Von Ryan's Express
Von Ryan's Express is a 1965 World War II adventure film directed by Mark Robson and starring Frank Sinatra and Trevor Howard. The screenplay concerns a group of Allied prisoners of war who conduct a daring escape by hijacking a freight train and fleeing through German-occupied Italy to Switzerland. Based on the novel by David Westheimer, the film changes several aspects of the novel, most notably the ending, more upbeat in the book. Financially, it became one of Sinatra's most successful films. Colonel Joseph Ryan is a USAAF pilot, shot down over Italy, he is taken to a POW camp, run by the cruel Major Basilio Battaglia. Ryan insists that Battaglia salute him as a superior officer, reluctantly translated by the sympathetic second-in-command, Captain Vittorio Oriani; the camp is populated by British prisoners of the 9th Fusiliers. The previous Allied commanding officer, British, has died, due to being placed in the "sweat box" as punishment for hitting Battaglia with a stick; when Ryan arrives in camp, Major Eric Fincham is the senior British officer.
Ryan, being senior, assumes command. Ryan, aware that the Allies are close to liberating Italy, is in no mood to support Fincham's escape attempts. There are a few Americans in the camp and when Fincham catches them trying to get medicines being hoarded in secret for escape attempts, Ryan orders Fincham to start distributing the medicines to some of the personnel who are suffering serious illness. Ryan reveals several of the prisoners' escape attempts, infuriating Fincham and the British soldiers; when Battaglia refuses to improve camp conditions, Ryan orders the prisoners to strip and burn their filthy clothes, forcing Battaglia to issue new ones. Battaglia throws Ryan into the sweat box as punishment. After hearing of the Italian surrender, the guards flee; the British promptly put Battaglia on trial as a war criminal, allow Oriani to defend him. Battaglia portrays himself as a broken man. Ryan orders him to not be executed, but instead, to be put in the sweat box. A German fighter plane overflies the camp, forcing Ryan and the men to head out across the Italian countryside to freedom.
After several days the escapees rest within a deserted fortress. Oriani moves forward in an attempt to contact Allied forces. In the morning, the Germans recapture the prisoners. Fincham thinks; when the POWs are put on a train, they find a battered Oriani in the prisoner carriage. They realise Battaglia betrayed them; the Germans shoot all the sick prisoners. Fincham blames Ryan for letting; the train travels to Rome, where Major von Klemment, takes command. Ryan uses a metal bar to pry up the floorboards of the car; that night, when the train stops, Ryan and Lieutenant Orde sneak out from underneath the train and kill several of the guards free a carload of POWs, who help them kill the remaining guards. Ryan and Fincham capture his mistress, Gabriella; as the train moves out, another train follows. Von Klemment reveals that the second train is on the same schedule. Further, von Klemment is to receive orders at each railway station. A German-speaking Allied chaplain, Captain Costanzo, is enlisted to impersonate the German commander to ensure their passage through the next station in Florence.
Through the documents received in Florence, they learn that both trains are headed towards Innsbruck, Austria. Through trickery, the prisoners switch their train onto a different line at Bologna; the troop train continues on toward Innsbruck. Von Klemment and Gabriella are kept bound and gagged, but Gabriella uses a shard of glass to sever their bonds. At a stop, von Klemment and Gabriella escape. Both are shot by Ryan. Meanwhile, Waffen-SS troops, led by Colonel Gortz, have discovered the ruse; the prisoners put the train on a siding, but discover that it leads to a German facility, subsequently bombed by Allied aircraft. The train races through, bombs exploding everywhere. Several cars catch fire, several men are wounded. After they leave, the Italian engineer and Oriani disable the signals at one signal box, disabling the station's track displays and confusing the Germans; the prisoners reroute the train to neutral Switzerland through manual switching. Gortz and his troops pursue them; as the Alps appear, the prisoner train is attacked by German aircraft.
Rocket fire causes boulders to destroy a section of track. The POWs replace the damaged rail as the SS race up from behind. Ryan and others hold off the Germans, but many are killed in the battle including Bostick; the prisoner train moves out. Fincham and Corporal Giannini and those who survived makes it and reaches back for Ryan's outstretched hand, but Ryan is gunned down by Gortz just as the train crosses into Switzerland; the novel was published in 1963. The novelist David Westheimer had been a POW during World War II, he witnessed the bombing of Bolzano in 1943 from a box car. The New York Times book reviewer said the novel "has everything for the screen but the camera directions." The novel was a best seller and film rights were bought by 20th Century Fox for a reported $125,000. The studio Mark Robson to direct. Robson had intended to make The Centurians, but this was delayed when his chosen star, Anthony Quinn, was unavailable. Frank Sinatra wanted to buy the film rights himself. Von Ryan’s Express was a project keenly undertaken by 20th Century Fox, still financially reeling after the extravagance and critical
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind. Psychology includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought, it is an academic discipline of immense scope. Psychologists seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, all the variety of phenomena linked to those emergent properties; as a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors. Psychologists explore behavior and mental processes, including perception, attention, intelligence, motivation, brain functioning, personality; this extends to interaction between people, such as interpersonal relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, other areas.
Psychologists of diverse orientations consider the unconscious mind. Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. Psychology has been described as a "hub science" in that medicine tends to draw psychological research via neurology and psychiatry, whereas social sciences most draws directly from sub-disciplines within psychology. While psychological knowledge is applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is directed towards understanding and solving problems in several spheres of human activity. By many accounts psychology aims to benefit society; the majority of psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings.
Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas such as human development and aging, sports and the media, as well as in forensic investigation and other aspects of law. The word psychology derives from Greek roots meaning study of soul; the Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Marulić in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae in the late 15th century or early 16th century. The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary which refers to "Anatomy, which treats the Body, Psychology, which treats of the Soul."In 1890, William James defined psychology as "the science of mental life, both of its phenomena and their conditions". This definition enjoyed widespread currency for decades. However, this meaning was contested, notably by radical behaviorists such as John B. Watson, who in his 1913 manifesto defined the discipline of psychology as the acquisition of information useful to the control of behavior.
Since James defined it, the term more connotes techniques of scientific experimentation. Folk psychology refers to the understanding of ordinary people, as contrasted with that of psychology professionals; the ancient civilizations of Egypt, China and Persia all engaged in the philosophical study of psychology. In Ancient Egypt the Ebers Papyrus mentioned thought disorders. Historians note that Greek philosophers, including Thales and Aristotle, addressed the workings of the mind; as early as the 4th century BC, Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that mental disorders had physical rather than supernatural causes. In China, psychological understanding grew from the philosophical works of Laozi and Confucius, from the doctrines of Buddhism; this body of knowledge involves insights drawn from introspection and observation, as well as techniques for focused thinking and acting. It frames the universe as a division of, interaction between, physical reality and mental reality, with an emphasis on purifying the mind in order to increase virtue and power.
An ancient text known as The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine identifies the brain as the nexus of wisdom and sensation, includes theories of personality based on yin–yang balance, analyzes mental disorder in terms of physiological and social disequilibria. Chinese scholarship focused on the brain advanced in the Qing Dynasty with the work of Western-educated Fang Yizhi, Liu Zhi, Wang Qingren. Wang Qingren emphasized the importance of the brain as the center of the nervous system, linked mental disorder with brain diseases, investigated the causes of dreams and insomnia, advanced a theory of hemispheric lateralization in brain function. Distinctions in types of awareness appear in the ancient thought of India, influenced by Hinduism. A central idea of the Upanishads is the distinction between a person's transient mundane self and their eternal unchanging soul. Divergent Hindu doctrines, Buddhism, have challenged this hierarchy of selves, but have all emphasized the importance of reaching higher
Morris "Moe" Szyslak is a recurring character from the animated television series The Simpsons. He is voiced by Hank Azaria and first appeared in the series premiere episode "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire". Moe is the proprietor and bartender of Moe's Tavern, a Springfield bar frequented by Homer Simpson, Barney Gumble, Lenny Leonard, Carl Carlson, Sam and others. Grouchy, lonely and prone to violent outbursts, Moe is down on his luck, has attempted suicide numerous times. Other running jokes featuring him include being prank called by Bart Simpson, running illegal activities from his bar, an ambiguous ethnic origin. Moe is the owner and operator of Moe's Tavern, frequented by Homer Simpson and other characters including Lenny Leonard, Carl Carlson and Larry and his former most loyal customer, Barney Gumble; the bar is noted for uncleanliness. The regular patrons of the tavern have been abandoned by Moe in several episodes in which he changes its target audience; the first of these was "Flaming Moe's", in the third season.
As a running joke, Moe is sometimes seen engaging in unlicensed or illegal activities at the tavern, such as smuggling pandas and an orca in "Cape Feare" and "The Springfield Files", respectively. In earlier episodes, the Tavern was prank called by Bart Simpson, who would ask for a gag name which when said by Moe would involve innuendo or insults. Moe is portrayed with a disagreeable personality: he has a short, violent temper, a penurious nature, a crass and undiplomatic manner of speech, a mood that vacillates between anger and suicidal despair, he has an annual Christmas tradition of attempted suicide, but his attempts are comically unsuccessful, he has called the suicide hotline so many times that they've blocked his number. He is irritated threatening the patrons at his bar with a shotgun he keeps behind the counter, he is gullible, Bart's unending chain of successful prank calls to his bar are infuriating to him prompting a torrent of Red Deutsch-style threats of gruesome bodily harm in return.
He is, however shown to have a sentimental and caring side to his personality, such as reading to sick children and the homeless, although he is secretive about such behavior. In his interactions with his various girlfriends, he has shown genuine selflessness and kindness, although negative elements of his personality emerge and ruin things. In "Thank God It's Doomsday", he asks for salvation, and the stuff I am proud of is disgusting." Moe has an non-existent love life due to his vulgarity towards women and his ugly appearance. Despite this, he has had a number of romantic experiences, including sleeping with his waitress Collette, dating a woman named Renee, enjoying the company of many women after he had plastic surgery, he has a relationship and proposed to a dwarf named Maya, but Moe could not adjust to the difference in height, to the point where his ultimate plan to have his own leg bones shortened led Maya to leave him. He has long been infatuated with Marge Simpson, whom he calls "Midge", has on occasion tried to win her away from Homer, although episodes have shown him working to keep the two together.
He has been romantically involved with Edna Krabappel as well as Marge's sister Selma Bouvier. Moe's romantic attractions have resulted in run-ins with the law. At one point he is seen on his way to a "V. D. clinic". Despite his disturbing approach, Moe has showed to be a devoted lover. While dating Renee, he wholeheartedly spoiled them with whatever they wanted and vowed to give up his bar and take them away from Springfield forever if it means losing his own money and doing illegal acts to make more money; when he thought he won Marge's heart, he promised to be "the best man she'd had". In "Pygmoelian", Moe and his three closest friends assess him as a gargoyle with cauliflower ears, lizard lips, little rat eyes, a caveman brow and fish snout, who isn't pleasant to look at, listen to or be with; the Season 29 episode King Leer reveals Moe's backstory and shows his family. Revealing Moe's father, called Morty still lives, that Moe has a brother and a sister. Moe's family works in the business of selling mattress and beds, having a franchise with multiple stores in Springfield, the key to the success was that Moe's father kept infesting all rival business with termites, making his business the only reliable one.
When Morty asks a young Moe to infest a rival business, Moe refuses the family of the business Moe refused to infest, infests one of the mattress stores of Moe's father, as a consequence Moe's dad stops speaking to him. Decades Moe and his father reconnect in the episode. Previous to that appeareance of Moe's family, the show had given many wildly inconsistent backstories regarding Moe's past, in "Moe Goes from Rags to Riches", an infant Moe is depicted living on Mount Everest as the son of a Yeti. Prior to that revelation, numerous one-off jokes had been made regarding Moe's childhood and his earlier adult years. In "Radioactive Man", he is depicted as having been one of the original Little Rascals, but was fired after killing the "origi
The Simpsons is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series is a satirical depiction of working-class life, epitomized by the Simpson family, which consists of Homer, Bart and Maggie; the show is set in the fictional town of Springfield and parodies American culture and society and the human condition. The family was conceived by Groening shortly before a solicitation for a series of animated shorts with producer James L. Brooks. Groening created a dysfunctional family and named the characters after his own family members, substituting Bart for his own name; the shorts became a part of The Tracey Ullman Show on April 19, 1987. After three seasons, the sketch was developed into a half-hour prime time show and became Fox's first series to land in the Top 30 ratings in a season. Since its debut on December 17, 1989, 659 episodes of The Simpsons have been broadcast, it is the longest-running American sitcom, the longest-running American scripted primetime television series in terms of seasons and number of episodes.
The Simpsons Movie, a feature-length film, was released in theaters worldwide on July 27, 2007, grossed over $527 million. On October 30, 2007, a video game was released; the Simpsons is on its thirtieth season, which began airing September 30, 2018. The Simpsons was renewed for a thirty-first and thirty-second season on February 6, 2019, in which the latter will contain the 700th episode; the Simpsons received acclaim throughout its first nine or ten seasons, which are considered its "Golden Age". Time named it the 20th century's best television series, Erik Adams of The A. V. Club named it "television's crowning achievement regardless of format". On January 14, 2000, the Simpson family was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, it has won dozens of awards since it debuted as a series, including 31 Primetime Emmy Awards, 30 Annie Awards, a Peabody Award. Homer's exclamatory catchphrase "D'oh!" has been adopted into the English language, while The Simpsons has influenced many other adult-oriented animated sitcoms.
However, it has been criticized for a perceived decline in quality over the years. The Simpsons is known for its wide ensemble of supporting characters; the main characters are the Simpson family, who live in a fictional "Middle America" town of Springfield. Homer, the father, works as a safety inspector at the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant, a position at odds with his careless, buffoonish personality, he is married to a stereotypical American housewife and mother. They have three children: a ten-year-old troublemaker and prankster. Although the family is dysfunctional, many episodes examine their relationships and bonds with each other and they are shown to care about one another. Homer's dad Grampa Simpson lives in the Springfield Retirement Home after Homer forced his dad to sell his house so that his family could buy theirs. Grampa Simpson has had starring roles in several episodes; the family owns a dog, Santa's Little Helper, a cat, Snowball V, renamed Snowball II in "I, -Bot". Both pets have had starring roles in several episodes.
The show includes an array of quirky supporting characters, which include Homer's co-workers Lenny Leonard and Carl Carlson, the school principal Seymour Skinner and teachers Edna Krabappel and Elizabeth Hoover, neighbor Ned Flanders, friends Barney Gumble, Apu Nahasapeemapetilon, Moe Szyslak, Milhouse Van Houten, Nelson Muntz, extended relatives Patty and Selma Bouvier, townspeople such as Mayor Quimby, Chief Clancy Wiggum, tycoon Charles Montgomery Burns and his executive assistant Waylon Smithers, local celebrities Krusty the Clown and news reporter Kent Brockman. The creators intended many of these characters as one-time jokes or for fulfilling needed functions in the town. A number of them subsequently starred in their own episodes. According to Matt Groening, the show adopted the concept of a large supporting cast from the comedy show SCTV. Despite the depiction of yearly milestones such as holidays or birthdays passing, the characters do not age between episodes, appear just as they did when the series began.
The series uses a floating timeline in which episodes take place in the year the episode is produced though the characters do not age. Flashbacks and flashforwards do depict the characters at other points in their lives, with the timeline of these depictions generally floating relative to the year the episode is produced. For example, in the 1991 episode "I Married Marge", Bart appears to be born in 1980 or 1981, but in the 1995 episode "And Maggie Makes Three", Maggie appears to be born in 1993 or 1994. A canon of the show does exist, although Treehouse of Horror episodes and any fictional story told within the series are non-canon. However, continuity is limited in The Simpsons. For example, Krusty the Clown may be able to read in one episode, but may not be able to read in another. Lessons learned by the family in one episode may be forgotten in the next; some examples of limited continuity include Sideshow Bob's appearances where Bart and Lisa flashback at all the crimes he committed in Springfield or when the characters try to remember things that happened in previous episodes.
The Simpsons takes place in the fictional American town of Springfield in an unknown and impossible-to-determine U. S. state. The show is intentionally e
David Silverman (animator)
David Silverman is an American animator best known for directing numerous episodes of the animated TV series The Simpsons, as well as The Simpsons Movie. Silverman was involved with the series from the beginning, animating all of the original short Simpsons cartoons that aired on The Tracey Ullman Show, he went on to serve as director of animation for several years. He did the animation for the 2016 film, The Edge of Seventeen, produced by Gracie Films. Silverman was born to a Jewish family on New York, he grew up in Silver Spring and started his education at the University of Maryland, College Park for two years, focusing on art. He attended UCLA and majored in animation. Early in his career with The Simpsons, he was a subject on the December 26, 1990 episode of To Tell the Truth. Silverman is credited with creating most of the "rules" for drawing The Simpsons, he is called upon to animate difficult or important scenes, becoming go-to in Season 2 when he animated the first of Homer's many "rants, freak-outs, heart attacks".
He appeared during the end credits of the Simpsons episode "Goo Goo Gai Pan" giving a quick method of drawing Bart, is a frequent participant on the Simpsons DVD audio commentaries. A cartoon rendering of him can be seen in "The Itchy & Scratchy & Poochie Show", where he is the animator who draws Poochie, he was credited as Pound Foolish as the director of the episodes "The Simpsons 138th Episode Spectacular" and "Another Simpsons Clip Show."Silverman is the director of The Simpsons Movie, released July 27, 2007. He left The Simpsons to direct additional sequences in The Road to El Dorado for DreamWorks Animation; some of his other film work includes Monsters, Inc. for Walt Disney Pictures and Pixar, for which he was a co-director. He is a consulting producer and occasional director, he worked on the animated films Ice Age and Looney Tunes: Back in Action. In 2012, Silverman directed the theatrical short The Longest Daycare starring Maggie Simpson, released in front of Ice Age: Continental Drift.
The short was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film. "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire" "Bart the Genius" "Bart the General" "Life on the Fast Lane" "Some Enchanted Evening" "Bart Gets an F" "Treehouse of Horror" "Bart vs. Thanksgiving" "The Way We Was" "Old Money" "Blood Feud" "Black Widower" "Homer's Triple Bypass" "Krusty Gets Kancelled" "Treehouse of Horror IV" "Another Simpsons Clip Show" "Homie the Clown" "Mother Simpson" "The Simpsons 138th Episode Spectacular" "Treehouse of Horror XIII" "Treehouse of Horror XV" "Treehouse of Horror XVI" "Treehouse of Horror XVII" "The Man Who Came to Be Dinner" Silverman's direction and animation is known for its energy, sharp timing, adventurous use of design elements and complex acting, involving expressions and poses which are quixotic specific or exaggerated, it recalls the works of Ward Kimball, Tex Avery, Bob Clampett and Chuck Jones. His most prolific period of work on The Simpsons can be categorized as beginning with the "Tracey Ullman" episodes and ending in or around season eight of the series, for which he animated Homer's psychedelic dream in "El Viaje Misterioso de Nuestro Jomer".
Other representative examples of Silverman's work on The Simpsons include the Homer's histrionic, spasmodic heart attack in "Homer's Triple Bypass", Homer's demented hysterics over the iconic painting of poker-playing canines in "Treehouse of Horror IV" and subsequent turn as an even-more-deranged appropriation of Jack Nicholson's character from "The Shining" in "Treehouse of Horror V", Homer's archetypically cartoonish reaction to Bart's prescription of Focusyn in "Brother's Little Helper". Tom Waits for No One The Strange Case of Mr. Donnybrook's Boredom Mister T uncredited Turbo Teen One Crazy Summer Propagandance The Tracey Ullman Show The Dark Backward RoboCop 3 The Critic Teen Angel The Road to El Dorado Rugrats Monsters, Inc. Ice Age Mike's New Car Confessions of a Burning Man Looney Tunes: Back in Action Robots House of Lies as himself Love The Edge of Seventeen The Pink Panther Punk Farm Silverman worked with Savage Steve Holland to create Klutter! for Fox Kids. It was produced by Fox Kids Company, Savage Studios Ltd, Film Roman.
It was part of Eek! Stravaganza in the fourth season of the 1995–96 season, it lasted eight episodes from September 9, 1995, to April 14, 1996. Silverman has toured many college campuses, speaking about his experiences as an animator and longtime Simpsons director and producer, he describes his early experiences in the animation field, working on shows such as Turbo Teen and Mister T. He goes on to say that at the point he considered leaving animation to devote his time to cartoon illustration, he took a job animating on The Tracey Ullman Show. He
A pencil sharpener is a tool for sharpening a pencil's writing point by shaving away its worn surface. Pencil sharpeners may be operated manually or by an electric motor, it is common for many sharpeners to have a casing around them, which can be removed for emptying the pencil shavings debris into a trash bin. Before the development of dedicated pencil sharpeners, a pencil was sharpened by whittling it with a knife. Pencil sharpener tools gave a more uniform result; the development of pencil sharpeners began in France. In a French book from 1822 was reported in detail about an invention of Mr. C. A. Boucher for construction of a pencil sharpener, he was working with pantographs and needed a device to sharpen the pencils. The device of Mr. Boucher was technically functional, his idea was internationally known and recognized, as shown by corresponding reports in German literature at this time. But Mr. Boucher has not applied a patent for his pencil sharpener. A commercial use of his inventions is unlikely.
French mathematician Bernard Lassimonne applied the world's first patent on a pencil sharpener in 1828. Pencil sharpener devices using his patent were produced and sold by Binant, a shop for painting accessories in Paris. In 1833 in England, Cooper & Eckstein patented the so-called Styloxynon, a simple device consisting of two sharp files set together at right angle in a small block of rosewood; this is the oldest pencil sharpener. In the 1830s and 1840s, some French people, all based in Paris, were engaged in construction of simple pencil sharpening tools, like François Joseph Lahausse; these devices were sold, but without supra-regional significance. In 1847 the French noblemen Thierry des Estivaux invented a simple hand-held pencil sharpener in its recognizable modern form; the first American pencil sharpener was patented by Walter Kittredge Foster of Bangor, Maine in 1855.. He founded a company - the first pencil sharpener company in the world - and produced such small hand-held pencil sharpeners in a large amount.
Only a few years the sharpeners were sold in Europe as "American pencil sharpeners". At the end of the 19th century in United States, pencil sharpeners with various mechanisms have been developed and put on the market; these devices were heavy and intended for use in offices. Examples are the Perfect Pencil Pointer, the GEM Pencil Sharpener, the Planetary Pencil Sharpener, all from USA or the Jupiter from Germany. At the beginning of the 20th century the company Automatic Pencil Sharpener Co. was founded and has brought out the US Automatic Pencil Sharpener after 1907, which dominated in this years. They sell machines with milling mechanism like models Climax, Dexter and Junior. APSCO became in the next few decades the largest pencil sharpening machine producer in the world and together with a few other US companies, it dominated the market. Electric pencil sharpeners for offices have been made since at least 1917. In May 2011, tourism officials in Logan, Ohio put on display, in its regional welcome center, hundreds of pencil sharpeners, collected by Rev. Paul Johnson, an Ohio minister who died in 2010.
Johnson, a World War II veteran, had kept his collection of more than 3,400 sharpeners in a small shed, outside his home in Carbon Hill in southeast Ohio. He had started collecting after his wife gave him a few pencil sharpeners as a gift in the late 1980s, kept them organized into categories, including cats and Disneyland. So-called "prism" sharpeners called "manual" or "pocket" sharpeners in the United States, have no separate moving parts and are the smallest and cheapest used pencil sharpener on the market; the simplest common variety is a small rectangular prism or block, only about 1 × 5/8 × 7/16 inch in size. The block-shaped sharpener consists of a combined point-shaping cone, aligned to the cylindrical pencil alignment guide hole, into which the pencil is inserted. A sharp blade is mounted; the pencil rotated while the sharpener is held motionless. The body of the sharpener is contoured, ridged or grooved to make the small block easier to grip, is made of aluminum alloy, magnesium alloy or hard plastic.
The blade inside the sharpener shaves the wood and graphite tip of the pencil, while the shavings emerge through a slot along the blade edge. It is important that the cylindrical alignment hole fit the diameter of the pencil, to keep the pencil from wobbling, which would cause stepped or lurching cut-depths and point breakage. Another important feature is a larger clearance hole at the end of the cone allowing sections of the pencil lead which break away to be removed with only minor inconvenience. Prism sharpeners can be bare or enclosed in a container to collect the shavings, while some enclosed sharpeners may be harder to clear in the event of a blockage. A few prism sharpeners are hand-cranked. Moderate care is needed to not break the tip of the pencil being sharpened, requiring the pencil to be sharpened again. However, because pencils may have different standard diameters in different nations, imported sharpeners may have non-standard-sized alignment guide-holes, making sharpening attempts difficult.
If the alignment hole is too small, the pencil cannot be inserted, while if it is too large, the tip of the pencil will break
Strike action called labor strike, labour strike, or strike, is a work stoppage, caused by the mass refusal of employees to work. A strike takes place in response to employee grievances. Strikes became common during the Industrial Revolution, when mass labor became important in factories and mines. In most countries, strike actions were made illegal, as factory owners had far more power than workers. Most Western countries legalized striking in the late 19th or early 20th centuries. Strikes are sometimes used to pressure governments to change policies. Strikes destabilize the rule of a particular political party or ruler. Notable examples are the 1980 Gdańsk Shipyard, the 1981 Warning Strike, led by Lech Wałęsa; these strikes were significant in the long campaign of civil resistance for political change in Poland, were an important mobilizing effort that contributed to the fall of the Iron Curtain and the end of communist party rule in eastern Europe. The use of the English word "strike" was first seen in 1768, when sailors, in support of demonstrations in London, "struck" or removed the topgallant sails of merchant ships at port, thus crippling the ships.
Official publications have used the more neutral words "work stoppage" or "industrial dispute". The first certain account of strike action was towards the end of the 20th dynasty, under Pharaoh Ramses III in ancient Egypt on 14 November 1152 BC; the artisans of the Royal Necropolis at Deir el-Medina walked off their jobs because they had not been paid. The Egyptian authorities raised the wages. An early predecessor of the general strike may have been the secessio plebis in ancient Rome. In The Outline of History, H. G. Wells characterized this event as "the general strike of the plebeians, their first strike occurred because they "saw with indignation their friends, who had served the state bravely in the legions, thrown into chains and reduced to slavery at the demand of patrician creditors." The strike action only became a feature of the political landscape with the onset of the Industrial Revolution. For the first time in history, large numbers of people were members of the industrial working class.
By the 1830s, when the Chartist movement was at its peak in Britain, a true and widespread'workers consciousness' was awakening. In 1842 the demands for fairer wages and conditions across many different industries exploded into the first modern general strike. After the second Chartist Petition was presented to Parliament in April 1842 and rejected, the strike began in the coal mines of Staffordshire and soon spread through Britain affecting factories, mills in Lancashire and coal mines from Dundee to South Wales and Cornwall. Instead of being a spontaneous uprising of the mutinous masses, the strike was politically motivated and was driven by an agenda to win concessions; as much as half of the industrial work force were on strike at its peak – over 500,000 men. The local leadership marshalled a growing working class tradition to politically organize their followers to mount an articulate challenge to the capitalist, political establishment. Friedrich Engels, an observer in London at the time, wrote: by its numbers, this class has become the most powerful in England, woe betide the wealthy Englishmen when it becomes conscious of this fact...
The English proletarian is only just becoming aware of his power, the fruits of this awareness were the disturbances of last summer. As the 19th century progressed, strikes became a fixture of industrial relations across the industrialized world, as workers organized themselves to collectively bargain for better wages and standards with their employers. Karl Marx has condemned the theory of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon criminalizing strike action in his work The Poverty of Philosophy. In 1937 there were 4,740 strikes in the United States; this was the greatest strike wave in American labor history. The number of major strikes and lockouts in the U. S. fell by 97% from 381 in 1970 to 187 in 1980 to only 11 in 2010. Companies countered the threat of a strike by threatening to move a plant. International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights adopted in 1967 ensure the right to strike in Article 8 and European Social Charter adopted in 1961 ensure the right to strike in Article 6; the Farah Strike, 1972–1974, labeled the "strike of the century," and it was organized and led by Mexican American women predominantly in El Paso, Texas.
Most strikes are undertaken by labor unions during collective bargaining as a last resort. The object of collective bargaining is for the employer and the union to come to an agreement over wages and working conditions. A collective bargaining agreement may include a clause which prohibits the union from striking during the term of the agreement, known as a "no-strike clause." No-strike clauses arose in the United States following World War II. Some in the labor movement consider no-strike clauses to be an unnecessary detriment to unions in the collective bargaining process. Strikes are rare: according to the News Media Guild, 98% of union contracts in the United States are settled each of the 67 years without a strike. Workers decide to strike without the sanction of a labor union, either because the union refuses to endorse such a tactic, or because the workers concerned are non-unionized; such strikes are described as unofficial. Strikes without formal union authorization are known as wildcat strikes