The Papers of Thomas Jefferson
The Papers of Thomas Jefferson is a multi-volume scholarly edition devoted to the publication of the public and private papers of Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States. The project, established at Princeton University, is the definitive edition of documents written by or to Jefferson. Work on the series began in 1944 and was undertaken at Princeton until 1998, when responsibility for editing documents from Jefferson's post-presidential retirement years, 1809 until 1826, shifted to the Thomas Jefferson Foundation at Monticello; this enabled work to progress on two different periods of Jefferson's life and thereby doubled the production of volumes without compromising the high standards set for the project. The project grew out of a plan developed in 1943 by Julian P. Boyd, the chief librarian of Princeton University, a scholar of the drafting of the Declaration of Independence, the historian of the Thomas Jefferson Bicentennial Commission; the Commission tasked Boyd with studying whether or not a comprehensive collection of Jefferson's papers would be feasible.
Prior to this less than 20% of Jefferson's papers had been published in any format and what had been published had been selective and thinly or poorly annotated. Boyd, who served as the project's first general editor, intended the finished project to be complete enough to replace what had been published and to ensure that the task would not have to be redone in the future. Princeton University agreed to host the editorial project and Princeton University Press agreed to publish the volumes. Initial funding came from The New York Times Company. Although the United States government, in the midst of World War II, could not fund the early phases of the project's work, both President Franklin D. Roosevelt and his successor Harry S. Truman were enthusiastic supporters; the project's first volume was released in 1950 to near universal praise. As conceived by Boyd, the edition would consist of two series: one topical; the chronological series includes letters written by and to Jefferson, as well as other documents such as memoranda and Jefferson's public addresses.
The Papers of Thomas Jefferson cites itself as the "first modern historical documentary edition" and has exerted a strong influence on the presentation and organization of materials for other historical editions. Similar projects have used The Papers of Thomas Jefferson as their model. Boyd continued to work on the Papers until his death in 1980. Boyd's immediate successor, Charles T. Cullen, introduced computer technology and the systematic indexing of the volumes. During his lifetime of working on The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Boyd created new, higher ideals for historical editing. Which his successors Cullen, Catanzariti continued after his death. Subsequent editors have been John Catanzariti, Barbara B. Oberg, James P. McClure. Julian P. Boyd 1943-1980 Charles T. Cullen 1980-1986 John Catanzariti 1986-1998 Barbara B. Oberg 1999-2014 James P. McClure 2014- In 1998 Princeton University entered into a partnership with the Thomas Jefferson Foundation, Inc. which owns and operates Monticello, Jefferson's primary plantation and the place where he spent much of the remainder of his life.
The Foundation assumed responsibility for Jefferson's papers composed between the end of his presidency on 4 March 1809 and his death on 4 July 1826. This new effort, named the Retirement Series, is published by Princeton University Press in a similar format. Aided by a start-up grant from The Pew Charitable Trusts, work began in 1999 at Monticello under the editorial leadership of historian J. Jefferson Looney; the Retirement Series is expected to be completed in twenty-three annotated volumes. In 2004 the Retirement Series launched a second project, Jefferson Quotes & Family Letters, a accessible collection of digital correspondence by, to, between members of Jefferson's extensive family, excluding those to and from Jefferson himself. Ranging beyond Jefferson's life as far as the family's American Civil War experience, this material had not been part of the core Papers volumes and most of it had never been published elsewhere; these letters and other documents give personal insights into aspects of Jefferson's life that he highlighted in his own writings, as well as providing accounts of the early years of the University of Virginia and of domestic and social life in nineteenth-century Virginia.
Jefferson Quotes & Family Letters features a growing collection of keyword-searchable quotes by and about Thomas Jefferson. The project is ongoing and new material is added regularly. J. Jefferson Looney, 1999 - The Second Series edition is a collection of Jefferson's texts that are more suitable for topical rather than chronological arrangement; this Second Series of the edition, published by Princeton University Press, consists of commissioned volumes edited by subject specialists. Volumes published thus far are as follows: Jefferson's Extracts from the Gospels: The Philosophy of Jesus and The Life and Morals of Jesus Jefferson's Parliamentary Writings: Parliamentary Pocket-Book and A Manual of Parliamentary Practice Jefferson's Literary Commonplace Book Jefferson's Memorandum Books: Accounts, with Legal Records and Miscellany, 1767-1826 The project's goal is to create as comprehensive a collection of Jefferson's personal and public papers as possible. Material collected for the project includes papers and letters written by Jefferson thr
Presidency of Abraham Lincoln
The presidency of Abraham Lincoln began on March 4, 1861, when he was inaugurated as the 16th President of the United States, ended upon his assassination and death on April 15, 1865, 42 days into his second term. Lincoln was the first member of the recently-established Republican Party elected to the presidency, he was succeeded by Vice President Andrew Johnson. Lincoln presided over the Union victory in the American Civil War. Lincoln took office following the 1860 presidential election, in which he won a plurality of the popular vote in a four-candidate field. All of Lincoln's votes came from the Northern United States, as the Republicans held little appeal to voters in the Southern United States. A former Whig, Lincoln ran on a political platform opposed to the expansion of slavery in the territories, his election served as the immediate impetus for the outbreak of the American Civil War. During the 16 weeks between Election Day and Inauguration Day, seven slave states declared their secession from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America.
After being sworn in as president, Lincoln refused to accept any resolution that would result in Southern secession from the Union. The Civil War began weeks into Lincoln's presidency with the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter, a federal installation located within the boundaries of the Confederacy. Lincoln was called on to handle both the political and military aspects of the Civil War, facing challenges in both spheres; as commander-in-chief, he ordered the suspension of the constitutionally-protected right to habeas corpus in the state of Maryland in order to suppress Confederate sympathizers. He became the first president to institute a military draft; as the Union faced several early defeats in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War, Lincoln cycled through numerous military commanders during the war settling on General Ulysses S. Grant, who had led the Union to several victories in the Western Theater. Lincoln's 1863 Emancipation Proclamation freed about millions of slaves in Confederate-held territory, established emancipation as a Union war goal.
In 1865, Lincoln was instrumental in the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment, which made slavery unconstitutional. Lincoln presided over the passage of important domestic legislation, including the first of the Homestead Acts, the Morrill Land-Grant Act of 1862, the Pacific Railroad Act of 1862, he ran for re-election in 1864 on the National Union ticket, supported by War Democrats in addition to Republicans. Though Lincoln feared he might lose the contest, he defeated his former subordinate, General George B. McClellan of the Democratic Party, in a landslide. Months after the election, Grant would end the war by defeating the Confederate army led by General Robert E. Lee. Lincoln's assassination in April 1865, five days after the surrender of Lee, left the final challenge of reconstructing the nation to others. Following his death, Lincoln was portrayed as the liberator of the slaves, the savior of the Union, a martyr for the cause of freedom. Political historians have long held Lincoln in high regard for his accomplishments and personal characteristics.
Alongside George Washington and Franklin D. Roosevelt, he has been ranked both by scholars and the public as one of the top three greatest presidents as number one. Lincoln, a former Whig Congressman, emerged as a major Republican presidential candidate following his narrow loss to Democrat Stephen A. Douglas in the 1858 Senate election in Illinois. Though he lacked the broad support of Republican Senator William H. Seward of New York, Lincoln believed that he could emerge as the Republican presidential nominee at the convention after multiple ballots. Lincoln spent much of 1859 and 1860 building support for his candidacy, his Cooper Union speech was well-received by eastern elites. Lincoln positioned himself in the "moderate center" of his party. On the first ballot of the May 1860 Republican National Convention, Lincoln finished second to Seward, but Seward was unable to clinch the nomination. Ignoring Lincoln's strong dictate to "make no contracts that bind me", his managers maneuvered to win Lincoln's nomination on the third ballot of the convention.
Delegates nominated Senator Hannibal Hamlin from Maine for vice president. The party platform opposed the extension of slavery into the territories but pledged not to interfere with it in the states, it endorsed a protective tariff, internal improvements such as a transcontinental railroad, policies designed to encourage the settlement of public land in the West. The 1860 Democratic National Convention met in April 1860, but adjourned after failing to agree on a candidate. A second convention met in June and nominated Stephen Douglas as the presidential nominee, but several pro-slavery Southern delegations refused to support Douglas, as they demanded a pro-slavery nominee; these Southern Democrats held a separate convention that nominated incumbent Vice President John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky for president. A group of former Whigs and Know Nothings formed the Constitutional Union Party and nominated John Bell for president. Breckinridge and Bell would contest the South, while Lincoln and Douglas would compete for votes in the North.
Republicans were confident after these party conventions, with Lincoln predicting that the fractured Democrats stood little chance of winning the election. Lincoln carried all but one Northern state to win an Electoral College majority with 180 votes to 72 for Breckinridge, 39 for Bell, 12 for Douglas. Lincoln won every county in New England and most of the remaining counties in
The Overland Campaign known as Grant's Overland Campaign and the Wilderness Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during May and June 1864, in the American Civil War. Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, general-in-chief of all Union armies, directed the actions of the Army of the Potomac, commanded by Maj. Gen. George G. Meade, other forces against Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia. Although Grant suffered severe losses during the campaign, it was a strategic Union victory, it inflicted proportionately higher losses on Lee's army and maneuvered it into a siege at Richmond and Petersburg, Virginia, in just over eight weeks. Crossing the Rapidan River on May 4, 1864, Grant sought to defeat Lee's army by placing his forces between Lee and Richmond and inviting an open battle. Lee surprised Grant by attacking the larger Union army aggressively in the Battle of the Wilderness, resulting in heavy casualties on both sides. Unlike his predecessors in the Eastern Theater, Grant did not withdraw his army following this setback, but instead maneuvered to the southeast, resuming his attempt to interpose his forces between Lee and Richmond.
Lee's army was able to get into position to block this movement. At the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, Grant attacked segments of the Confederate defensive line, hoping for a breakthrough, but the only results were again heavy losses for both sides. Grant maneuvered again. Here, Lee held clever defensive positions that provided an opportunity to defeat portions of Grant's army, but illness prevented Lee from attacking in time to trap Grant; the final major battle of the campaign was waged at Cold Harbor, in which Grant gambled that Lee's army was exhausted and ordered a massive assault against strong defensive positions, resulting in disproportionately heavy Union casualties. Resorting to maneuver a final time, Grant surprised Lee by stealthily crossing the James River, threatening to capture the city of Petersburg, the loss of which would doom the Confederate capital; the resulting Siege of Petersburg led to the eventual surrender of Lee's army in April 1865 and the effective end of the Civil War.
The campaign included two long-range raids by Union cavalry under Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan. In a raid toward Richmond, legendary Confederate cavalry commander Maj. Gen. J. E. B. Stuart was mortally wounded at the Battle of Yellow Tavern. In a raid attempting to destroy the Virginia Central Railroad to the west, Sheridan was thwarted by Maj. Gen. Wade Hampton at the Battle of Trevilian Station, the largest all-cavalry battle of the war. In March 1864, Grant was summoned from the Western Theater, promoted to lieutenant general, given command of all Union armies, he chose to make his headquarters with the Army of the Potomac, although Meade retained formal command of that army. Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman succeeded Grant in command of most of the western armies. Grant and President Abraham Lincoln devised a coordinated strategy that would strike at the heart of the Confederacy from multiple directions: Grant and Benjamin Butler against Lee near Richmond, Virginia; this was the first time the Union armies would have a coordinated offensive strategy across a number of theaters.
Although previous Union campaigns in Virginia targeted the Confederate capital of Richmond as their primary objective, this time the goal was to capture Richmond by aiming for the destruction of Lee's army. Lincoln had long advocated this strategy for his generals, recognizing that the city would fall after the loss of its principal defensive army. Grant ordered Meade, "Wherever Lee goes, there you will go also." Although he hoped for a quick, decisive battle, Grant was prepared to fight a war of attrition. He meant to "hammer continuously against the armed force of the enemy and his resources until by mere attrition, if in no other way, there should be nothing left to him but an equal submission with the loyal section of our common country to the constitution and laws of the land." Both Union and Confederate casualties could be high, but the Union had greater resources to replace lost soldiers and equipment. Despite Grant's superior numbers, he had manpower challenges. Following their severe beating at the Battle of Gettysburg the previous year, the I Corps and the III Corps had been disbanded and their survivors reallocated to other corps, which damaged unit cohesion and morale.
Because he was operating on the offensive in enemy territory, Grant had to defend his bases of supply and the lines extending from them to his army in the field. Furthermore, since many of his soldiers' three-year enlistments were about to expire, they were reluctant to participate in dangerous assaults. To deal with these challenges, Grant supplemented his forces by reassigning soldiers manning the heavy artillery batteries around Washington, D. C. to infantry regiments. The Overland Campaign began as Grant's forces crossed the Rapidan River on May 4, 1864. Grant's objective was to force an engagement with Lee, outside of his Mine Run fortifications, by either drawing his forces out or turning them. Lee, displaying the audacity that characterized his generalship, moved out
Dakota War of 1862
The Dakota War of 1862 known as the Sioux Uprising, the Dakota Uprising, the Sioux Outbreak of 1862, the Dakota Conflict, the U. S.–Dakota War of 1862 or Little Crow's War, was an armed conflict between the United States and several bands of Dakota. It began on August 17, 1862, along the Minnesota River in southwest Minnesota, four years after its admission as a state. Throughout the late 1850s in the lead-up to the war, treaty violations by the United States and late or unfair annuity payments by Indian agents caused increasing hunger and hardship among the Dakota. During the war, the Dakota made extensive attacks on hundreds of settlers and immigrants, which resulted in settler deaths, caused many to flee the area. Intense desire for immediate revenge ended with soldiers capturing hundreds of Dakota men and interning their families. A military tribunal tried the men, sentencing 303 to death for their crimes. President Lincoln would commute the sentence of 264 of them; the mass hanging of 38 Dakota men was conducted on December 1862, in Mankato, Minnesota.
Traders with the Dakota had demanded that the government give the annuity payments directly to them. In mid-1862, the Dakota demanded the annuities directly from Thomas J. Galbraith; the traders refused to provide any more supplies on credit under those conditions, negotiations reached an impasse. On August 17, 1862, one young Dakota with a hunting party of three others killed five settlers while on a hunting expedition; that night a council of Dakota decided to attack settlements throughout the Minnesota River valley to try to drive whites out of the area. There has never been an official report on the number of settlers killed, although in President Abraham Lincoln's second annual address, he said that no fewer than 800 men and children had died. Over the next several months, continued battles of the Dakota against settlers and the United States Army, ended with the surrender of most of the Dakota bands. By late December 1862, US soldiers had taken captive more than a thousand Dakota, including women and elderly men in addition to warriors, who were interned in jails in Minnesota.
After trials and sentencing by a military court, 38 Dakota men were hanged on December 26, 1862 in Mankato in the largest one-day mass execution in American history. In April 1863, the rest of the Dakota were expelled from Minnesota to South Dakota; the United States Congress abolished their reservations. Additionally, the Ho-Chunk people living on reservation lands near Mankato were expelled from Minnesota as a result of the war; the United States and Dakota leaders negotiated the Treaty of Traverse des Sioux on July 23, 1851, Treaty of Mendota on August 5, 1851, by which the Dakota ceded large tracts of land in Minnesota Territory to the U. S. in exchange for promises of money and goods. From that time on, the Dakota were to live on a 20-mile wide Indian reservation centered on a 150 mile stretch of the upper Minnesota River. However, the United States Senate deleted Article 3 of each treaty, which set out reservations, during the ratification process. Much of the promised compensation never arrived, was lost, or was stolen due to corruption in the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
Annuity payments guaranteed to the Dakota were provided directly to traders instead. When Minnesota became a state on May 11, 1858, representatives of several Dakota bands led by Little Crow traveled to Washington, D. C. to negotiate about enforcing existing treaties. The northern half of the reservation along the Minnesota River was lost, rights to the quarry at Pipestone, were taken from the Dakota; this was a major blow to the standing of Little Crow in the Dakota community. The land was divided into plots for settlement. Logging and agriculture on these plots eliminated surrounding forests and prairies, which interrupted the Dakota's annual cycle of farming, hunting and gathering wild rice. Hunting by settlers reduced wild game, such as bison, whitetail deer and bear. Not only did this decrease the meat available for the Dakota in southern and western Minnesota, but it directly reduced their ability to sell furs to traders for additional supplies. Although payments were guaranteed, the US government was behind or failed to pay because of Federal preoccupation with the American Civil War.
Most land in the river valley was not arable, hunting could no longer support the Dakota community. The Dakota became discontented over their losses: land, non-payment of annuities, past broken treaties, plus food shortages and famine following crop failure. Tensions increased through the summer of 1862. On August 4, 1862, representatives of the northern Sissetowan and Wahpeton Dakota bands met at the Upper Sioux Agency in the northwestern part of the reservation and negotiated to obtain food; when two other bands of the Dakota, the southern Mdewakanton and the Wahpekute, turned to the Lower Sioux Agency for supplies on August 15, 1862, they were rejected. Indian Agent Thomas Galbraith managed the area and would not distribute food to these bands without payment. At a meeting of the Dakota, the U. S. government and local traders, the Dakota representatives asked the representative of the government traders, Andrew Jackson Myrick, to sell them food on credit. His response was said to be, "So far as I am concerned, if they are hungry let th
The Bixby letter is a brief, consoling message sent by President Abraham Lincoln in November 1864 to Lydia Parker Bixby, a widow living in Boston, thought to have lost five sons in the Union Army during the American Civil War. Along with the Gettysburg Address and his second inaugural address, the letter has been praised as one of Lincoln's finest written works and is reproduced in memorials and print. Controversy surrounds the recipient, the fate of her sons, the authorship of the letter. Bixby's character has been questioned, at least two of her sons survived the war, the letter was written by Lincoln's assistant private secretary, John Hay. President Lincoln's letter of condolence was delivered to Lydia Bixby on November 25, 1864 and was printed in the Boston Evening Transcript and Boston Evening Traveller that afternoon; the following is the text of the letter as first published: Executive Mansion, Nov. 21, 1864. Dear Madam, I have been shown in the files of the War Department a statement of the Adjutant General of Massachusetts that you are the mother of five sons who have died gloriously on the field of battle.
I feel how weak and fruitless must be any words of mine which should attempt to beguile you from the grief of a loss so overwhelming. But I cannot refrain from tendering to you the consolation that may be found in the thanks of the Republic they died to save. I pray that our Heavenly Father may assuage the anguish of your bereavement, leave you only the cherished memory of the loved and lost, the solemn pride that must be yours to have laid so costly a sacrifice upon the altar of Freedom. Yours sincerely and respectfully, A. Lincoln. Mrs. Bixby. Lydia Parker married shoemaker Cromwell Bixby on September 26, 1826, in Massachusetts; the couple had at least six sons and three daughters before Cromwell's death in 1854. Some time before the Civil War and her family settled in Boston. On September 24, 1864, Massachusetts Adjutant General William Schouler wrote to Massachusetts Governor John Albion Andrew about a discharge request sent to the governor by Otis Newhall, the father of five Union soldiers.
In the letter, Schouler recalled how, two years prior, they had helped a poor widow named Lydia Bixby to visit a son, a patient at an Army hospital. About ten days earlier, Bixby had come to Schouler's office claiming that five of her sons had died fighting for the Union. Governor Andrew forwarded Newhall's request to the U. S. War Department with a note requesting that the president honor Bixby with a letter. In response to a War Department request of October 1, Schouler sent a messenger to Bixby's home six days asking for the names and units of her sons, he sent a report to the War Department on October 12, delivered to President Lincoln by Secretary of War Edwin Stanton sometime after October 28. On November 21, both the Boston Evening Traveller and the Boston Evening Transcript published an appeal by Schouler for contributions to assist soldiers' families at Thanksgiving which mentioned a widow who had lost five sons in the war. Schouler had some of the donations given to Bixby and visited her home on Thanksgiving, November 24.
The letter from the President arrived at Schouler's office the next morning. At least two of Lydia Bixby's sons survived the war: Private Arthur Edward Bixby – Company C, 1st Massachusetts Heavy Artillery. Deserted from Ft. Richardson, Virginia on May 28, 1862. Trying to secure a discharge for him, his mother filed an affidavit on October 17, 1862 which claimed Edward had enlisted underage without her permission. Born July 13, 1843 in Hopkinton, Massachusetts. Returned to Boston after the war. Sergeant Charles N. Bixby – Company D, 20th Massachusetts Infantry. Killed in action near Fredericksburg. Born c.1841 in Hopkinton, Massachusetts. Corporal Henry Cromwell Bixby – 1st enlistment, Company G, 20th Massachusetts Infantry. 2nd enlistment, Company K, 32nd Massachusetts Infantry. Captured at Gettysburg and sent to Richmond, Virginia. Paroled on March 7, 1864 at City Point, Virginia. Born March 30, 1830 in Hopkinton, Massachusetts. Died November 8, 1871 in Milford, from tuberculosis he contracted while a soldier.
Private Oliver Cromwell Bixby, Jr. – Company E, 58th Massachusetts Infantry. Wounded at Spotsylvania on May 12, 1864. Killed in action near Petersburg, Virginia. Born February 1, 1828 in Hopkinton, Massachusetts. Private George Way Bixby – Company B, 56th Massachusetts Infantry. Enlisted under the name "George Way," to conceal his enlistment from his wife. Captured at Petersburg on July 30, 1864. First held prisoner at Richmond but transferred to Salisbury Prison in North Carolina, arriving there on October 9, 1864, his fate after that remains uncertain. Military records report conflicting accounts of him either dying at Salisbury or deserting to the Confederate Army. Born June 22, 1836 in Hopkinton, Massachusetts. Schouler's report to the War Department erroneously listed Edward as a member of the 22nd Massachusetts Infantry who had died of his wounds at Folly Island, South Carolina. Bixby may have been trying to conceal—possibly from embarrassment or hope of further financial aid—Edward's 1862 desertion.
At the time of her September meeting with Schouler, Bixby's son George had been a prisoner of war for just over a month, Henry was still hospitalized following his exchange. The War Department failed to use its own records to correct er
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States; the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C.. The Library's functions are overseen by the Librarian of Congress, its buildings are maintained by the Architect of the Capitol; the Library of Congress has claimed to be the largest library in the world. Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages."The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800 after sitting for 11 years in the temporary national capitals in New York City and Philadelphia. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s. Most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814 during the War of 1812, the library sought to restore its collection in 1815.
They bought Thomas Jefferson's entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of slow growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection, including many of Jefferson's books. After the American Civil War, the Library of Congress grew in both size and importance, which sparked a campaign to purchase replacement copies for volumes, burned; the Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to deposit two copies of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections, its development culminated between 1888 and 1894 with the construction of a separate, extensive library building across the street from the Capitol; the Library's primary mission is to research inquiries made by members of Congress, carried out through the Congressional Research Service. The Library is open to the public, although only high-ranking government officials and Library employees may check out books and materials.
James Madison is credited with the idea of creating a congressional library, first making such a proposition in 1783. The Library of Congress was subsequently established April 24, 1800 when President John Adams signed an act of Congress providing for the transfer of the seat of government from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington. Part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 "for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress... and for fitting up a suitable apartment for containing them." Books were ordered from London, the collection consisted of 740 books and three maps which were housed in the new United States Capitol. President Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. On January 26, 1802, he signed a bill that allowed the president to appoint the Librarian of Congress and establishing a Joint Committee on the Library to regulate and oversee it; the new law extended borrowing privileges to the President and Vice President.
The invading British army burned Washington in August 1814 during the War of 1812 and destroyed the Library of Congress and its collection of 3,000 volumes. These volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the few congressional volumes to survive was a government account book of receipts and expenditures for 1810, it was taken as a souvenir by British Admiral George Cockburn, whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, Thomas Jefferson offered to sell his personal library as a replacement. Congress accepted his offer in January 1815; some members of the House of Representatives opposed the outright purchase, including New Hampshire Representative Daniel Webster who wanted to return "all books of an atheistical and immoral tendency." Jefferson had spent 50 years accumulating a wide variety of books in several languages and on subjects such as philosophy, law, architecture, natural sciences, studies of classical Greece and Rome, modern inventions, hot air balloons, submarines, fossils and meteorology.
He had collected books on topics not viewed as part of a legislative library, such as cookbooks. However, he believed, he remarked: I do not know that it contains any branch of science which Congress would wish to exclude from their collection. Jefferson's collection was unique in that it was the working collection of a scholar, not a gentleman's collection for display. With the addition of his collection, the Library of Congress was transformed from a specialist's library to a more general one, his original collection was organized into a scheme based on Francis Bacon's organization of knowledge. He grouped his books into Memory and Imagination, which broke down into 44 more subdivisions; the Library followed Jefferson's organization scheme until the late 19th century, when librarian Herbert Putnam began work on a more flexible Library of Congress Classification structure that now applies to more than 138 million items. In 1851, a fire destroyed two thirds of the Jefferson collection, with only 2,000 books remaining.
By 2008, the Librarians of Congress had found replacements for all but 300 of the works that were in Jefferson's original collection. On December 22, 1851 the largest fire in the Library's history destroyed 35,000 books, about two–thi
The Washington Papers
The Washington Papers known as The Papers of George Washington, is a project dedicated to the publication of comprehensive letterpress and digital editions of George and Martha Washington’s papers. Founded at the University of Virginia in 1968 as the Papers of George Washington, the Washington Papers is an expansive project that includes the papers and documents of George Washington as well as of individuals close to him; the Washington Papers aims to place Washington in a larger context and to bring individuals, such as Martha Washington and Washington family members, into sharper focus. The project is headed by editor in chief and director Jennifer E. Steenshorne, is the largest collection of its type; the project is funded in part by the National Endowment for the Humanities, the National Historical Publications and Records Commission, the Packard Humanities Institute, the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association, the University of Virginia, the Florence Gould Foundation, other private donors. The project should be distinguished from the archives of George Washington, part of which resides at the Library of Virginia, the George Washington Papers American Memory database at the Library of Congress.
Both of the aforementioned archives hold some of Washington's original correspondence, whereas the Washington Papers holds copies of these documents, along with copies of related documents, that are accompanied by transcriptions and annotations. The Washington Papers are used to provide researchers with a different form of access than the ones offered by the Library of Virginia and American Memory by way of increased ease of reading, both in legibility and in context; the project had its start in 1966 when the state archivist of Virginia proposed that the university launch a documentary editing project for the Washington papers. Two years the Washington Papers was launched with the help of the Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association, its first editor-in-chief, Donald Jackson, was appointed and the project sought to "be the most comprehensive compilation yet and include not just letters Washington wrote, but those he received". To this end the project procured copies of 140,000 documents; this caused the project to differ from other collections that only collected material written by Washington and the idea behind the move was to provide a more comprehensive overview of Washington that would make for more thorough research.
Starting in 1976 the Washington Papers project began releasing sets of its collection via the University Press of Virginia. Sets are separated into different collections depending on the type of the time period. In 2004 the project digitized the collection with the help of the Ladies' Association and the University of Virginia Press’s digital database; the digitized collection was called the Papers of George Washington Digital Edition and is updated. The following year the project presented the White House with a full set of the Papers of George Washington. In 2010 the National Historical Publications and Records Commissiona and the University of Virginia Press announced a new project, Founders Online, which would provide users with free access to papers relating to the Founding Fathers. Since its inception the project has expanded to include several projects that are intended to help increase the availability and understanding of the collection; some of the expansions have been done as part of larger projects with other organizations such as NARA.
In October 2010 NARA and the University of Virginia Press announced their intention to create Founders Online, a web site that would provide free access to the papers of the Founding Fathers. Work on the project began in October 2011 and went online in October 2013, includes content from the Washington Papers's print volumes. Prior to this the Papers of George Washington were made available online through the Papers of George Washington Digital Edition. Founders Online project includes content taken from the John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison documentary editing projects and is updated to include any new material published through the Washington Papers; the Financial Papers Project was launched in 2011 with grant funding from NARA. It is a digital-only documentary edition of the Papers of George Washington and is intended to create a free-access Internet database containing accurate transcriptions of Washington’s financial documents, including ledgers, account books and other items.
The Bibliography Project is an ongoing project, started in 2012 and is intended to create a comprehensive database that catalogues and describes the numerous resources, including children’s books, written about George Washington. Once completed, the project will provide users with access to material that will describe the context and meaning of each text that portrays George Washington; the Martha Washington Papers project was launched in July 2015 and will collect correspondence sent to and from the First Lady, a task made difficult by the fact that she burned much of her correspondence with Washington following his death. The Washington Papers intend to publish her correspondence in a two-volume print edition. Work on the Barbados Diary project began in the summer of 2015; the project will transcribe George Washington’s ship log and diary from his journey to Barbados with his brother Lawrence in 1751. Once completed, the material and its annotations will be available in both digital and letterpress editions The Washington Papers has organized several outreach projects, several of which are aimed at educating primary and secondary students.
Two examples of these programs include the Day by Day project, which shows users what George Washington was doing on a particular day, the Teacher Internship p