Portraits of Presidents of the United States
Presidents often display the official portraits of Presidents they admire in the Oval Office or around the White House. The Presidential portrait of George Washington was famously rescued by the First Lady Dolley Madison when the British burned down the White House in the War of 1812. When family members called it the Mewing Cat for making him look so harmless, Sargent followed Roosevelt around the rooms of the White House, making sketches looking for the right lighting and pose, but was unhappy with them. When Roosevelt headed toward a staircase to try the rooms on the second level, Roosevelt suggested that Sargent didnt have a clue what he wanted. Sargent responded that Roosevelt didnt know what was needed to pose for a portrait, Roosevelt having reached the landing, planted his hand on the balustrade post, and turned to Sargent angrily demanding Dont I. And the perfect pose had been found, always active, only agreed to stay still for half an hour a day, after lunch. But the portrait was finished, and adored by Roosevelt.
During Ronald Reagans presidency, he moved Coolidges portrait from the Grand Hall into the Cabinet Room next to Thomas Jeffersons portrait, Reagan admired and quoted Coolidge, and thought Coolidges impressive performance in the roaring twenties was outstanding. It was believed by Reagan that Coolidges portrait was much more suitable next to a founding father, President Herbert Hoovers official portrait was completed 23 years after he left office. The first official portrait was painted by John Christen Johansen in 1941, Hoover commissioned a second portrait which was completed in 1956 by Elmer Wesley Greene. At Hoovers request, this replaced the original, and currently stands as the official White House portrait. The Johansen painting now resides at the Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum in West Branch, President John F. Kennedys official portrait was painted posthumously by Aaron Shikler by request of Jacqueline Kennedy in 1970. It is generally analyzed as a character study, unlike most presidential portraits, Kennedys depicts the president as pensive, with eyes downcast and arms folded.
According to Shikler, Jackies only stipulation was for him to create a different from the way everybody else makes him look, with the bags under his eyes. Shikler drew a few based on photographs, one of which was inspired by Ted Kennedys somber pose at his brothers grave, his arms crossed. Jackie chose that sketch as the final pose, Shikler painted the official White House portraits of first lady Jacqueline Kennedy and the Kennedy children. The Presidential portrait of Bill Clinton was the first of such portraits to be painted by an African American, the official White House portrait of George W. Bush was revealed on May 31,2012. It was painted by John Howard Sanden who painted the portrait for First Lady Laura Bush which was revealed at the same time as her husbands portrait
President's Dining Room
The Presidents Dining Room is a dining room located in the northwest corner of the second floor of the White House. It is located directly above the Family Dining Room on the State Floor, the Dining Room is adjacent to the Family Kitchen, a small kitchen designed for use by the First Family, and served by a dumbwaiter connected to the main kitchen on the ground floor. The space was occupied by a bedroom suite known as the Prince of Wales Room. From 1929 to 1948, this suite was known as the Lincoln Bedroom, the bedroom suite was structurally changed in 1961 to create a dining room and kitchen in the First Familys residence. The Presidents Dining Room is located in the northwest corner of the Second Floor, when this part of the Executive Residence was completed in 1809, a bedroom suite occupied the space. This space was changed by 1825. Since the private stairs from the Ground Floor were now complete, the closet in the chamber was removed. This effectively created a storage area in the southern third of the chamber.
First Lady Louisa Adams and her niece, Mary Hellen, used the bedroom, from March 1829 to the summer of 1830, all three rooms were occupied by Jack and Emily Donelson and their four children. President William Henry Harrison used the bedroom as his personal bedroom during his 32-day presidency in 1841. Robert Tyler, his wife, and daughter used all three rooms from April 1841 to March 1845, from 1845 to 1849, the bedroom, dressing room, and eastern chamber were used by Augusta Tabb Walker and her two small children. The bedroom suite known as the Prince of Wales Room after Albert Edward. Although a full bath was added to the chamber, there was no connecting door between it and the bedroom. To accommodate the bathroom, the stairs were moved from the middle to the part of the room. Mary Todd Lincolns refurbishment of the White House in 1861 led to changes in the room. The headboard was pierced and richly carved images of birds, grapes. The footboard featured similar, though more simply-carved, attached to the headboard was a gilt canopy carved in the shape of a crown, with a shield in the front.
Purple satin trimmed in gold lace hung from the canopy and this bed became known as the Lincoln bed, even though President Lincoln is not known to have slept in it
Military leadership in the American Civil War
Military leadership in the American Civil War was influenced by professional military education and the hard-earned pragmatism of command experience. S. Officer corps of all service branches, lincolns first Secretary of War was Simon Cameron, Edwin M. Stanton was confirmed to replace Cameron in January 1862. Thomas A. Scott was Assistant Secretary of War, gideon Welles was Secretary of the Navy, aided by Assistant Secretary of the Navy Gustavus Fox. When the war began, the American standing army or Regular army consisted of only 1080 commissioned officers and 15,000 enlisted men, although 142 regular officers became Union generals during the war, most remained frozen in their regular units. That stated, most of the major Union wartime commanders had significant previous regular army experience, over the course of the war, the Commanding General of the United States Army was, in order of service, Winfield Scott, George B. McClellan, Henry Halleck, and finally, Ulysses S. Grant, mcPherson Joseph K.
Mansfield George Meade Montgomery C. Union brigade-level officers could receive two different types of Federal commissions, U. S. Army or U. S. Volunteers, while most Civil War generals held volunteer or brevet rank, many generals held both types of commission, regular rank was considered superior. Edward D. Baker Nathaniel Prentice Banks Francis Preston Blair, Jr. Benjamin Franklin Butler Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain John Adams Dix John C. Frémont John Alexander McClernand Daniel Sickles Reflecting the multi-national makeup of the soldiers engaged, several men served the Confederacy as Secretary of War, including Leroy Pope Walker, Judah P. Benjamin, George W. Randolph, James Seddon, and John C. Stephen Mallory was Confederate Secretary of the Navy throughout the conflict, beauregard Milledge Luke Bonham Braxton Bragg Simon Bolivar Buckner, Sr. George B. Magruder Humphrey Marshall Dabney Herndon Maury John Hunt Morgan John C, pemberton George Pickett Edmund Kirby Smith Gustavus Woodson Smith J. E. B.
Several significant Confederate military leaders emerged from state unit commands, confederates did seize several Union Navy vessels in harbor after secession and converted a few into ironclads, like the CSS Virginia. Blockade runners were built and operated by British naval interests, although by late in the war the C. S. Navy operated some, a few new vessels were built or purchased in Britain, notably the CSS Shenandoah and the CSS Alabama. These warships acted as raiders, wreaking havoc with commercial shipping, aggrieved by these losses, in 1871 the U. S. government was awarded damages from Great Britain in the Alabama Claims. New York, McKay,1959, revised 1988, the Class of 1846, From West Point to Appomattox, Stonewall Jackson, George McClellan and their Brothers, New York, Warner,1994. ISBN 0-446-51594-9 American National Biography short biographies by specialists Current, Richard N. et al. eds, Encyclopedia of the Confederacy Dictionary of American Biography 30 vol, 1934–1990, short biographies by specialists Faust, Patricia L.
Historical Times Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Civil War 2000 short entries Heidler, Encyclopedia of the American Civil War, A Political and Military History,1600 entries in 2700 pages in 5 vol or 1-vol editions Woodworth, Steven E. ed. American Civil War, A Handbook of Literature and Research,750 pages of historiography and bibliography
Battle of Shiloh
The Battle of Shiloh, known as the Battle of Pittsburg Landing, was a major battle in the Western Theater of the American Civil War, fought April 6–7,1862, in southwestern Tennessee. A Union force known as the Army of the Tennessee under Major General Ulysses S. T. Beauregard, launched an attack on Grants army from its base in Corinth. Johnston was killed in action during the fighting, who succeeded to command of the army. Overnight Grant was reinforced by one of his own divisions stationed further north and was joined by three divisions from another Union army under Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell. This allowed them to launch a counterattack the next morning which completely reversed the Confederate gains of the previous day. On April 6, the first day of the battle, the Confederates struck with the intention of driving the Union defenders away from the river, Johnston hoped to defeat Grants army before the anticipated arrival of General Buells Army of the Ohio. The Confederate battle lines became confused during the fighting, and Grants men instead fell back to the northeast.
A Union position on a sunken road, nicknamed the Hornets Nest. Benjamin Prentisss and William H. L. Wallaces divisions, provided critical time for the remainder of the Union line to stabilize under the protection of artillery batteries. Wallace was mortally wounded when the position collapsed, while several regiments from the two divisions were surrounded and surrendered. General Johnston was shot in the leg and bled to death while leading an attack. Beauregard, his second in command, acknowledged how tired the army was from the days exertions, Confederate forces were forced to retreat from the area, ending their hopes of blocking the Union advance into northern Mississippi. Smiths orders were to lead raids intended to capture or damage the railroads in southwestern Tennessee, Brig. Gen. William T. Shermans troops arrived from Paducah, Kentucky, to conduct a similar mission to break the railroads near Eastport, Mississippi. Halleck ordered Grant to advance his Army of West Tennessee on an invasion up the Tennessee River, Grant left Fort Henry and headed upriver, arriving at Savannah, Tennessee, on March 14, and established his headquarters on the east bank of the river.
Grants troops set up camp farther upriver, five divisions at Pittsburg Landing, meanwhile, Hallecks command was enlarged through consolidation of Grants and Buells armies and renamed the Department of the Mississippi. With Buells Army of the Ohio under his command, Halleck ordered Buell to concentrate with Grant at Savannah, Buell began a march with much of his army from Nashville and headed southwest toward Savannah. The railroad was a supply line connecting the Mississippi River at Memphis, Tennessee to Richmond. Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant developed a reputation during the war for being concerned with his own plans than with those of the enemy
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D. C. is the capital of the United States. The signing of the Residence Act on July 16,1790, Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress and the District is therefore not a part of any state. The states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, named in honor of President George Washington, the City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia, in 1871. Washington had an population of 681,170 as of July 2016. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the population to more than one million during the workweek. The Washington metropolitan area, of which the District is a part, has a population of over 6 million, the centers of all three branches of the federal government of the United States are in the District, including the Congress and Supreme Court.
Washington is home to national monuments and museums, which are primarily situated on or around the National Mall. The city hosts 176 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of international organizations, trade unions, non-profit organizations, lobbying groups. A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973, the Congress maintains supreme authority over the city and may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, the District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century, One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia.
Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. 43, published January 23,1788, James Madison argued that the new government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance. Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia, known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital, on July 9,1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River. The exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles.
Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory, the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, many of the stones are still standing
The Chattanooga Campaign was a series of maneuvers and battles in October and November 1863, during the American Civil War. Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant was given command of Union forces in the West, significant reinforcements began to arrive with him in Chattanooga from Mississippi and the Eastern Theater. On October 19th, Grant removed Rosecrans from command of the Army of the Cumberland, after opening a supply line to feed his starving men and animals, Grants army fought off a Confederate counterattack at the Battle of Wauhatchie on October 28–29,1863. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman maneuvered to launch an attack against Braggs right flank on Missionary Ridge. On November 24, Shermans men crossed the Tennessee River in the morning, the same day, Eastern Theater troops under Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker defeated the Confederates in the Battle of Lookout Mountain. The next day began a movement toward Braggs left flank at Rossville. On November 25, Shermans attack on Braggs right flank made little progress, hoping to distract Braggs attention, Grant ordered Thomass army to advance in the center of his line to the base of Missionary Ridge.
Braggs defeat eliminated the last significant Confederate control of Tennessee and opened the door to an invasion of the Deep South, Chattanooga was a vital rail hub, and an important manufacturing center for the production of iron and coke, located on the navigable Tennessee River. Rosecrans pursued Bragg and the two collided at the Battle of Chickamauga on September 19–20. Bragg did not cut off the routes to Chattanooga and did not organize a pursuit that might have seriously damaged the Union army before it could regroup. The Union forces took advantage of previous Confederate works to erect defensive positions in a tight. Bragg had three courses of action and he could outflank Rosecrans by crossing the Tennessee either below or above the city, assault the Union force directly in their fortifications, or starve the Federals by establishing a siege line. A direct assault was too costly against a well-fortified enemy, receiving intelligence that Rosecranss men had only six days of rations, Bragg chose the siege option, while attempting to accumulate sufficient logistical capability to cross the Tennessee.
Braggs army besieged the city, threatening to starve the Union forces into surrender, Bragg had little inclination to take offensive action against the Federal army because he was occupied in leadership quarrels within his army. On September 29, Bragg relieved from command two of his subordinates who had disappointed him in the Chickamauga Campaign, Maj. Gen. Thomas C, hindman and Lt. Gen. Leonidas Polk. On October 4, twelve of his most senior generals sent a petition to Confederate President Jefferson Davis, Davis personally visited Chattanooga to hear the complaints. After he decided to retain Bragg in command, Bragg retaliated against some of those generals by relieving Lt. Gen. D. H. Hill and Maj. Gen. Simon B. In Chattanooga, Rosecrans was stunned by the defeat of his army, President Abraham Lincoln remarked that Rosecrans seemed confused and stunned like a duck hit on the head
Battle of Fort Donelson
The Battle of Fort Donelson was fought from February 12–16,1862, in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. The Union capture of the Confederate fort near the Tennessee–Kentucky border opened the Cumberland River, an important avenue for the invasion of the South. The Unions success elevated Brig. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant from an obscure and largely unproven leader to the rank of major general, the battle followed the Union capture of Fort Henry on February 6. Grant moved his army 12 miles overland to Fort Donelson on February 12 and 13, on February 15, with the fort surrounded, the Confederates, commanded by Brig. Gen. John B. Floyd, launched an attack against the right flank of Grants army in an attempt to open an escape route to Nashville. Grant, who was away from the battlefield at the start of the attack, arrived to rally his men, despite achieving partial success and opening the way for a retreat, Floyd lost his nerve and ordered his men back to the fort. The battle of Fort Donelson, which began on February 12, took place shortly after the surrender of Fort Henry, Tennessee, on February 6,1862.
Fort Henry had been a key position in the center of a line defending Tennessee, about 2,500 of Fort Henrys Confederate defenders escaped before its surrender by marching the 12 miles east to Fort Donelson. With the surrender of Fort Henry, the Confederates faced some difficult choices, Grants army now divided Confederate Gen. Albert Sidney Johnstons two main forces, P. G. T. Beauregard at Columbus, with 12,000 men, Fort Donelson had only about 5,000 men. Johnston was apprehensive about the ease with which Union gunboats defeated Fort Henry and he was more concerned about the threat from Buell than he was from Grant, and suspected the river operations might simply be a diversion. Johnston decided upon a course of action that forfeited the initiative across most of his defensive line, Johnston wanted to give command of Fort Donelson to Beauregard, who had performed ably at Bull Run, but the latter declined because of a throat ailment. Instead, the responsibility went to Brig. Gen. John B, who had just arrived following an unsuccessful assignment under Robert E.
Lee in western Virginia. Floyd was a man in the North for alleged graft. Floyds background was political, not military, but he was nevertheless the senior general on the Cumberland River. On the Union side, Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck, Halleck had authorized Grant to capture Fort Henry, but now he felt that continuing to Fort Donelson was risky. Despite Grants success to date, Halleck had little confidence in him, Halleck attempted to convince his own rival, Don Carlos Buell, to take command of the campaign to get his additional forces engaged. Despite Johnstons high regard for Buell, the Union general was as passive as Grant was aggressive
Barack Hussein Obama II is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from 2009 to 2017. He is the first African American to have served as president and he previously served in the U. S. Senate representing Illinois from 2005 to 2008, and in the Illinois State Senate from 1997 to 2004. Obama was born in Honolulu, two years after the territory was admitted to the Union as the 50th state and he grew up mostly in Hawaii, but spent one year of his childhood in Washington State and four years in Indonesia. After graduating from Columbia University in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in Chicago, in 1988 Obama enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he was the first black president of the Harvard Law Review. After graduation, he became a civil rights attorney and professor, Obama represented the 13th District for three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004, when he ran for the U. S. Senate. In 2008, Obama was nominated for president, a year after his campaign began and he was elected over Republican John McCain, and was inaugurated on January 20,2009.
Nine months later, Obama was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate, during his first two years in office, Obama signed more landmark legislation than any Democratic president since LBJs Great Society. Main reforms were the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, after a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, Obama signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, Obama increased U. S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the U. S. -Russian New START treaty, and ended military involvement in the Iraq War. He ordered military involvement in Libya in opposition to Muammar Gaddafi, after winning re-election over Mitt Romney, Obama was sworn in for a second term in 2013. Obama advocated gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, and issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning climate change and immigration. In foreign policy, Obama ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by ISIL after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, Obama left office in January 2017 with a 60% approval rating.
He currently resides in Washington, D. C and his presidential library will be built in Chicago. Obama was born on August 4,1961, at Kapiʻolani Maternity & Gynecological Hospital in Honolulu and he is the only President to have been born in Hawaii. He was born to a mother and a black father. His mother, Ann Dunham, was born in Wichita, Kansas, of mostly English descent, with some German, Scottish and his father, Barack Obama Sr. was a married Luo Kenyan man from Nyangoma Kogelo. Obamas parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, the couple married in Wailuku, Hawaii on February 2,1961, six months before Obama was born. In late August 1961, Obamas mother moved him to the University of Washington in Seattle for a year
George H. W. Bush
George Herbert Walker Bush is an American politician who was the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993 and the 43rd Vice President of the United States from 1981 to 1989. Republican Party, he was previously a congressman, and he is the oldest living former President and Vice President. Prior to his sons presidency, he was referred to as George Bush or President Bush. Bush was born in Milton, Massachusetts, to Prescott Bush and Dorothy Walker Bush. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, Bush postponed his university studies, enlisted in the U. S. Navy on his 18th birthday and he served until the end of the war, attended Yale University. Graduating in 1948, he moved his family to West Texas and entered the oil business, Bush became involved in politics soon after founding his own oil company, serving as a member of the House of Representatives and Director of Central Intelligence, among other positions. He failed to win the Republican nomination for President in 1980, but was chosen as a mate by party nominee Ronald Reagan.
During his tenure, Bush headed administration task forces on deregulation, in 1988, Bush ran a successful campaign to succeed Reagan as President, defeating Democratic opponent Michael Dukakis. Foreign policy drove the Bush presidency, military operations were conducted in Panama and the Persian Gulf, the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, and the Soviet Union dissolved two years later. Domestically, Bush reneged on a 1988 campaign promise and, after a struggle with Congress and his presidential library was dedicated in 1997, and he has been active—often alongside Bill Clinton—in various humanitarian activities. Besides being the 43rd president, his son George served as the 46th Governor of Texas and is one of only two other being John Quincy Adams—to be the son of a former president. His second son, Jeb Bush, served as the 43rd Governor of Florida, George Herbert Walker Bush was born at 173 Adams Street in Milton, Massachusetts, on June 12,1924, to Prescott Sheldon Bush and Dorothy Bush. The Bush family moved from Milton to Greenwich, shortly after his birth, growing up, his nickname was Poppy.
Bush began his education at the Greenwich Country Day School in Greenwich. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, Bush decided to join the US, Navy, so after graduating from Phillips Academy in 1942, he became a naval aviator at the age of 18. He was assigned to Torpedo Squadron as the officer in September 1943. The following year, his squadron was based on USS San Jacinto as a member of Air Group 51, during this time, the task force was victorious in one of the largest air battles of World War II, the Battle of the Philippine Sea. After Bushs promotion to Lieutenant on August 1,1944, San Jacinto commenced operations against the Japanese in the Bonin Islands, Bush piloted one of four Grumman TBM Avenger aircraft from VT-51 that attacked the Japanese installations on Chichijima
In the following eleven weeks after Lees surrender, the American Civil War ended as other Confederate armies surrendered and Confederate government leaders were captured or fled the country. As the Richmond–Petersburg Campaign ended, Lees army was outnumbered and exhausted from a winter of trench warfare over an approximately 40 mi front, numerous battles, hunger, Grants well-equipped and well-fed army was growing in strength. Lee ordered the evacuation of Confederate forces from both Petersburg and Richmond on the night of April 2–3 before Grants army could cut off any escape, Confederate government leaders fled west from Richmond that night. The Confederates marched west, heading toward Danville, Virginia or Lynchburg, Lee planned to resupply his army at one of those cities and march southwest into North Carolina where he could unite his army with the Confederate army commanded by General Joseph E. Johnston. Grants Union Army pursued Lees fleeing Confederates relentlessly, during the next week, the Union troops fought a series of battles with Confederate units, cut off or destroyed Confederate supplies and blocked their paths to the south and ultimately to the west.
On April 6,1865, the Confederate Army suffered a significant defeat at the Battle of Sailors Creek, where they lost about 7,700 men killed and captured, Lee continued to move the remainder of his battered army to the west. Soon cornered, short of food and supplies and outnumbered, Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia to Grant on April 9,1865 at Appomattox Court House, Virginia. By June 18, the Army of Northern Virginia reinforced the Confederate defenders, during the fall of 1864 and the winter of 1864–1865, Grant slowly extended the Union Army line south of Petersburg westward. Lee extended the Confederate line to match the Union moves, the action of the II Corps, which was promptly joined by the V Corps, in moving to protect the attacking force and to defend their advanced positions, resulted in the extension of the lines. Fighting continued in bad weather on February 6 and 7 after which the Union force built trenches, the Confederates matched the Union works by extending their Boydton Plank Road Line to the south and their White Oak Road line to the west.
With the additions, the lines of the south of Petersburg extended 15 miles from the Appomattox River to Hatchers Run. After the Battle of Hatchers Run, Lee knew his army lacked the number of men needed to continue extension of his line, on February 22,1865, Lee advised Confederate States Secretary of War John C. Breckinridge that he expected Grant to draw out his left, with the intent of enveloping me and he told Breckinridge and Lieutenant General James Longstreet that supplies should be collected at Burkeville, Virginia in preparation for the army to move west. Shermans armies already operating in North Carolina, could arrive at Petersburg, after discussing the situation with Major General John B. Gordon on March 4,1865, Lee approved Gordons proposal to attempt to capture or break a portion of the Union lines. Then, Lee could shorten his line and send part of his army to help Johnston in North Carolina, in the alternative, Lee could move his entire army to help take on Sherman first and, if successful, turn the combined Confederate force back against Grant.
On March 24,1865, Grant issued orders for an offensive to begin on March 29,1865, Grant planned for Major General Philip H. Grants top priority was to force an engagement in order to defeat the Confederate army with the railroad raid as a secondary objective. Grant intended that his forces block a Confederate retreat to the west, Grant initially ordered Warrens corps to seize Dinwiddie Court House, where they could capture a segment of the Boydton Plank Road, a task given to Sheridan. Grant ordered Major General Edward Ord, to move units from the Army of the James to fill in the portion of the Petersburg line that the II Corps occupied
Siege of Petersburg
The Richmond–Petersburg Campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, fought from June 9,1864, to March 25,1865, during the American Civil War. Numerous raids were conducted and battles fought in attempts to cut off the Richmond, many of these battles caused the lengthening of the trench lines, overloading dwindling Confederate resources. Lee finally gave in to the pressure and abandoned cities in April 1865, leading to his retreat and surrender at Appomattox Court House. The Siege of Petersburg foreshadowed the trench warfare that was common in World War I and it featured the wars largest concentration of African American troops, who suffered heavy casualties at such engagements as the Battle of the Crater and Chaffins Farm. In March 1864, Ulysses S. Grant was promoted to lieutenant general and was given command of the Union Army. He devised a strategy to apply pressure on the Confederacy from many points. Grant put Maj. Gen. William T, George Crook and William W. Averell to operate against railroad supply lines in West Virginia, and Maj.
Gen. Nathaniel P. Most of these failed, often because of the assignment of generals to Grant for political rather than military reasons. Butlers Army of the James bogged down against inferior forces under Gen. P. G. T, Beauregard before Richmond in the Bermuda Hundred Campaign. Sigel was soundly defeated at the Battle of New Market in May, banks was distracted by the Red River Campaign and failed to move on Mobile. However and Averell were able to cut the last railway linking Virginia and Tennessee, on May 4, Grant and Meades Army of the Potomac crossed the Rapidan River and entered the area known as the Wilderness of Spotsylvania, beginning the six-week Overland Campaign. Grant spent the remainder of May maneuvering and fighting battles with the Confederate army as he attempted to turn Lees flank. Grant knew that his army and base of manpower in the North could sustain a war of attrition better than Lee. This theory was tested at the Battle of Cold Harbor when Grants army once again came into contact with Lees near Mechanicsville and he chose to engage Lees army directly, by ordering a frontal assault on the Confederate fortified positions on June 3.
This attack was repulsed with heavy losses, Cold Harbor was a battle that Grant regretted more than any other and Northern newspapers thereafter frequently referred to him as a butcher. On the night of June 12, Grant again advanced by his left flank and he planned to cross to the south bank of the river, bypassing Richmond, and isolate Richmond by seizing the railroad junction of Petersburg to the south. While Lee remained unaware of Grants intentions, the Union army constructed a pontoon bridge 2,100 feet long, what Lee had feared most of all—that Grant would force him into a siege of Richmond—was poised to occur. This represented a change of strategy from that of the preceding Overland Campaign, Lee at first believed that Grants main target was Richmond and devoted only minimal troops under Gen. P. G. T
September 11 attacks
The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda on the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11,2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, two of the planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers, respectively, of the World Trade Center complex in New York City. A third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia and it was the deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed respectively. Suspicion for the attack fell on al-Qaeda. The United States responded to the attacks by launching the War on Terror and invading Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to prevent terrorist attacks.
Although al-Qaedas leader, Osama bin Laden, initially denied any involvement, al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U. S. support of Israel, the presence of U. S. troops in Saudi Arabia, and sanctions against Iraq as motives. Having evaded capture for almost a decade, bin Laden was located and killed by SEAL Team Six of the U. S. Navy in May 2011. S. many closings and cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, on November 18,2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site. The building was opened on November 3,2014. The origins of al-Qaeda can be traced to 1979 when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, Osama bin Laden traveled to Afghanistan and helped organize Arab mujahideen to resist the Soviets. Under the guidance of Ayman al-Zawahiri, bin Laden became more radical, in 1996, bin Laden issued his first fatwā, calling for American soldiers to leave Saudi Arabia. Bin Laden used Islamic texts to exhort Muslims to attack Americans until the stated grievances are reversed, Muslim legal scholars have throughout Islamic history unanimously agreed that the jihad is an individual duty if the enemy destroys the Muslim countries, according to bin Laden.
Bin Laden, who orchestrated the attacks, initially denied but admitted involvement, in November 2001, U. S. forces recovered a videotape from a destroyed house in Jalalabad, Afghanistan. In the video, bin Laden is seen talking to Khaled al-Harbi, on December 27,2001, a second bin Laden video was released. In the video, he said, It has become clear that the West in general and it is the hatred of crusaders. Terrorism against America deserves to be praised because it was a response to injustice, aimed at forcing America to stop its support for Israel, the transcript refers several times to the United States specifically targeting Muslims. He said that the attacks were carried out because, we are free, and want to regain freedom for our nation. As you undermine our security we undermine yours, Bin Laden said he had personally directed his followers to attack the World Trade Center and the Pentagon