A duel is an arranged engagement in combat between two individuals with matched weapons in accordance with agreed-upon rules. Duels in this form were chiefly practiced in early modern Europe with precedents in the code of chivalry. During the 17th and 18th centuries, duels were fought with swords. But beginning in the late 18th century in England, duels were more commonly fought using pistols and pistol duels continued to co-exist throughout the 19th century. The duel was based on a code of honor, on rare occasions, duels with pistols or swords were fought between women, these were sometimes known as petticoat duels. Legislation against dueling goes back to the medieval period, the Fourth Council of the Lateran outlawed duels, and civil legislation in the Holy Roman Empire against dueling was passed in the wake of the Thirty Years War. From the early 17th century, duels became illegal in the countries where they were practiced, Dueling largely fell out of favor in England by the mid-19th century and in Continental Europe by the turn of the 20th century.
Dueling declined in the Eastern United States in the 19th century and by the time the American Civil War broke out, dueling had begun to decline, public opinion, not legislation, caused the change. In Western society, the concept of a duel developed out of the medieval judicial duel. In Medieval society, judicial duels were fought by knights and squires to end various disputes, countries like Germany, United Kingdom, and Ireland practiced this tradition. Judicial combat were of two forms in society, the feat of arms and chivalric combat. The feat of arms were done to settle hostilities between two parties and supervised by a judge. The battle was fought when one partys honor was disrespected or challenged upon in which the conflict cannot be resolved in court, a spiked hand guard for pumbling, and extra grip for half swording. The duel lasted until the party was too weak to fight back. In early cases, the party was subsequently executed. If a traveling venans did not have weapons or horse to meet the challenge, one might be provided, if a lady passed unescorted, she would leave behind a glove or scarf, to be rescued and returned to her by a future knight who passed that way.
The Roman Catholic Church was critical of dueling throughout medieval history, judicial duels were deprecated by the Lateran Council of 1215, but the judicial duel persisted in the Holy Roman Empire into the 15th century. The word duel comes from the Latin duellum, cognate with bellum, during the early Renaissance, dueling established the status of a respectable gentleman, and was an accepted manner to resolve disputes
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized minerals or rock grains. Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earths crust, like sand, sandstone may be any color, but the most common colors are tan, yellow, grey, pink and black. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features, quartz-bearing sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure, usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. They are formed from cemented grains that may either be fragments of a rock or be mono-minerallic crystals. The cements binding these grains together are typically calcite, grain sizes in sands are defined within the range of 0.0625 mm to 2 mm. The formation of sandstone involves two principal stages, first, a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation, either from water or from air. Typically, sedimentation occurs by the settling out from suspension.
The most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate, which are derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried. Colours will usually be tan or yellow, a predominant additional colourant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide, which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red, with additional manganese imparting a purplish hue. Red sandstones are seen in the Southwest and West of Britain, as well as central Europe. The regularity of the latter favours use as a source for masonry, either as a building material or as a facing stone. These physical properties allow the grains to survive multiple recycling events. Quartz grains evolve from rock, which are felsic in origin. Feldspathic framework grains are commonly the second most abundant mineral in sandstones, Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions, alkali feldspars and plagioclase feldspars. The different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic microscope, below is a description of the different types of feldspar.
Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8. Plagioclase feldspar is a group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8. Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to individual mineral grains, accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone, commonly these minerals make up just a small percentage of the grains in a sandstone
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
Diabase or dolerite or microgabbro is a mafic, subvolcanic rock equivalent to volcanic basalt or plutonic gabbro. Diabase dikes and sills are typically shallow intrusive bodies and often exhibit fine grained to aphanitic chilled margins which may contain tachylite. Diabase normally has a fine, but visible texture of euhedral lath-shaped plagioclase crystals set in a matrix of clinopyroxene, typically augite, with minor olivine, magnetite. Accessory and alteration minerals include hornblende, apatite, chalcopyrite, chlorite, the texture is termed diabasic and is typical of diabases. This diabasic texture is termed interstitial, the feldspar is high in anorthite, the calcium endmember of the plagioclase anorthite-albite solid solution series, most commonly labradorite. Diabase is usually found in relatively shallow intrusive bodies such as dikes. Diabase dikes occur in regions of crustal extension and often occur in swarms of hundreds of individual dikes or sills radiating from a single volcanic center.
The Palisades Sill which makes up the New Jersey Palisades on the Hudson River, parts of the Deccan Traps of India, formed at the end of the Cretaceous includes dolerite. It is abundant in parts of Curaçao, an island off the coast of Venezuela. West of the Norseman–Wiluna Belt is the Yalgoo–Singleton Belt, where complex dolerite dike swarms obscure the volcaniclastic sediments, large dolerite sills such as the Golden Mile Dolerite can exhibit course grained texture, and show a large diversity in petrography and geochemistry across the width of the sill. The vast areas of mafic volcanism/plutonism associated with the Jurassic breakup of Gondwanaland in the Southern Hemisphere include many large diabase/dolerite sills and dike swarms. These include the Karoo dolerites of South Africa, the Ferrar Dolerites of Antarctica, in Tasmania dolerite dominates much of the landscape, particularly alpine areas. Ring dikes are large, near vertical dikes showing above ground as circular outcrops up to 30 km in diameter, thicker dikes are made up of plutonic rocks, rather than hypabyssal and are centred on deep intrusions.
Diabase is crushed and used as an aggregate for road beds, railroad beds. Diabase can be cut for use as as ornamental stone for countertops, facing stone on buildings, a form of dolerite, known as bluestone, is one of the materials used as in the construction of Stonehenge. In Tasmania, being one of the most common rocks found, it has used as a building stone, for landscaping. List of rock types Collection of dikes in the Fish River Canyon, Namibia
Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, known as tracks. It is referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a flat surface. Tracks usually consist of rails, installed on ties and ballast, on which the rolling stock, usually fitted with metal wheels. Other variations are possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface. Rolling stock in a transport system generally encounters lower frictional resistance than road vehicles, so passenger. The operation is carried out by a company, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives which either draw electric power from a railway system or produce their own power. Most tracks are accompanied by a signalling system, Railways are a safe land transport system when compared to other forms of transport. The oldest, man-hauled railways date back to the 6th century BC, with Periander, one of the Seven Sages of Greece, Rail transport blossomed after the British development of the steam locomotive as a viable source of power in the 19th centuries.
With steam engines, one could construct mainline railways, which were a key component of the Industrial Revolution, railways reduced the costs of shipping, and allowed for fewer lost goods, compared with water transport, which faced occasional sinking of ships. The change from canals to railways allowed for markets in which prices varied very little from city to city. In the 1880s, electrified trains were introduced, and the first tramways, starting during the 1940s, the non-electrified railways in most countries had their steam locomotives replaced by diesel-electric locomotives, with the process being almost complete by 2000. During the 1960s, electrified high-speed railway systems were introduced in Japan, other forms of guided ground transport outside the traditional railway definitions, such as monorail or maglev, have been tried but have seen limited use. The history of the growth and restoration to use of transport can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of motive power used.
The earliest evidence of a railway was a 6-kilometre Diolkos wagonway, trucks pushed by slaves ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element. The Diolkos operated for over 600 years, Railways began reappearing in Europe after the Dark Ages. The earliest known record of a railway in Europe from this period is a window in the Minster of Freiburg im Breisgau in Germany
Fort Lee, New Jersey
Fort Lee is a borough at the eastern border of Bergen County, New Jersey, United States, in the New York City Metropolitan Area, situated atop the Hudson Palisades. The borough is the terminus of the George Washington Bridge and is located across the Hudson River from the Manhattan borough of New York City. Named for the site of an early American Revolutionary War military encampment, according to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 2.888 square miles, including 2.541 square miles of land and 0.347 square miles of water. The borough is situated atop the escarpment of the Hudson Palisades on the peninsula between the Hackensack and Hudson rivers, the borough is bisected by the confluence of roads at GWB Plaza leading to the George Washington Bridge. Unincorporated communities and place names located partially or completely within the borough include Coytesville, the borough borders Cliffside Park, Englewood, Englewood Cliffs, Palisades Park, Ridgefield. and the Washington Heights neighborhood of Upper Manhattan.
It was during Washingtons retreat in November 1776 that Thomas Paine composed his pamphlet, The American Crisis and these events are recalled at Monument Park and Fort Lee Historic Park. Fort Lee was formed by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 29,1904, with the creation of Fort Lee, Ridgefield Township became defunct and was dissolved as of March 29,1904. The Fort Lee Police Department was formed under borough ordinance on August 9,1904, the history of cinema in the United States can trace its roots to the East Coast where, at one time, Fort Lee was the motion picture capital of America. The industry got its start at the end of the 19th century with the construction of Thomas Edisons Black Maria, in 1909, a forerunner of Universal Studios, the Champion Film Company, built the first studio. They were quickly followed by others who either built new studios or who leased facilities in Fort Lee, such notables as Mary Pickford got their start at Biograph Studios. With the offshoot businesses that sprang up to service, the film studios, just as the development of Fort Lee production facilities were gaining strength, Nestor Studios of Bayonne, New Jersey, built the first studio in Hollywood in 1911.
Californias more hospitable and cost-effective climate led to the shift of virtually all filmmaking to the West Coast by the 1930s. At the time, Thomas Edison owned almost all the relevant to motion picture production. Television and film in New Jersey remains an important industry, since 2000, the Fort Lee Film Commission has been charged with celebrating the history of film in Fort Lee, as well as attracting film and television production companies to the borough. In 1957, market researcher James Vicary claimed that quickly flashing messages on a screen, in Fort Lee, had influenced people to purchase more food. Vicary coined the term subliminal advertising and formed the Subliminal Projection Company based on a six-week test, Vicary claimed that during the presentation of the movie Picnic he used a tachistoscope to project the words Drink Coca-Cola and Hungry. Eat popcorn for 1/3000 of a second at five-second intervals, Vicary asserted that during the test, sales of popcorn and Coke in that New Jersey theater increased 57. 8% and 18. 1% respectively.
In 1962, Vicary admitted to lying about the experiment and falsifying the results, an identical experiment conducted by Henry Link showed no increase in cola or popcorn sales
Rockland County, New York
Rockland County is the southernmost county on the west side of the Hudson River in the U. S. state of New York, part of the New York–Newark–Jersey City, NY–NJ–PA Metropolitan Statistical Area. The county seat is New City, the name derives from rocky land, as the area was described by early Dutch and English settlers. Rockland County is the smallest county by area in New York State outside of New York City and it comprises five towns and nineteen incorporated villages, with numerous unincorporated villages and hamlets. Rockland County is designated as a Preserve America Community, and roughly one-third of the county is parkland, the county has the largest Jewish population per capita of any U. S. county, with 31. 4%, or 90,000 residents, being Jewish. Rockland ranks 9th on the list of counties by median household income in the United States with $75,306 according to the 2000 census. In 2015, Suffern was named as the best place to start a business in New York by NerdWallet, NerdWallet included the villages of Haverstraw, West Haverstraw and Spring Valley in their report.
On February 14,2017 Edwin J. Day, County Executive of Rockland County proclaim February 14,2017 as Rockland County Local History Day, the area that would become Rockland County was originally inhabited by Algonquian-speaking Aboriginals, including Munsees, or Lenni Lenape. The Dutch were the first Europeans to settle in the area and these settlers, eager to escape city life, moved from Manhattan to Rockland. A number of unique Dutch-style red sandstone houses still stand, when the Duke of York established the first twelve counties of New York in 1683, present-day Rockland County was part of Orange County known as Orange County South of the Mountains. Orangetown was created at the time under a royal grant. Around this time, as the English began to colonize Nyack and Tappan, the natural barrier of the Ramapo Mountains and the size of the county made it difficult to carry out governmental activities. At one point there were twin governments, one on side of the Ramapo Mountains. For this reason, Rockland split off from Orange in 1798 to form its own county and that same year the county seat was transferred from Tappan to New City, where a new courthouse was built.
Haverstraw was separated from Orangetown in 1719 and became a town in 1788, it included the present-day Clarkstown, Ramapo and Ramapo became towns in 1791, followed by Stony Point in 1865. George Washington had headquarters for a time at John Sufferns tavern, British Major John André met with American traitor Benedict Arnold near Stony Point to buy the plans for the fortifications at West Point. André was captured with the plans in Tarrytown on his way back to the British lines, he was brought to Tappan for trial in the Tappan church, found guilty, two days Washington visited Sir Guy aboard a British war vessel. On this day the Kings Navy fired its first salute to the flag of the United States of America, in the decades following the Revolution, Rockland became popular for its stone and bricks. These products, required quarrying in land that many believed should be set aside as a preserve
Piermont, New York
Piermont is a village incorporated in 1847 in Rockland County, New York, United States. Piermont is in the town of Orangetown, located north of the hamlet of Palisades, east of Sparkill, the population was 2,510 at the 2010 census. Woody Allen set The Purple Rose of Cairo, a film within The Purple Rose of Cairo in Piermont. The villages name, in earlier years known as Tappan Landing, was given by Dr. Eleazar Lord, educator, deacon of the First Protestant Dutch Church and first president of the Erie Railroad. It was derived by combining a local natural feature – Tallman Mountain –, Sparkill Creek cuts through the north end of the Hudson Palisades, providing easy access to the fertile valley of the unnavigable upper Hackensack River. Tappan Landing, Tappan Slote, or Taulman Landing, as the port on the Hudson River was called. The valley in the Palisades created by the creek provided a way for the Erie Railroad to easily reach the Hudson. The pier and the nearby mountains suggested a new name for the community, a memorial plaque notes that history at the pier.
Late in the 20th century, Piermont became a modest tourist attraction for day-trippers from New York City, the Erie Railroad line stopped running through Piermont in 1966. The rail branch was abandoned in the 1970s as a result of railroad consolidation, the exterior of the building was renovated to its original architecture and French gray, light-green and oxide-red color scheme in 2006 by the Piermont Historical Society. They replaced the roof and installed a new 9-foot cupola, the train station was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2006. Piermont Fire Department, Rockland County department 13, is a fire department, providing fire, EMS, and water rescue services. Piermont is one of the few districts in Rockland County having a Dive Rescue team, the hand-cranked drawbridge is used as a pedestrian walkway providing a link to Tallman Mountain State Park. This bridge is the only hand-cranked drawbridge in Rockland County and perhaps in the United States, the whole bridge was dismantled piece by piece, sent off-site for restoration and restored to its original state after a complete forensic analysis.
Allan King Sloan, the great-great-grandson of the founder, provided some of the information that is on the historical marker nearby. Piermont is located at 41°2′26″N 73°55′8″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.1 square miles, of which 0.7 square miles is land and 0.5 square miles, or 41. 74%, is water. Piermont is on the west bank of the Hudson River, south of the Tappan Zee Bridge, as of the census of 2000, there were 2,607 people,1,189 households, and 672 families residing in the village. The population density was 3,878.9 people per square mile, there were 1,320 housing units at an average density of 1,964.0 per square mile
Aaron Burr Jr. was an American politician. He was the vice president of the United States, serving during President Thomas Jeffersons first term. Burr served as a Continental Army officer in the Revolutionary War, after which he became a successful lawyer, the highlight of Burrs tenure as president of the senate was the Senates first impeachment trial, that of Supreme Court justice Samuel Chase. In 1804, the last full year of his term as vice president. Burr was never tried for the duel, and all charges against him were eventually dropped. After leaving Washington, Burr traveled west seeking new opportunities, both economic and political and his activities eventually led to his arrest on charges of treason in 1807. The subsequent trial resulted in acquittal, but Burrs western schemes left him with large debts, in a final quest for grand opportunities, he left the United States for Europe. He remained overseas until 1812, when he returned to the United States to practice law in New York City, there he spent the rest of his life in relative obscurity.
Aaron Burr Jr. was born in Newark, New Jersey, in 1756 as the child of the Reverend Aaron Burr Sr. a Presbyterian minister. His mother Esther Burr was the daughter of Jonathan Edwards, the noted Calvinist theologian, Burr had an older sister Sarah, named for her maternal grandmother. She married Tapping Reeve, founder of the Litchfield Law School in Litchfield, Burrs father died in 1757, and his mother the following year, leaving him and his sister orphans when he was two years old. He and his sister first lived with their grandparents, but Sarah Edwards died in 1757. Young Aaron and Sally were placed with the William Shippen family in Philadelphia, in 1759, the childrens guardianship was assumed by their 21-year-old maternal uncle Timothy Edwards. The next year, Edwards married Rhoda Ogden and moved with the children to Elizabeth, New Jersey, rhodas younger brothers Aaron Ogden and Matthias Ogden became the boys playmates. The three boys, along with their neighbor Jonathan Dayton, formed a group of friends that lasted their lifetimes, Aaron Burr was admitted to the sophomore class of the College of New Jersey at the age of 13, after being rejected once at age 11.
Aside from being occupied with studies, he was a part of the American Whig Society and Cliosophic Society. He received his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1772 at age 16 and he studied theology for an additional year, before rigorous theological training with Joseph Bellamy, a Presbyterian. He changed his career two years later, at age 19, when he moved to Connecticut to study law with his brother-in-law Tapping Reeve
George Walbridge Perkins
George Walbridge Perkins I was an American politician and businessman. He was a leader of the Progressive Movement, especially the Theodore Roosevelts Progressive party of 1912, starting as an office boy he became a leading executive in insurance and banking, always on the alert for new and better ways to do business. He was a top aide to financier J. P. Morgan, and handled complex issues involving U. S. Steel, International Harvester and he was vice-president of New York Life Insurance Company and a partner in J. P. Morgan & Co. He served as president of the Palisades Interstate Park Commission from its creation in 1900 until his death in 1920 and he was born on January 31,1862 in Chicago, Illinois. With only an education, he began work as an office boy in the Chicago office of the New York Life Insurance Company. By 1898 he had risen to the position of vice president, Perkins played an important role in the development of New York Life. A strong believer in the Efficiency Movement, he sought out instances of waste, for example, he noticed that the old routine of farming out territory to middlemen, who in turn appointed men who did the actual soliciting for policies, was inefficient.
The local agents were underpaid and often made misrepresentations in order to get initial premiums, starting in 1892, made the local agents and solicitors permanent employees, and by introducing in 1896, his system of benefits based on length of service and value of policies written. He opened up new markets in Russia and Europe. He helped reorganize Morgans United States Steel Corporation, in 1910 Perkins began to pursue Progressive Era reform causes. Perkins was an exponent of the evils of competition and the advantages of cooperation in business— he believed in the Good Trust. His biographer, John A. Garraty summarizes Perkins business philosophy as follows, competition is cruel, destructive, outmoded, co-operation, inherent in any theory of a well-ordered Universe, is humane, efficient and modern. In 1912 he helped organize Theodore Roosevelts new Progressive party, becoming its executive secretary, at the convention an anti-trust plank was suddenly dropped, shocking reformers like Gifford Pinchot who saw Roosevelt as a true trust-buster.
They blamed Perkins Perkins ties to big business alarmed the radical wing of the party, after 1913 he focused on New York City politics, while continuing as Progressive National Chairman. In 1916 he campaigned for Charles Evans Hughes and the GOP, the result was a deep split in the new party that was never resolved. Perkins was in control of the party in 1913. On September 7,1917, the New York State Senate rejected his nomination as Chairman of the recently established New York State Food Control Commission. On October 2, the State Senate rejected again his nomination, as chairman of a finance committee of the Young Mens Christian Association, he raised $200,000,000 for welfare work among American soldiers abroad
Jersey City, New Jersey
Jersey City is the second-most-populous city in the U. S. state of New Jersey after Newark. It is the seat of Hudson County as well as the countys largest city. 7% from the 2010 United States Census, when the citys population was at 247,597, ranking the city the 75th-largest in the nation. Part of the New York metropolitan area, Jersey City is bounded on the east by the Hudson River and Upper New York Bay and on the west by the Hackensack River and Newark Bay. After a peak population of 316,715 measured in the 1930 Census, the land comprising what is now Jersey City was inhabited by the Lenape, a collection of tribes. After spending nine days surveying the area and meeting its inhabitants, by 1621, the Dutch West India Company was organized to manage this new territory and in June 1623, New Netherland became a Dutch province, with headquarters in New Amsterdam. Michael Reyniersz Pauw received a grant as patroon on the condition that he would establish a settlement of not fewer than fifty persons within four years.
He chose the west bank of the North River and purchased the land from the Lenape and this grant is dated November 22,1630 and is the earliest known conveyance for what are now Hoboken and Jersey City. Pauw, was a landlord who neglected to populate the area and was obliged to sell his holdings back to the Company in 1633. That year, a house was built at Communipaw for Jan Evertsen Bout, superintendent of the colony, during Kiefts War, approximately eighty Lenapes were killed by the Dutch in a massacre at Pavonia on the night of February 25,1643. Scattered communities of farmsteads characterized the Dutch settlements at Pavonia, Harsimus, Paulus Hook, Hoebuck and other lands behind Kil van Kull. The first village established on what is now Bergen Square in 1660, among the oldest surviving houses in Jersey City are the Newkirk House, the Van Vorst Farmhouse, and the Van Wagenen House. During the American Revolutionary War, the area was in the hands of the British who controlled New York, in the Battle of Paulus Hook Major Light Horse Harry Lee attacked a British fortification on August 19,1779.
During the 19th century, former slaves reached Jersey City on one of the four routes of the Underground Railroad that led to the city. The City of Jersey was incorporated by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on January 28,1820, from portions of Bergen Township, while the area was still a part of Bergen County. The city was reincorporated on January 23,1829, and again on February 22,1838, on February 22,1840, it became part of the newly created Hudson County. Soon after the Civil War, the idea arose of uniting all of the towns of Hudson County east of the Hackensack River into one municipality. A bill was approved by the legislature on April 2,1869. An element of the bill provide that only contiguous towns could be consolidated, while a majority of the voters across the county approved the merger, the only municipalities that had approved the consolidation plan and that adjoined Jersey City were Hudson City and Bergen City
A patent medicine, known as a nostrum is a commercial product advertised as a purported over-the-counter medicine, without regard to its effectiveness. Sellers of liniments, claimed to contain oil and falsely promoted as a cure-all. Few if any of the nostrums were actually patented, chemical patents did not come into use in the United States until 1925, patenting one of these remedies would have meant publicly disclosing its ingredients, which most promoters sought to avoid. Advertisement kept these patent medications in the eye and gave the belief that no disease was beyond the cure of patent medication. “The medicine man’s key task quickly became not production but sales, whether unscrupulous or self-deluded, nostrum makers set about this task with cleverness and zeal. ”Instead, the compounders of such nostrums used a primitive version of branding to distinguish their products from the crowd of their competitors. Though sold at high prices, many of products were made from cheap ingredients.
Their composition was known within the pharmacy trade, and druggists manufactured. To protect profits, the branded medicine advertisements emphasized brand names, at least in the earliest days, the history of patent medicines is coextensive with scientific medicine. Empirical medicine, and the beginning of the application of the method to medicine. These few remedies, on the hand, were inadequate to cover the bewildering variety of diseases. This led medical men to hope, at least, say, given the state of the pharmacopoeia, and patients demands for something to take, physicians began making blunderbuss concoctions of various drugs and unproven. These concoctions were the ancestors of the several nostrums, touting these nostrums was one of the first major projects of the advertising industry. The marketing of nostrums under implausible claims has a long history, within the English-speaking world, patent medicines are as old as journalism. Andersons Pills were first made in England in the 1630s, the recipe was allegedly learned in Venice by a Scot who claimed to be physician to King Charles I, daffys Elixir was invented about 1647 and remained popular in Britain and the USA until the late 19th century.
The use of patent to obtain exclusive marketing rights to certain labelled formulas. The use of invented names began early, in 1726 a patent was granted to the makers of Dr. Batemans Pectoral Drops, at least on the documents that survive, there was no Dr. Bateman. This was the enterprise of a Benjamin Okell and a group of promoters who owned a warehouse, perhaps the most successful industry that grew up out of the business of patent medicine advertisements, was founded by William H. Gannetts newspaper became the first publication of Guy Gannett Communications, which eventually owned four Maine dailies, muscle man acts were especially popular on these tours, for this enabled the salesman to tout the physical vigour the product supposedly offered