Tahitian Women on the Beach
Tahitian Women on the Beach is an 1891 painting by Paul Gauguin. The painting depicts two women on the Pacific island of Tahiti on the beach, the painting is currently in the collection of the Musée dOrsay, located in Paris, France. In 1892 Gauguin painted a similar painting Parau api, which is in the collection of the Galerie Neue Meister in Dresden, in Tahitian, parau means word and api means new. A common greeting is Eaha te parau api, or whats new
Fruits on a Table
Fruits on a Table is a still life painting by French artist Paul Gauguin, believed to have been painted in 1889. It was one of two works stolen from a collection in London, in June 1970, and recovered in April 2014. It is today worth an estimated €30 million, the painting depicts two bowls containing brightly-coloured grapes and other pieces of fruit on a wooden table in the foreground, with a small dog sleeping on the floor in the background. It is signed and dedicated to the countess N, on the front is painted the number “89” to indicate that the work was painted in 1889. It measures 46.5 by 53 centimetres which is smaller than when Gauguin created it because thieves cut the painting out of its frame. The painting, along with Pierre Bonnards The Girl With Two Chairs, was stolen from an apartment near Regent’s Park on June 6,1970. The apartment was the home of Sir Mark Kennedy and his wife Mathilda Marks, the daughter of Michael Marks, press reports claimed that the couples housekeeper was duped by three men, one posing as a policeman and the others as burglar alarm engineers.
They told her they were checking the system, and they removed the paintings from the frames while she was making them tea. After the theft the paintings are thought to have been smuggled through France on a Paris-to-Turin train and they were left on board, possibly because of a border control or some other check, and found by railway personnel at Turin who put them in the lost-and-found depot. They were never claimed and put up for auction 1975, when a worker at Fiat Automobiles bought the unidentified paintings for a small amount of money. The paintings remained in the factory workers kitchen until an art experts evaluation in 2014, once they were identified the Carabinieri was contacted and the paintings were taken into custody. Under Italian law, the worker had a right to keep them if he could prove that he bought them in good faith
The Letters of Vincent van Gogh
The Letters of Vincent van Gogh refers to a collection of 903 surviving letters written or received by Vincent van Gogh. More than 650 of these were from Vincent to his brother Theo, the collection includes letters van Gogh wrote to his sister Wil and other relatives, as well as between artists such as Paul Gauguin, Anthon van Rappard and Émile Bernard. Vincents sister-in-law and wife to his brother Theo, Johanna van Gogh-Bonger, spent many years after her husbands death in 1891 compiling the letters, by contrast Vincent infrequently kept letters sent him and just 84 have survived, of which 39 were from Theo. Nevertheless, it is to these letters between the brothers that we owe much of what we know today about Vincent van Gogh, the only period where we are relatively uninformed is the Parisian period when they shared an apartment and had no need to correspond. The letters effectively play much the role in shedding light on the art of the period as those between the de Goncourt brothers did for literature.
Within two years both brothers were dead, Vincent as the result of a wound, and Theo from illness. Joanna began the task of completing the collection, which was published in full in January 1914 and that first edition consisted of three volumes, and was followed in 1952–1954 by a four-volume edition that included additional letters. Jan Hulsker suggested, in 1987, that the letters be organized in date order, the project consists of a complete annotated collection of letters written by and to Vincent. In the last days of December 1901, running through January 1902, Bruno Cassirer and his cousin Paul Cassirer organized the first van Gogh exhibition in Berlin, Germany. Paul Cassirer first established a market for van Gogh, and then, with the assistance of Johanna van Gogh-Bonger, in 1906 Bruno Cassirer published a small volume of selected letters of Vincents to Theo, translated into German. Of the 844 surviving letters that van Gogh wrote,663 were written to Theo,9 to Theo, of the letters Vincent received from Theo, only 39 survive.
The first letter was written when Vincent was 19 and begins, at that time Vincent was not yet developed as a letter writer – he was factual, but not introspective. When he moved to London, and to Paris, he began to add personal information. Beginning in 1888 and ending a year later, van Gogh wrote 22 letters to Émile Bernard in which the tone is different from those to Theo, in these letters van Gogh wrote more about his techniques, his use of color, and his theories. Van Gogh was a reader, and his letters reflect his literary pursuits as well as a uniquely authentic literary style. His writing style in the letters reflect the literature he read and valued, historians such as Michelet, additionally he read novels written by George Eliot, Charlotte Brontë, Charles Dickens, Keats poetry, reading mostly at night when the light was too poor for painting. Gauguin told him that he read too much, poet W. H. Auden wrote about the letters, there is scarcely one letter by van Gogh which I. do not find fascinating.
Pomerans believes the letters to be on the level of world literature based on style, in the letters Vincent reflects different facets of his personality and he adopts a tone specific to his circumstances
Camille Pissarro was a Danish-French Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist painter born on the island of St Thomas. His importance resides in his contributions to both Impressionism and Post-Impressionism, Pissarro studied from great forerunners, including Gustave Courbet and Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot. He studied and worked alongside Georges Seurat and Paul Signac when he took on the Neo-Impressionist style at the age of 54, in 1873 he helped establish a collective society of fifteen aspiring artists, becoming the pivotal figure in holding the group together and encouraging the other members. Cézanne said he was a father for me, a man to consult and a little like the good Lord, and he was one of Gauguins masters. Renoir referred to his work as revolutionary, through his portrayals of the common man. Pissarro is the only artist to have shown his work at all eight Paris Impressionist exhibitions and he acted as a father figure not only to the Impressionists but to all four of the major Post-Impressionists, including Georges Seurat, Paul Cézanne, Vincent van Gogh and Paul Gauguin.
Jacob Abraham Camille Pissarro was born on 10 July 1830 on the island of St. Thomas to Frederick and his father was of Portuguese Jewish descent and held French nationality. His mother was from a French-Jewish family from the island of St. Thomas and his father was a merchant who came to the island from France to deal with the hardware store of a deceased uncle and married his widow. The marriage caused a stir within St. Thomas small Jewish community because she was married to Fredericks uncle. In subsequent years his four children were forced to attend the primary school. Upon his death, his will specified that his estate be split equally between the synagogue and St. Thomas Protestant church, when Camille was twelve his father sent him to boarding school in France. He studied at the Savary Academy in Passy near Paris, while a young student, he developed an early appreciation of the French art masters. Monsieur Savary himself gave him a grounding in drawing and painting and suggested he draw from nature when he returned to St.
Thomas. However, his father preferred he work in his business, giving him a job working as a cargo clerk and he took every opportunity during those next five years at the job to practise drawing during breaks and after work. When he turned twenty-one, Danish artist Fritz Melbye, living on St. Thomas, inspired Pissarro to take on painting as a profession, becoming his teacher. Pissarro chose to leave his family and job and live in Venezuela and he drew everything he could, including landscapes, village scenes, and numerous sketches, enough to fill up multiple sketchbooks. In 1855 he moved back to Paris where he working as assistant to Anton Melbye. In Paris he worked as assistant to Danish painter Anton Melbye and he studied paintings by other artists whose style impressed him, Charles-François Daubigny, Jean-François Millet, and Corot
Vision After the Sermon
Vision after the Sermon is an oil painting by French artist Paul Gauguin, completed in 1888. It is now in the National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh and it depicts a scene from the Bible in which Jacob wrestles an angel. It depicts this indirectly, through a vision that the women depicted see after a sermon in church and it was painted in Pont-Aven, France. The use of color and line in Vision After the Sermon is appreciated for its bold manner of handling paint, finding inspiration in Japanese woodblock prints from Hiroshige and Hokusai, which he owned, Gauguin developed the idea of non-naturalistic landscapes. He applies large areas of color to the composition. The brown trunk, black garments, white hats and red field are painted with minimal color shading, Gauguin is showing it is possible to move away from naturalism towards a more abstracted, even symbolic, manner of painting. While formal elements of Gauguins paintings reflect the influence of Japanese prints, his choice of subject matter, Gauguin structures the painting by placing a tree trunk diagonally through its center.
By sectioning the image this way, he creates a separation between the Breton women and their vision of an angel wrestling with Jacob. This compositional decision is developed to frame the subjects of the painting. The curve of the trunk follows the line of the head of the center-most figure, the branches and leaves shoot out directly toward the upper right corner of the painting to form a second frame around the angel and Jacob. The overall perspective of painting is purposely skewed but effectively accomplished by his clustering of people in diminished sizes along its left edge. “Further, it was Emile Bernard who pointed out the influence of Japanese prints on Gauguin’s work. This seems self-evident when one compares Gauguin’s Vision after the Sermon to Vincent van Gogh’s Trees, in citing Hokusai’s Sumo wrestlers in The Manga, Bernard was being more specific. He designated them as the source of Gauguin’s struggling angel and Jacob”, one can see their features, in the faces, of the women that are closer to the viewer.
The tale of Jacob wrestling an angel is from Genesis 32, Gauguin is making use of Brenton themes while at the same time leaning towards abstraction. The women, one of whom clasps her hands in prayer, are wearing a variety of white hats, several colors stand out above the rest, including the reds and white, and contribute to the visual energy of the scene. The color most likely to catch the viewers attention first in this painting would be red, fred S. Kleiner, Christin J. Mamiya, Richard G. Tansey. Fort Worth, Harcourt College Publishers,2001, Chapter 28, Primitivism and the ‘Modern’, in Charles Harrison, Francis Frascina and Gill Perry, Cubism, The Early Twentieth Century
Merahi metua no Tehamana
Merahi metua no Tehamana is an 1893 painting by the French artist Paul Gauguin, currently in the collection of the Art Institute of Chicago. The painting is a portrait of Paul Gauguins native wife Tehaamana during his first visit to Tahiti in 1891-1893, a sculpted head is known to be a portrait of Tehaamana. She is assumed to have posed for other paintings of the time. Tehaamana was the wife of Paul Gauguin during his first visit to Tahiti in 1891 to 1893. It was extremely common at time for French colonists to take native wives. These vahines were often young, as was the case with Tehaamana. The daughters involved usually entered such marriages willingly, the marriages generally being non-binding, indeed, of Gauguins three vahines, the two he took after Tehaamana did eventually return home while Tehaaman herself declined to continue their relationship when Gauguin returned to Tahiti in 1895. Tehaamana undoubtedly saw herself as conventionally married according to her local customs, nevertheless he did profess a tender love for Tehaamana in his journal Noa Noa.
In Lotis account his wife was fourteen years old, while in Gaugins account Tehaamana was just thirteen years old, in his account of their idyll together, Gauguin described how in the evenings Tehaamana would recount their ancient myths as they lay in bed. Tehaamana was nevertheless a Christian, as evidenced by the dress she wears in the portrait. All Gauguins accounts of ancient Tahitian religion in Noa Noa were copied from other sources without adequate acknowledgement, having a vahine brought practical advantages regarding food supplies. This was because Tahitian families were self-sufficient in food, the staples of breadfruit and bananas were gathered high in the mountains on a weekly basis, while fish was abundant in the lagoons. Pigs were hunted in the undergrowth, as a consequence there was no trade in foodstuffs and offering food was regarded as an act of charity. Gauguin had no time to gather food for himself, even if he had the skill and strength and he was thus forced to provision himself with very expensive tinned European food from the local Chinese merchant.
Having a vahine meant at least he had access to fruit and fresh shrimp gathered by her. Danielsson was able to some oral and civic sources in the course of his researches. Tehaamanas family came from Rarotonga, one of the Cook Islands, before settling in Tahiti, they spent some time in Huahine, one of the Society Islands, where Tehaamana was born. No birth certificate is known to confirm her age, but it is likely she was in her early teens, Gauguin records Tehaamana was at the quay on 14 June 1893 to wish him a traditionally tearful departure from Tahiti
Fatata te Miti (By the Sea)
Fatata te Miti is an 1892 oil painting by French artist Paul Gauguin, located in the National Gallery of Art, in Washington, DC. Gauguin painted Fatata te miti in 1892 during his first trip to Tahiti, the same tree, dividing the painting into two distinct zones, can be seen in Parau na te Varua ino. The painting depicts two Tahitian women, seen from behind, jumping into the sea, there is a fisherman in the background, fishing with a spear. The painting epitomizes the romantic view of Tahitians made famous by Pierre Lotis Le Mariage de Loti, in that novel, Loti described his Tahitian brides pursuits as extremely simple, bathing, above all bathing. The women in the painting bathe naked, removing their pareos, the theme of nymphs frolicking in the waves was a tradition of the Golden Age repeatedly represented by artists such as Titian and Courbet through to Gauguins own contemporary Degas. Gauguin was fascinated by the theme, first taking it up in 1885 with his Women Bathing and he returned to it with his 1889 Ondine, his signature painting at the Volpini Exhibition.
Gauguin uses intense tropical colors to convey sensual delight, for example, he uses pinks and purples for the sand, although in reality the beaches were a drab volcanic brown. The technique employed here of applying pure color in bold and flat shapes delineated by dark counters is one he developed in Brittany, to heighten the luminosity and enhance their jewellike effect, Gauguin applied a thin layer of clear wax to the surface of his early Tahitian paintings. The painting was owned by Chester Dale, who left his collection to the National Gallery of Art, Washington. Looking for a society more elemental and simple than that in France, Gauguin auctioned thirty of his paintings and this first visit lasted from 1891 to 1893. His book Noa Noa was written in the style of a journal and was originally meant to provide a context for his 1893 Paris exhibition. Gauguin first used the words Noa Noa reporting the words the Tahitians themselves used for the scent of Tahitian women, the substantive Fenua is understood in the title of his book, so the correct translation is The Fragrant Isle.
Also implied is the Tahitian term for Paradise - Rohutu noanoa, in the event his book remained unpublished until 1901, although extracts were published in La Revue Blanche in 1897. The first European exhibition of Gauguins work took place in March 1893 in Copenhagen, paintings from Gauguins first Tahitian period selected for his Copenhagen exhibition References Sources Danielsson, Bengt. New Haven, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-09109-5, Noa Noa, The Tahiti Journal of Paul Gauguin. In French Noa Noa, The Tahiti Journal of Paul Gauguin. in English
Meijer de Haan
Meijer Isaac de Haan was a Dutch painter. He was born into a successful Jewish family of manufacturers, close to the study of religion, music. He had already had success in the Netherlands as a painter of Jewish genre works. In Amsterdam de Haan painted portraits and took on pupils, including Joseph Jacob Isaacson, Louis Hartz. In the winter of 1888, accompanied by his pupil, Isaacson, he went to Paris to continue his studies. There he met Pissarro, Theo van Gogh, and Paul Gauguin, back from Arles, whom De Haan accompanied to Brittany – first to Pont-Aven, van Gogh introduced De Haan to his brother Vincent van Gogh, and Meijer de Haan exchanged several letters with Vincent. In Brittany, De Haan had a liaison with Marie Henry, the owner of the seaside hotel-café Buvette de la plage and they covered the walls of the dining area with impressionist murals, which were only papered over in the 1920s. Since their discovery, the murals have been restored and sold, Marie Henry gave birth to a daughter who was called Ida, but De Haan left Le Pouldu and returned to Amsterdam.
There are several stories why he left, though some say that Gauguin was jealous, it was simply due to his brothers cancelling his stipend. Though he never saw Marie Henry again, he left all of his French paintings to her. Today, the bar Buvette de la plage has been restored to its former appearance, in 2010, the Musée dOrsay staged an exhibition of De Haans work, called A Master Revealed, Meijer de Haan
The Yellow Christ
The Yellow Christ is a painting executed by Paul Gauguin in 1889 in Pont-Aven. Together with The Green Christ, it is considered to be one of the key works of Symbolism in painting, Gauguin first visited Pont-Aven in 1886. He returned to the village in early 1888 to stay until mid-October, early in 1889, Gauguin was back to Pont-Aven to stay there until spring 1890. It was only for a visit in summer 1889 to Paris to see the Exposition universelle. Gauguin relies heavily on bold lines to define his figures and reserves shading only for the women, the autumn palette of yellow and green in the landscape echoes the dominant yellow in the figure of Christ. The bold outlines and flatness of the forms in this painting are typical of the cloisonnist style. A study for The Yellow Christ in pencil is preserved in the Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Gauguin et le Christ jaune, Musée de Pont-Aven,2000 ISBN 2-910128-21-0