The Hanseatic League was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe. Growing from a few North German towns in the late 1100s, the league came to dominate Baltic maritime trade for three centuries along the coasts of Northern Europe. Hansa territories stretched from the Baltic to the North Sea and inland during the Late Middle Ages, diminished after 1450. Hanse spelled as Hansa, was the Old High German word for a convoy, this word was applied to bands of merchants traveling between the Hanseatic cities - whether by land or by sea. Merchant circles established the league to protect the guilds' economic interests and diplomatic privileges in their affiliated cities and countries, as well as along the trade routes which the merchants used; the Hanseatic cities had their own legal system and operated their own armies for mutual protection and aid. Despite this, the organization was not a state, nor could it be called a confederation of city-states.
Historians trace the origins of the Hanseatic League to the rebuilding of the north German town of Lübeck in 1159 by the powerful Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, after he had captured the area from Adolf II, Count of Schauenburg and Holstein. Exploratory trading adventures and piracy had occurred earlier throughout the Baltic region—the sailors of Gotland sailed up rivers as far away as Novgorod, for example—but the scale of international trade in the Baltic area remained insignificant before the growth of the Hanseatic League. German cities achieved domination of trade in the Baltic with striking speed during the 13th century, Lübeck became a central node in the seaborne trade that linked the areas around the North and Baltic seas; the hegemony of Lübeck peaked during the 15th century. Lübeck became a base for merchants from Westphalia trading eastward and northward. Well before the term Hanse appeared in a document in 1267, merchants in different cities began to form guilds, or Hansa, with the intention of trading with towns overseas in the economically less-developed eastern Baltic.
This area was a source of timber, amber and furs, along with rye and wheat brought down on barges from the hinterland to port markets. The towns raised their own armies, with each guild required to provide levies; the Hanseatic cities came to the aid of one another, commercial ships had to be used to carry soldiers and their arms. Visby functioned as the leading centre in the Baltic before the Hansa. Sailing east, Visby merchants established a trading post at Novgorod called Gutagard in 1080. Merchants from northern Germany stayed in the early period of the Gotlander settlement, they established their own trading station in Novgorod, known as Peterhof, further up river, in the first half of the 13th century. In 1229, German merchants at Novgorod were granted certain privileges that made their positions more secure. Hansa societies worked to remove restrictions to trade for their members. Before the official foundation of the league in 1356, the word Hanse did not occur in the Baltic language. Gotlanders used the word varjag.
The earliest remaining documentary mention, although without a name, of a specific German commercial federation is from London in 1157. That year, the merchants of the Hansa in Cologne convinced Henry II, King of England, to free them from all tolls in London and allow them to trade at fairs throughout England; the "Queen of the Hansa", Lübeck, where traders were required to trans-ship goods between the North Sea and the Baltic, gained imperial privileges to become a free imperial city in 1226, as its potential trading partner Hamburg had in 1189. In 1241, Lübeck, which had access to the Baltic and North seas' fishing grounds, formed an alliance—a precursor to the league—with Hamburg, another trading city, that controlled access to salt-trade routes from Lüneburg; the allied cities gained control over most of the salt-fish trade the Scania Market. In 1266, Henry III of England granted the Lübeck and Hamburg Hansa a charter for operations in England, the Cologne Hansa joined them in 1282 to form the most powerful Hanseatic colony in London.
Much of the drive for this co-operation came from the fragmented nature of existing territorial governments, which failed to provide security for trade. Over the next 50 years the Hansa itself emerged with formal agreements for confederation and co-operation covering the west and east trade routes; the principal city and linchpin remained Lübeck. Lübeck's location on the Baltic provided access for trade with Scandinavia and Kievan Rus' with its sea trade center Veliky Novgorod, putting it in direct competition with the Scandinavians who had controlled most of the Baltic trade routes. A treaty with the Visby Hansa put an end to this competition: through this treaty the Lübeck merchants gained access to the inland Russian port of Novgorod, where they built a trading post or Kontor. Although such alliances formed throughout the Holy Roman Empire, the league never became a managed formal organisation. Assemblies of the Hanseatic towns met irregularly in Lübeck for a Hansetag, from 1356 onwards, but many towns chose not to attend nor to send representatives and decisions were not binding on individual cities.
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The Amiga is a family of personal computers introduced by Commodore in 1985. The original model was part of a wave of 16- and 32-bit computers that featured 256 KB or more of RAM, mouse-based GUIs, improved graphics and audio over 8-bit systems; this wave included the Atari ST—released the same year—Apple's Macintosh, the Apple IIGS. Based on the Motorola 68000 microprocessor, the Amiga differed from its contemporaries through the inclusion of custom hardware to accelerate graphics and sound, including sprites and a blitter, a pre-emptive multitasking operating system called AmigaOS; the Amiga 1000 was released in July 1985, but a series of production problems kept it from becoming available until early 1986. The best selling model, the Amiga 500, was introduced in 1987 and became one of the leading home computers of the late 1980s and early 1990s with four to six million sold; the A3000, introduced in 1990, started the second generation of Amiga systems, followed by the A500+, the A600 in March 1992.
As the third generation, the A1200 and the A4000 were released in late 1992. The platform became popular for gaming and programming demos, it found a prominent role in the desktop video, video production, show control business, leading to video editing systems such as the Video Toaster. The Amiga's native ability to play back multiple digital sound samples made it a popular platform for early tracker music software; the powerful processor and ability to access several megabytes of memory enabled the development of several 3D rendering packages, including LightWave 3D, Aladdin4D, TurboSilver and Traces, a predecessor to Blender. Although early Commodore advertisements attempt to cast the computer as an all-purpose business machine when outfitted with the Amiga Sidecar PC compatibility add-on, the Amiga was most commercially successful as a home computer, with a wide range of games and creative software. Poor marketing and the failure of the models to repeat the technological advances of the first systems meant that the Amiga lost its market share to competing platforms, such as the fourth generation game consoles and the dropping prices of IBM PC compatibles which gained 256-color VGA graphics in 1987.
Commodore went bankrupt in April 1994 after the Amiga CD32 model failed in the marketplace. Since the demise of Commodore, various groups have marketed successors to the original Amiga line, including Genesi, Eyetech, ACube Systems Srl and A-EON Technology. AmigaOS has influenced replacements and compatible systems such as MorphOS, AmigaOS 4 and AROS. "The Amiga was so far ahead of its time that nobody—including Commodore's marketing department—could articulate what it was all about. Today, it's obvious the Amiga was the first multimedia computer, but in those days it was derided as a game machine because few people grasped the importance of advanced graphics and video. Nine years vendors are still struggling to make systems that work like 1985 Amigas." Jay Miner joined Atari in the 1970s to develop custom integrated circuits, led development of the Atari 2600's TIA. As soon as its development was complete, the team began developing a much more sophisticated set of chips, CTIA, ANTIC and POKEY, that formed the basis of the Atari 8-bit family.
With the 8-bit line's launch in 1979, the team once again started looking at a next generation chipset. Nolan Bushnell had sold the company to Warner Communications in 1978, the new management was much more interested in the existing lines than development of new products that might cut into their sales. Miner wanted to start work with the new Motorola 68000, but management was only interested in another 6502 based system. Miner left the company, for a time, the industry. In 1979, Larry Kaplan founded Activision. In 1982, Kaplan was approached by a number of investors. Kaplan hired Miner to run the hardware side of the newly formed company, "Hi-Toro"; the system was code-named "Lorraine" in keeping with Miner's policy of giving systems female names, in this case the company president's wife, Lorraine Morse. When Kaplan left the company late in 1982, Miner was promoted to head engineer and the company relaunched as Amiga Corporation. A breadboard prototype was completed by late 1983, shown at the January 1984 Consumer Electronics Show.
At the time, the operating system was not ready, so the machine was demonstrated with the Boing Ball demo. A further developed version of the system was demonstrated at the June 1984 CES and shown to many companies in hopes of garnering further funding, but found little interest in a market, in the final stages of the North American video game crash of 1983. In March, Atari expressed a tepid interest in Lorraine for its potential use in a games console or home computer tentatively known as the 1850XLD, but the talks were progressing and Amiga was running out of money. A temporary arrangement in June led to a $500,000 loan from Atari to Amiga to keep the company going; the terms required the loan to be repaid at the end of the month, otherwise Amiga would forfeit the Lorraine design to Atari. During 1983, Atari lost over $1 million a week, due to the combined effects of the crash and the ongoing price war in the home computer market. By the end of the year, Warner was desperate to sell the company.
In January 1984, Jack Tramiel resigned from Commodore due to internal battles over the future direction of the company. A number of Commodore employees followed him to Tramiel Technology; this included a number of the senior technical staff, where they began development of a 68000-based machine of the
Merchant Prince is a turn-based 4X strategy video game franchise set in the Republic of Venice during the Renaissance. The first Merchant Prince was published in 1994. All three had separate publishers; the first two use MS-DOS. All three differ chiefly in their graphics and user interface. In general, the games are trade simulators where items are bought low and sold high, they achieved notability, for their representation of Venetian and papal politics, with players able to bribe senators and cardinals for political and religious power. Overt attacks against other players can destroy one's popularity and influence, but the game offers a thieves' den where covert options include arson, rumor-mongering, assassination; the games are won after a predetermined number of turns by the player with the highest net worth, including the value of bribed senators and cardinals. The game's world map has been praised as "capturing what exploring is like", as the player expands beyond the known and certain world into distant seas and lands which have been filled in only by rumor and wild speculation.
The games begin with a letter from the player's wealthy uncle Niccolo announcing that he has died and left the majority of his estate to his daughters. He has left the player a yearly stipend of 100 florins, a map of the known world, at least one trading vessel, some advice reminiscent of Machiavelli: "you must stick to the good so long as you can but if compelled by necessity you must be ready to use other means" and the "Golden Rule" that "he who has the gold makes the rules"; the player's goal—over one lifetime or several—is to improve his family's standing. Players choose a family surname rather than an individual name. Play begins in AD 1300 and can last as late as 1492, the year of Columbus's rediscovery of the Americas; the default map covers all of Afro-Eurasia and permits the rounding of the Cape of Good Hope but not the North Cape. This can be replaced by randomized maps with variable amounts of ocean, desert, &c; the game is won by the first player to acquire a million florins or by the player with the highest net worth at game's end.
The player competes with three other families—either other humans or AIs of variable difficulty—to be the most successful clan in Venice. Opponents allied with, aided, or threatened; the Council of Ten may all be bribed into service, allowing the player to be appointed as Venice's council head, admiral, or minister of construction. A family may only hold one office at a time. Funds embezzled; the council head may try senators for treason. Support from a majority of the council at the decennial election allows one to hold the office of doge, controlling other appointments and Venice's taxation. Popularity can be improved by donations to the church, by throwing lavish masquerades, or by funding major works of sculpture and architecture. Defeating brigands and pirates in battle is well received; the wealthiest families may purchase ecclesiastical benefices, providing income and influence in the college of cardinals. Enough influence at a conclave gives a player control over the papacy itself. Popes may embezzle church funds, "excommunicate" Christian cities, gather crusading armies.
In some games, overindulgence in indulgences provokes an earlier Reformation, turning northern cities against Italy and its traders. Direct attacks against friendly cities or fellow Venetians, when proven, is unpopular and must be compensated through fines. For the devious, impatient, or wrathful, "den of iniquities" permits players to burn others' warehouses and homes, destroy reputations with rumormongering, or to assassinate senators, cardinals and popes. Being tied to the act can destroy one's reputation; the map the player receives from uncle Niccolo resembles those of the period: it is accurate close to Venice but grows much less so the further one goes. The mechanic has been praised by reviewers: "Though its gameplay was nowhere near as sophisticated as that of its near contemporary Civilization, Merchant Prince/Machiavelli did a better job of capturing what exploring is like. In the human experience are people pushing into an blank unknown space. There are always rumors, always guesses, always some advice either from locals or past chronicles."
The player must send out trade or military units to explore the world, facing pirates and storms at sea and in the desert, or negotiate with the other families to purchase more accurate maps from them. Many cities are closed to foreign traders and their leaders must be bribed or forcibly removed to open them to trade. Defeating a city with Venice's armed forces or one's own mercenaries permits one to control it or to negotiate its status as a freeport; the time and effort exploration takes is somewhat compensated by the occasional discovery of valuable relics—such as a head of John the Baptist—that are sold to the cathedral at Venice. In addition to uncle Niccolo's stipend, the player can earn income from indulgences and government offices; the most profitable course is to begin trading various commodities among the world's major cities. Trade is possible via small or large galle
Video game genre
A video game genre is a classification assigned to a video game based on its gameplay interaction rather than visual or narrative differences. A video game genre is defined by a set of gameplay challenges and are classified independently of their setting or game-world content, unlike other works of fiction such as films or books. For example, a shooter game is still a shooter game, regardless of when it takes place; as with nearly all varieties of genre classification, the matter of any individual video game's specific genre is open to personal interpretation. Moreover, each individual game may belong to several genres at once; the first attempt to classify different genres of video games was made by Chris Crawford in his book The Art of Computer Game Design in 1984. In this book, Crawford focused on the player's experience and activities required for gameplay. Here, he stated that "the state of computer game design is changing quickly. We would therefore expect the taxonomy presented to become obsolete or inadequate in a short time."
Since among other genres, the platformer and 3D shooter genres, which hardly existed at the time, have gained a lot of popularity. As hardware capabilities have increased, new genres have become possible, with examples being increased memory, the move from 2D to 3D, new peripherals and location. Though genres were just interesting for game studies in the 1980s, the business of video games expanded in the 1990s and both smaller and independent publishers had little chance of surviving; because of this, games settled more into set genres that larger publishers and retailers could use for marketing. Due to "direct and active participation" of the player, video game genres differ from literary and film genres. Though one could state that Space Invaders is a science-fiction video game, such a classification "ignores the differences and similarities which are to be found in the player's experience of the game." In contrast to the visual aesthetics of games, which can vary it is argued that it is interactivity characteristics that are common to all games.
Descriptive names of genres take into account the goals of the game, the protagonist and the perspective offered to the player. For example, a first-person shooter is a game, played from a first-person perspective and involves the practice of shooting; the term "subgenre" may be used to refer to a category within a genre to further specify the genre of the game under discussion. Whereas "shooter game" is a genre name, "first-person shooter" and "third-person shooter" are common subgenres of the shooter genre. Other examples of such prefixes are real-time, turn based, side-scrolling; the target audience, underlying theme or purpose of a game are sometimes used as a genre identifier, such as with "games for girls," games for cats,"Christian game" and "Serious game" respectively. However, because these terms do not indicate anything about the gameplay of a video game, these are not considered genres. Video game genres vary in specificity, with popular video game reviews using genre names varying from "action" to "baseball."
In this practice, basic themes and more fundamental characteristics are used alongside each other. A game may combine aspects of multiple genres in such a way that it becomes hard to classify under existing genres. For example, because Grand Theft Auto III combined shooting and roleplaying in an unusual way, it was hard to classify using existing terms. Since the term Grand Theft Auto clone has been used to describe games mechanically similar to Grand Theft Auto III; the term roguelike has been developed for games that share similarities with Rogue. Elements of the role-playing genre, which focuses on storytelling and character growth, have been implemented in many different genres of video games; this is because the addition of a story and character enhancement to an action, strategy or puzzle video game does not take away from its core gameplay, but adds an incentive other than survival to the experience. According to some analysts, the count of each broad genre in the best selling physical games worldwide is broken down as follows.
The most popular genres are Shooter, Role-playing and Sports, with Platformer and Racing having both declined in the last decade. Puzzle games have declined when measured by sales, however, on mobile, where the majority of games are free-to-play, this genre remains the most popular worldwide. List of video game genres
Business simulation game
Business simulation games known as economic simulation games or tycoon games, are games that focus on the management of economic processes in the form of a business. Pure business simulations have been described as construction and management simulations without a construction element, can thus be called management simulations. Indeed, micromanagement is emphasized in these kinds of games, they are numeric, but try to hold the player's attention by using creative graphics. The interest in these games lies in accurate simulation of real-world events using algorithms, as well as the close tying of players' actions to expected or plausible consequences and outcomes. An important facet of economic simulations is the emergence of artificial systems and structures. There are many games in this genre which have been designed around numerous different enterprises and different simulations. Theme Park can be called a business simulation because the goal of the game is to attract customers and make profits, but the game involves a building aspect that makes it a construction and management simulation.
This genre includes many of the "tycoon" games such as Railroad Tycoon and Transport Tycoon. Another similar example of a business simulation is "SimVenture Classic". Trevor Chan is a notable developer of business simulation games, having developed the 1995 game Capitalism, described as the "best business simulation game". Similar in complexity and functionality is Virtonomics business simulation; this is a browser-based multiplayer game in which realistic market behavior is formed as a result of the interaction of a large number of players. Active development of Internet technologies and the growth of the Internet audience in recent years gave a powerful impetus to the development of the industry of online games, in particular, online business simulations. There are many varieties of online business simulations - browser-based and downloadable, single-player and multiplayer, real-time and turn-based; some online simulations are aimed at the leisure market while others have real world applications in training and modelling.
Because business simulations simulate real-world systems, they are used in management, marketing and hospitality education. Some benefits of business simulations are that they permit students to experience and test themselves in situations before encountering them in real life, they permit students to experiment and test hypotheses, that subjects seem more real to them than when taught passively from the blackboard, they are used extensively in the professional world to train workers in the financial industries and management, to study economic models, with some simulations having in excess of 10,000 variables. Economic simulations have been used in experiments, such as those done by Donald Broadbent on learning and cognition that revealed how people have an aptitude for mastering systems without comprehending the underlying principles. Other games are used to study the behavior of consumers. An early economic sim by Dan Bunten, M. U. L. E. Released in 1983, foreshadowed events that would transpire in video gaming history in the MMOG market, with regard to player cooperation and simulated economies.
The game was Electronic Arts' most awarded game, despite selling only 30,000 copies. That same year, Epyx released. Business game Serious game Simulations and games in economics education Training simulation
Arena Wars is an action and real-time strategy game released by Tri Synergy and Ascaron Entertainment in 2004. The game is notable for combining shooter elements in gameplay; the limited unit choices and specials make the game balanced. There are no resources needed to build units, as every player has 1000 credits. Building units uses credits, but a player that loses a unit regains the money and can rebuild it, penalized only by the time taken to rebuild. Players do not construct buildings, but use buildings located at fixed positions on the map. Players win the game by completing one of three objectives, depending on the game type: Capture the Flag - stealing the flag from an opposing base Bombing Run - carrying a bomb into an opposing base Double Domination - controlling "domination zones" for a period of timeAs opposing players have equal options, high-level strategy, fast decision making, precise micromanagement are key factors for success. Arena Wars was the first commercial game to utilize the.
NET Framework, however it used a managed OpenGL wrapper rather than the XNA Framework/Direct3D API. GameSpot review GameSpy review Arena Wars 2 on Steam
Sacred (video game)
Sacred is an action role-playing game for Microsoft Windows and Linux released in 2004. It takes place on the magical continent of Ancaria, with characters of various races each with their own missions. More than 1.8 million copies of the game were sold worldwide. Two expansion packs were released for the game in 2004 and 2005. In 2008 Linux Game Publishing announced. Sacred was developed by Studio II Software and Ascaron Entertainment and published in 2004 by Encore in the USA release. Upon beginning the game, players are given a choice to start with one of six different character types:Gladiator, Dark Elf, Wood Elf, Battle-Mage and Seraphim; the Daemon and Dwarf were additional characters added in the expansion Sacred Underworld and included in Sacred Gold. Each character begins in a different part of the area around a town in Ancaria, with a different starting quest. For example, the Gladiator starts in a colosseum, enslaved by his master, while the Seraphim starts in a church; the Dark Elf starts on a cliff with a Wood Elf companion.
Throughout the game, the characters all receive different sub-quests. Each character class is restricted to a certain set of items, has a different set of skills. To increase these skill levels, characters must find runes that correspond to those skills, a rather novel system in contrast to the more mainstream model of skill points; some character classes have identical skills, but the runes from one class cannot be used to advance skills in another class. Runes may be used for crafting. Sacred features a vast array of items that can be obtained from shops, various containers, dead monsters or "magical hiding places" in many of the rocks and bushes throughout Ancaria, which are indicated by a yellow sparkle. Many of the items can be only equipped by one type of character, like wings, which can only be equipped by a Seraphim. There are several potion types, such as the typical health heal, but there are other types, like Potions of Undead death, which stops Undead from reviving once players kill them, "Potions of Concentration", which regenerate players' combo attacks so they can be used faster.
There are no mana-heal potions in Sacred. Monsters drop a rune that increases a certain skill for a certain character, if used. If the player owns a horse several different types of saddles can be bought to be used on it; these saddles increase the speed and damage done by the horse. Only one horse may be owned at a time, the horse can be damaged and killed; the names of items are in five different colors, which represent different quality classes of equipment: Sometimes, a monster drops a set item. Much like in Diablo II these set items will become much more powerful when gathered together and are useful and sought-after in multiplayer games. However, this is not to say. Unique items are individually better than set items; some items can be imbued with better stats. If players take an item with a number of "slots," indicated by small boxes in the inventory screen, they will be able to imbue it by taking it to a blacksmith and using either jewellery, a rune, skeleton skull or one of the blacksmith's techniques on it up to as many times as there are slots in it.
Once imbued players can remove one rune or piece of jewelry from it, but all other items in the slots are lost when they do this. Though players cannot use a rune or jewelry, not of their class, they can socket it in an item to gain the benefit of its magical and possible stat-raising properties; every character in Sacred has a different set of skills. The only way to obtain them is to find a rune of that particular skill and use it to make it available to use for players; each character has between 22 different skills that can be unlocked and used. To increase their level in a skill, players must use it. There are several "combo masters" spread throughout Ancaria, which can combine up to four separate skills into a combo, which players can use in the game; the combo masters can trade runes they cannot use or do not need for a rune of their choice. Wrong A great Sakkara demon was conjured into existence by the necromancer Shaddar; the conjuring went wrong, the Sakkara demon is now loose in the world of Ancaria.
The heroes must find the five elements of Caesarian, use them to defeat the monster. They meet Prince Valor, he thanks them for rescuing Wilbur and orders them to report to Baron DeMordre to bring reinforcements to stop the Orc invasion; the Baron betrays them and Wilbur is killed. With his dying breaths he warns the hero to report to the Prince; the hero finds most of Valor's troops have been slaughtered. They find Vilyia, she leads them to Valor in the forest, where he and his surviving troops take refuge; each hero has different objectives along the way, but they all lead up to this one final quest. After killing the traitor DeMordre and reclaiming the throne, the hero goes to the dungeon to summon the Sakkara demon and kills it; however after claiming the heart of Ancaria, Shaddar reveals himself and captures Vilyia, the hero pursues him into his castle to rescue Vilyia and defeat Shaddar. The whole of Sacred takes place on the continent of Ancaria, where there are several towns