenn Pool prompted a rush of entrepreneurs to the area's growing number of oil fields. Unlike the early settlers of Northeastern Oklahoma, who most migrated from the South and Texas, many of these new oil-driven settlers came to Tulsa from the commercial centers of the East Coast and lower Midwest; this migration distinguished the city's demographics from neighboring communities and is reflected in the designs of early Tulsa's upscale neighborhoods. Known as the "Oil Capital of the World" for most of the 20th century, the city's success in the energy industry prompted construction booms in the popular Art Deco style of the time. Profits from the oil industry continued through the Great Depression, helping the city's economy fare better than most in the United States during the 1930s.
In the early 20th century, Tulsa was home to the "Black Wall Street", one of the most prosperous black communities in the United States at the time. Located in the Greenwood neighborhood, it was the site of the Tulsa Race Riot, one of the nation's worst acts of racial violence and civil disorder, with whites attacking blacks. Sixteen hours of rioting on May 31 and June 1, 1921, was ended only when National Guardsmen were brought in by the Governor. An official report claimed that 23 black and 16 white citizens were killed, but other estimates suggest as many as 300 people died, most of them black. Over 800 people were admitted to local hospitals with injuries, an estimated 10,000 black people were left homeless as 35 city blocks, composed of 1,256 residences, were destroyed by fire. Property damage was estimated at $1.8 million. Efforts to obtain reparations for survivors of the violence have been unsuccessful, but the events were re-examined by the city and state in the early 21st century, acknowledging the terrible actions that had taken place.
In 1925, Tulsa businessman Cyrus Avery, known as the "Father of Route 66," began his
A cult following comprises a group of fans who are dedicated to a work of culture referred to as a cult classic. A film, musical artist, television series or video game, among other things, is said to have a cult following when it has a small but passionate fanbase. A common component of cult followings is the emotional attachment the fans have to the object of the cult following identifying themselves and other fans as members of a community. Cult followings are commonly associated with niche markets. Cult media are associated with underground culture, are considered too eccentric or subversive to be appreciated by the general public or to be commercially successful. Many cult fans express a certain irony about their devotion. Sometimes, these cult followings cross the border to camp followings. Fans may become involved in a subculture of fandom, either via conventions, online communities or through activities such as writing series-related fiction, costume creation, replica prop and model building, or creating their own audio or video productions from the formats and characters.
There is not always a clear difference between mainstream media. Series such as Star Trek, Star Wars, Doctor Who, Harry Potter, The Lord of the Rings, Game of Thrones, Rocky Horror, Ethel & Ernest, The Dark Knight, Mean Girls attract mass audiences but have core groups of fanatical followers. Professors Xavier Mendik and Ernest Mathijs, authors of 100 Cult Films, argue that the devoted following among these films make them cult classics. In many cases, films that have cult followings may have been financial flops during their theatrical box office run, received mixed or negative reviews by mainstream media, but still be considered a major success by small core groups or communities of fans devoted to such films; some cults are only popular within a certain subculture. The film Woodstock is loved within the hippie subculture, while Hocus Pocus holds cult status among American women born in the 1980s. Certain mainstream icons can become cult icons in a different context for certain people. Reefer Madness was intended to warn youth against the use of marijuana, but because of its ridiculous plot, overwhelming amount of factual errors and cheap look, it is now watched by audiences of marijuana-smokers and has gained a cult following.
Quentin Tarantino's films borrow stylistically from classic cult films, but are appreciated by a large audience, therefore lie somewhere between cult and mainstream. Certain cult phenomena can grow to such proportions. Many cancelled television series see new life in a fan following. One notable example is Arrested Development, cancelled after three seasons and, because of the large fanbase, returned for a 15-episode season, released on Netflix on May 26, 2013. Futurama is another notable series, put on permanent hiatus after its initial 72-episode run. Strong DVD sales and consistent ratings on Cartoon Network's Adult Swim block led to four direct-to-DVD films which, in turn, led to the revival of the series in 2010 on Comedy Central following Adult Swim's expiration of the broadcast rights. Space Ghost Coast to Coast had a cult following throughout its eleven season run on television, help pave the wave of other shows of similar style, which had cult followings Aqua Teen Hunger Force. Star Trek: The Original Series is notable in that it was cancelled after three seasons but gained a cult following through broadcast syndication and spawned a successful media franchise.
Another cancelled series that has attained cult status is the NBC teen dramedy Freaks and Geeks which had an 18-episode run. Another series, cancelled but gained a second life with cult status is the FOX teen medical dramedy Red Band Society which had a 13-episode run. Other examples include Firefly, Community, Joan of Arcadia, Twin Peaks, Veronica Mars, Pushing Daisies, Young Justice and The Adventures of Pete & Pete, which had short lives, yet achieved large fanbases. In a BBC review of Farscape episode "Throne for a Loss", Richard Manning said "Farscape is now a cult series because it's being shown out of sequence"; the episode in question was shown as the second episode, after the premiere. Series considered cult classics include the long-running BBC series Doctor Who, The Prisoner and the Australian soap opera Prisoner: Cell Block H; some video games attract cult followings, which can influence the design of video games. An example of a cult video game is Ico, an initial commercial flop which gained a large following for its unique gameplay and minimalist aesthetics, was noted as influencing the design of Brothers: A Tale of Two Sons and Rime, among other games.
Other games which have cult followings include EarthBound, a commercial flop that resulted in the creation of a "cottage industry" selling memorabilia to the EarthBound fandom, Yume Nikki, a surreal free-to-play Japanese horror game. Another game with a large cult following is Crash Twinsanity, considered by fans to be the best Crash Bandicoot game post-Naughty Dog era despite only average critic reviews. In particular, it is well known as the turning point in theming for the series. Sleeper hit Underground music Jancik, Wayn
Robert Hepler Lowe is an American actor and director. He is the recipient of two Screen Actors Guild Awards and has been nominated for six Golden Globes Awards and a Primetime Emmy Award. Lowe made his acting debut at the age of 15 with ABC's short-lived sitcom A New Kind of Family. Following numerous television roles in the early 1980s, he came to prominence as a teen idol and member of the Brat Pack with roles in films like The Outsiders, The Hotel New Hampshire, Oxford Blues, St. Elmo's Fire, About Last Night... and Square Dance. The success of these films established him as a Hollywood star. Following a 1988 sex tape scandal and a reviled opening performance at the 1989 Academy Awards, Lowe's public image and film career declined. By the turn of the millennium, his career saw a resurgence when he ventured back into television, making his breakthrough as Sam Seaborn on the NBC political drama The West Wing, for which he received nominations for a Primetime Emmy Award and two Golden Globe Awards.
His other television roles include Robert McCallister on the ABC drama Brothers & Sisters, Chris Traeger on the NBC sitcom Parks and Recreation, Dr. Ethan Willis on the CBS medical drama Code Black, the A&E reality series The Lowe Files, in which he appears with his two sons and John Owen. In 2018, he made his directorial debut with the television film The Bad Seed, a remake of the 1956 film of the same name; the film received mixed reviews. Lowe was born in Charlottesville, Virginia, to Barbara Lynn, a schoolteacher and native of Connecticut, Charles Davis Lowe, a trial lawyer, his parents divorced when his younger brother Chad were young. Lowe was baptized into the Episcopal church, he is of German, Irish and Welsh ancestry. On the show Who Do You Think You Are?, Lowe found out that one of his ancestors, Christopher East, was a Hessian soldier. His ancestor was fighting under the command of Colonel Johann Gottlieb Rall and was captured at the American victory at Trenton, New Jersey, on the morning of December 26, 1776.
As an American POW, his ancestor was given a choice, took the option to stay in the United States. Lowe was raised in a "traditional American setting" in Dayton, attending Oakwood Junior High School, before moving to the Point Dume area of Malibu, with his mother and brother. In California, he attended Santa Monica High School. In his autobiography Stories I Only Tell My Friends, he wrote regarding Sheen, "We were both nerds he wanted to be a baseball player." One of Lowe's earliest roles came in the 1983 TV film Thursday's Child, for which he received his first Golden Globe Award nomination for Best Supporting Actor in a Series, Miniseries, or Television Film. He appeared in the music video for The Go-Go's song, "Turn to You." His breakthrough role was his big screen debut in 1983, when he and Emilio Estevez were cast in Francis Ford Coppola's The Outsiders. Lowe played the role of Sodapop Curtis, the brother of the main character Ponyboy Curtis and Darrel Curtis. Lowe and Estevez reunited in St. Elmo's Fire, making them the two more prominent actors from the group known as the Brat Pack.
About Last Night... followed, with Demi Moore. He received his second Golden Globe Award nomination for Best Supporting Actor for his role as the mentally disabled Rory in Square Dance. In August 1987 he performed on stage, playing Baron Tusenbach in Chekov's The Three Sisters at The Williamstown Theatre Festival, he recalled meeting Paul Newman there, that the older actor encouraged him to work in the theatre in 1993 when filming a British TV production of the Tennessee Williams play Suddenly, Last Summer with Dame Maggie Smith and Natasha Richardson. Lowe is well known for playing Sam Seaborn in the television series The West Wing from 1999 - 2003, his performance in the show garnered Lowe a Primetime Emmy Award nomination and two Golden Globe Award nominations for Best Actor in a Drama Series. Lowe was drawn to the role because of his personal love of politics, his longstanding personal relationship with Martin Sheen, cast as President Bartlet; when the show premiered, Seaborn was considered the lead, the pilot centered on the character.
But the acclaimed cast of the show—including Allison Janney, Richard Schiff, Dulé Hill, John Spencer, Bradley Whitford, Martin Sheen and Stockard Channing — were all strong actors and Lowe's character was no longer the lead. Lowe and series creator Aaron Sorkin soon found themselves at odds over the network's meddling with the show, most notably the network demanding changes in the Sam Seaborn character. Lowe left the series, not long before Sorkin and director/executive producer Thomas Schlamme unceremoniously quit over a dispute with NBC. During the final season of The West Wing, Lowe returned to his role of Sam Seaborn, appearing in two of the final four episodes. In 2011, Lowe appeared on The Oprah Winfrey Show and stated that he left the show because he did not feel he was being respected, when the other lead characters received a raise and he did not. After leaving the show, Lowe was the star and executive producer of a failed NBC drama, The Lyon's Den. In 2004, he tried again in a series entitled Dr. Vegas, but it was cancelled.
In 2005, he starred as Lieutenant Daniel Kaffee in a London West End production of Sorkin's play A Few Good Men, the first time the two
Capital punishment known as the death penalty, is a government-sanctioned practice whereby a person is killed by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that someone be punished in such a manner is referred to as a death sentence, whereas the act of carrying out the sentence is known as an execution. Crimes that are punishable by death are known as capital crimes or capital offences, they include offences such as murder, mass murder, treason, offenses against the State, such as attempting to overthrow government, drug trafficking, war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide, but may include a wide range of offences depending on a country. Etymologically, the term capital in this context alluded to execution by beheading. Fifty-six countries retain capital punishment, 106 countries have abolished it de jure for all crimes, eight have abolished it for ordinary crimes, 28 are abolitionist in practice. Capital punishment is a matter of active controversy in several countries and states, positions can vary within a single political ideology or cultural region.
In the European Union, Article 2 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union prohibits the use of capital punishment. The Council of Europe, which has 47 member states, has sought to abolish the use of the death penalty by its members through Protocol 13 of the European Convention on Human Rights. However, this only affects those member states which have signed and ratified it, they do not include Armenia and Azerbaijan; the United Nations General Assembly has adopted, in 2007, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014, non-binding resolutions calling for a global moratorium on executions, with a view to eventual abolition. Although most nations have abolished capital punishment, over 60% of the world's population live in countries where the death penalty is retained, such as China, the United States, Pakistan, Nigeria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, among all Islamic countries, as is maintained in Japan, South Korea and Sri Lanka. China is believed to execute more people than all other countries combined.
Execution of criminals and dissidents has been used by nearly all societies since the beginning of civilizations on Earth. Until the nineteenth century, without developed prison systems, there was no workable alternative to insure deterrence and incapacitation of criminals. In pre-modern times the executions themselves involved torture with cruel and painful methods, such as the breaking wheel, sawing, hanging and quartering, brazen bull, burning at the stake, slow slicing, boiling alive, schwedentrunk, blood eagle, scaphism; the use of formal execution extends to the beginning of recorded history. Most historical records and various primitive tribal practices indicate that the death penalty was a part of their justice system. Communal punishment for wrongdoing included compensation by the wrongdoer, corporal punishment, shunning and execution. Compensation and shunning were enough as a form of justice; the response to crimes committed by neighbouring tribes, clans or communities included a formal apology, blood feuds, tribal warfare.
A blood feud or vendetta occurs when arbitration between families or tribes fails or an arbitration system is non-existent. This form of justice was common before the emergence of an arbitration system based on state or organized religion, it may result from land disputes or a code of honour. "Acts of retaliation underscore the ability of the social collective to defend itself and demonstrate to enemies that injury to property, rights, or the person will not go unpunished." However, in practice, it is difficult to distinguish between a war of vendetta and one of conquest. In most countries that practise capital punishment, it is now reserved for murder, war crimes, treason, or as part of military justice. In some countries sexual crimes, such as rape, adultery, incest and bestiality carry the death penalty, as do religious crimes such as Hudud and Qisas crimes, such as apostasy, moharebeh, Fasad, Mofsed-e-filarz and witchcraft. In many countries that use the death penalty, drug trafficking is a capital offence.
In China, human trafficking and serious cases of corruption and financial crimes are punished by the death penalty. In militaries around the world courts-martial have imposed death sentences for offences such as cowardice, desertion and mutiny. Elaborations of tribal arbitration of feuds included peace settlements done in a religious context and compensation system. Compensation was based on the principle of substitution which might include material compensation, exchange of brides or grooms, or payment of the blood debt. Settlement rules could allow for animal blood to replace human blood, or transfers of property or blood money or in some case an offer of a person for execution; the person offered for execution did not have to be an original perpetrator of the crime because the social system was based on tribes and clans, not individuals. Blood feuds could be regulated at meetings, such as the Norsemen things. Systems deriving from blood feuds may survive alongside more advanced legal systems or be given recognition by courts.
One of the more modern refinements of the blood feud is the duel. In certain parts of the world, n