In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
Wrigley Field (Los Angeles)
Not to be confused with Chicago's Wrigley Field. Wrigley Field was a ballpark on the West Coast of the United States, located in Los Angeles, California, it hosted minor league baseball teams in the region for over 30 years. It was the home park for the Los Angeles Angels during their run in the Pacific Coast League, as well as their inaugural season as a major league team in 1961; the park was designed by Zachary Taylor Davis, who had designed both Chicago ballparks: Comiskey Park and Wrigley Field. The ballpark was used as the backdrop for several Hollywood films about baseball, as well as the TV series Home Run Derby. Called Wrigley's "Million Dollar Palace", Wrigley Field was built in South Los Angeles in 1925, was named after William Wrigley Jr. the chewing gum magnate. Wrigley owned the first tenants, the original Los Angeles Angels, a Pacific Coast League team and their parent club the Chicago Cubs. In 1925, the Angels moved from their former home at Washington Park, known as Chutes Park.
Wrigley's Major League home in north Chicago was named for him in 1926. Wrigley Field in Los Angeles was built to resemble Spanish-style architecture and a somewhat scaled-down version of the Chicago ballpark as it looked at the time, it was the first of the two ballparks to bear Wrigley's name, as the Chicago park was named for Wrigley over a year after the L. A. park's opening. At the time, he owned Santa Catalina Island, the Cubs were holding their spring training in that island's city of Avalon; the playing field was aligned northeast at an elevation of 185 feet above sea level. The boundary street in right field was Avalon Boulevard, with a small parking lot; the other boundaries of the block were 41st Street, 42nd Place, San Pedro Street. Not only did L. A. Wrigley get its name first, it had more on-site parking. Lights were added to the park in 1930; the ballpark's dimensions were cozy but symmetrical, giving a nearly equal chance to right and left-handed batters in the Home Run Derby series.
The only difference was that the height of the left field wall was 14.5 feet, whereas the right field fence was only 9 feet high. For 33 seasons, 1925 to 1957, the park was home to the Angels, who were a farm team of the Chicago Cubs from 1921–56. For 11 seasons, the park was the home of another PCL team, the Hollywood Stars. In 1930, the Angels and Stars combined to draw over 850,000 fans, more than the two major league teams in St. Louis drew that season; the Stars moved to their own new ballpark, Gilmore Field, just west of the Pan Pacific Auditorium. Angel players of note included future Dodgers Manager and Hall of Fame member Tommy Lasorda, future Phillies and Angels Manager Gene Mauch, actor Chuck Connors, Gene Baker, Andy Pafko; the parent club, Chicago Cubs were the first major league team to play at Wrigley, when they played the Angels in a spring training game in 1926. Years on March 20, 1949, The major league Cubs played the defending world champion Cleveland Indians in a spring training game before 24,517.
On February 21, 1957, the Dodgers bought Wrigley Field, the Angels franchise and their territorial rights for $3 million. L. A. Wrigley's minor league baseball days ended when the Brooklyn Dodgers of the National League transferred to Los Angeles in 1958; the Pacific Coast League Angels franchise were forced to relocate, ending up in Spokane, Washington, as the Indians, with a brand-new stadium. The use of Wrigley, enlarging it was studied by the Dodgers, as well as the Rose Bowl in Pasadena and the Los Angeles Coliseum; the Dodgers opted for seating capacity over suitability as a baseball field, instead set up shop for four seasons in the 93,000-seat L. A. Coliseum while awaiting construction of the baseball-only Dodger Stadium, which has a set capacity of 56,000; the decision to play at the Coliseum was vindicated when the Dodgers won the 1959 World Series over the Chicago White Sox, with all three games played at the Coliseum attracting over 92,000 fans including the World Series single game attendance record of 92,706 for game 5 of the series.
In October 1960, Major League Baseball added two teams, expanding the American League from 8 to 10 teams. Teams were awarded to Los Angeles and Washington, D. C; the L. A. franchise was awarded to Gene Autry and Bob Reynolds, was again called the Los Angeles Angels. In 1961, the MLB L. A. Angels, by agreement, took residence at Wrigley for its inaugural season; the agreement had been criticized, with the Dodgers playing the 1961 season at the nearby Coliseum. Wrigley Field had been considered an "abandoned minor league stadium" in a "declining neighborhood" with "terrible parking."The home opener on April 27 was a 4–2 loss to the Minnesota Twins before a crowd of only 11,931. Vice President Richard Nixon and Casey Stengel were in attendance, along with Ford Frick, Joe Cronin, Ty Cobb; the last major league game at Wrigley was on October 1, Cleveland beat the Angels 8–5 before 9,868 fans. Steve Bilko hit the last home run in Wrigley; the Angels set a still-standing first-season expansion-team record with 71 wins finishing 71–91.
Thanks to its cozy power alleys, the park became the setting for a real-life version of Home Run Derby, setting another record by yielding 248 home runs. The 1961 Angels were led in hitting b
Lionel Leo Hampton was an American jazz vibraphonist, pianist and bandleader. Hampton worked with jazz musicians from Teddy Wilson, Benny Goodman, Buddy Rich to Charlie Parker, Charles Mingus, Quincy Jones. In 1992, he was inducted into the Alabama Jazz Hall of Fame, was awarded the National Medal of Arts in 1996. Lionel Hampton was born in 1908 in Louisville and was raised by his mother. Shortly after he was born, he and his mother moved to her hometown of Alabama, he spent his early childhood in Kenosha, before he and his family moved to Chicago, Illinois, in 1916. As a youth, Hampton was a member of the Bud Billiken Club, an alternative to the Boy Scouts of America, off-limits because of racial segregation. During the 1920s, while still a teenager, Hampton took xylophone lessons from Jimmy Bertrand and began to play drums. Hampton was raised Roman Catholic, started out playing fife and drum at the Holy Rosary Academy near Chicago. Lionel Hampton began his career playing drums for the Chicago Defender Newsboys' Band while still a teenager in Chicago.
He moved to California in 1928, playing drums for the Dixieland Blues-Blowers. He made his recording debut with The Quality Serenaders led by Paul Howard left for Culver City and drummed for the Les Hite band at Sebastian's Cotton Club. One of his trademarks as a drummer was his ability to do stunts with multiple pairs of sticks such as twirling and juggling without missing a beat. During this period he began practicing on the vibraphone. In 1930 Louis Armstrong came to California and hired the Les Hite band, asking Hampton if he would play vibes on two songs. So began his career as a vibraphonist, popularizing the use of the instrument in the process. Invented ten years earlier, the vibraphone is a xylophone with metal bars, a sustain pedal, resonators equipped with electric-powered fans that add tremolo. While working with the Les Hite band, Hampton occasionally did some performing with Nat Shilkret and his orchestra. During the early 1930s, he studied music at the University of Southern California.
In 1934 he led his own orchestra, appeared in the Bing Crosby film Pennies From Heaven alongside Louis Armstrong. In November 1936, the Benny Goodman Orchestra came to Los Angeles to play the Palomar Ballroom; when John Hammond brought Goodman to see Hampton perform, Goodman invited him to join his trio, which soon became the Benny Goodman Quartet with Teddy Wilson and Gene Krupa completing the lineup. The Trio and Quartet were among the first racially integrated jazz groups to perform before audiences, were a leading small-group of the day. While Hampton worked for Goodman in New York, he recorded with several different small groups known as the Lionel Hampton Orchestra, as well as assorted small groups within the Goodman band. In 1940 Hampton left the Goodman organization under amicable circumstances to form his own big band. Hampton's orchestra developed a high-profile during early 1950s, his third recording with them in 1942 produced the version of "Flying Home", featuring a solo by Illinois Jacquet that anticipated rhythm & blues.
Although Hampton first recorded "Flying Home" under his own name with a small group in 1940 for Victor, the best known version is the big band version recorded for Decca on May 26, 1942, in a new arrangement by Hampton's pianist Milt Buckner. The 78pm disc became successful enough for Hampton to record "Flyin' Home #2" in 1944, this time a feature for Arnett Cobb; the song went on to become the theme song for all three men. Guitarist Billy Mackel first joined Hampton in 1944, would perform and record with him continuously through to the late 1970s. In 1947, Hamp performed "Stardust" at a "Just Jazz" concert for producer Gene Norman featuring Charlie Shavers and Slam Stewart. Norman's GNP Crescendo label issued the remaining tracks from the concert. From the mid-1940s until the early 1950s, Hampton led a lively rhythm & blues band whose Decca Records recordings included numerous young performers who had significant careers, they included bassist Charles Mingus, saxophonist Johnny Griffin, guitarist Wes Montgomery, vocalist Dinah Washington.
Other noteworthy band members were trumpeters Dizzy Gillespie, Cat Anderson, Kenny Dorham, Snooky Young. The Hampton orchestra that toured Europe in 1953 included Clifford Brown, Gigi Gryce, Anthony Ortega, Monk Montgomery, George Wallington, Art Farmer, Quincy Jones, singer Annie Ross. Hampton continued to record with small groups and jam sessions during the 1940s and 1950s, with Oscar Peterson, Buddy DeFranco, others. In 1955, while in California working on The Benny Goodman Story he recorded with Stan Getz and made two albums with Art Tatum for Norman Granz as well as with his own big band. Hampton performed with Louis Armstrong and Italian singer Lara Saint Paul at the 1968 Sanremo Music Festival in Italy; the performance created a sensation with Italian audiences. That same year, Hampton received a Papal Medal from Pope Paul VI. During the 1960s, Hampton's groups were in decline, he did not fare much better in the 1970s, though he recorded for his Who's Who in Jazz record label, which he founded in 1977/1978.
Beginning in February 1984, Hampton and his band played at the University of Idaho's annual jazz festival, renamed the Lionel Hampton Jazz Festival the following year. In 1987 the UI's school of music was renamed for Hampto
Advertising is a marketing communication that employs an sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea. Sponsors of advertising are businesses wishing to promote their products or services. Advertising is differentiated from public relations in that an advertiser pays for and has control over the message, it differs from personal selling in that the message is non-personal, i.e. not directed to a particular individual. Advertising is communicated through various mass media, including traditional media such as newspapers, television, outdoor advertising or direct mail; the actual presentation of the message in a medium is referred to as an advertisement, or "ad" or advert for short. Commercial ads seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through "branding", which associates a product name or image with certain qualities in the minds of consumers. On the other hand, ads that intend to elicit an immediate sale are known as direct-response advertising.
Non-commercial entities that advertise more than consumer products or services include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Non-profit organizations may use free modes such as a public service announcement. Advertising may help to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful. Modern advertising originated with the techniques introduced with tobacco advertising in the 1920s, most with the campaigns of Edward Bernays, considered the founder of modern, "Madison Avenue" advertising. Worldwide spending on advertising in 2015 amounted to an estimated US$529.43 billion. Advertising's projected distribution for 2017 was 40.4% on TV, 33.3% on digital, 9% on newspapers, 6.9% on magazines, 5.8% on outdoor and 4.3% on radio. Internationally, the largest advertising-agency groups are Dentsu, Omnicom, WPP. In Latin, advertere means "to turn towards". Egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters. Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii and ancient Arabia.
Lost and found advertising on papyrus was common in ancient ancient Rome. Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, present to this day in many parts of Asia and South America; the tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock art paintings that date back to 4000 BC. In ancient China, the earliest advertising known was oral, as recorded in the Classic of Poetry of bamboo flutes played to sell confectionery. Advertisement takes in the form of calligraphic signboards and inked papers. A copper printing plate dated back to the Song dynasty used to print posters in the form of a square sheet of paper with a rabbit logo with "Jinan Liu's Fine Needle Shop" and "We buy high-quality steel rods and make fine-quality needles, to be ready for use at home in no time" written above and below is considered the world's earliest identified printed advertising medium. In Europe, as the towns and cities of the Middle Ages began to grow, the general population was unable to read, instead of signs that read "cobbler", "miller", "tailor", or "blacksmith", images associated with their trade would be used such as a boot, a suit, a hat, a clock, a diamond, a horseshoe, a candle or a bag of flour.
Fruits and vegetables were sold in the city square from the backs of carts and wagons and their proprietors used street callers to announce their whereabouts. The first compilation of such advertisements was gathered in "Les Crieries de Paris", a thirteenth-century poem by Guillaume de la Villeneuve. In the 18th century advertisements started to appear in weekly newspapers in England; these early print advertisements were used to promote books and newspapers, which became affordable with advances in the printing press. However, false advertising and so-called "quack" advertisements became a problem, which ushered in the regulation of advertising content. Thomas J. Barratt of London has been called "the father of modern advertising". Working for the Pears Soap company, Barratt created an effective advertising campaign for the company products, which involved the use of targeted slogans and phrases. One of his slogans, "Good morning. Have you used Pears' soap?" was famous in its day and into the 20th century.
Barratt introduced many of the crucial ideas that lie behind successful advertising and these were circulated in his day. He stressed the importance of a strong and exclusive brand image for Pears and of emphasizing the product's availability through saturation campaigns, he understood the importance of reevaluating the market for changing tastes and mores, stating in 1907 that "tastes change, fashions change, the advertiser has to change with them. An idea, effective a generation ago would fall flat and unprofitable if presented to the public today. Not that the idea of today is always better than the older idea, but it is different – it hits the present taste."As the economy expanded across the world during the 19th century, advertising grew alongside. In the United States, the success of this advertising format led to the growth of mail-order advertising. In June 1836, French newspaper La Presse was the first to include paid advertising in its pages, allowing it to lower its price, extend its readership and increase its profitability and the formula was soon copied by all titles.
Around 1840, Volney B. Palmer established the roo
El Monte, California
El Monte is a residential and commercial city in Los Angeles County, the United States. The city lies in the San Gabriel Valley east of the city of Los Angeles. El Monte's slogan is "Welcome to Friendly El Monte" and is known as "The End of the Santa Fe Trail"; as of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 113,475, down from 115,965 at the 2000 census. As of 2010, El Monte was the 51st largest city in California. El Monte is situated between the San Rio Hondo Rivers. Between 1770 and 1830, Spanish soldiers and missionaries stopped here for respite, they called the area'El Monte,' which in Spanish means'the mountain' or'the mount'. Most people assume the name refers to a mountain; the word is an archaic Spanish translation of that era, meaning "the wood". The first explorers had found this a rich, low-altitude land, blanketed with thick growths of wispy willows and cattails, located between the two rivers. Wild grapevines and watercress abounded. El Monte is 7 miles long and 4 miles wide.
When the State Legislature organized California into more manageable designated townships in the 1850s, they called it the El Monte Township. In a short time the name returned to the original El Monte; the area, beside the San Gabriel River, was part of the homeland of the Tongva people for thousands of years. The Spanish Portolá expedition of missionaries and soldiers passed through the area in 1769-1770; the site was within the Spanish land grant Rancho La Puente. Mission San Gabriel Arcángel was the center of colonial activities in the area. Using the Old Spanish Trail route at the end of 1841, a group of travelers and settlers, now referred to as the Workman-Rowland Party, arrived in the Pueblo of Los Angeles and this area in Alta California from Santa Fe de Nuevo México; the Old Spanish Trail from Santa Fe was continued east via the Santa Fe Trail trade route, established in 1821 as a trail and wagon road connecting Kansas City in Missouri Territory to Santa Fe, still within México. From 1847, The Santa Fe Trail was connected westward through the Southern Emigrant Trail, passing by the El Monte area, to the Pueblo of Los Angeles.
Immigrant settlement began in 1849, El Monte was a stopping place for the American immigrants going to the gold fields during the California Gold Rush. The first permanent residents arrived in El Monte around 1849-1850 from Texas and Missouri, during a time when thousands migrated to California in search of gold; the first settlers with families were Nicholas Schmidt, Ira W. Thompson, G. and F. Cuddeback, J. Corbin, J. Sheldon; these migrants ventured upon the bounty of fruitful, rich land along the San Gabriel River and began to build homesteads there. The farmers were pleased at the increasing success of El Monte's agricultural community, it grew over the years. In the 1850s the settlement was named Lexington by American settlers, but soon returned to being called El Monte or Monte, it was at the crossroad of routes between Los Angeles, San Bernardino, the natural harbor at San Pedro. In the early days, it had a reputation as a rough town where men settled disputes with knives and guns in its gambling saloons.
Defense against Indian raids and the crimes of bandit gangs, such as that of Joaquin Murrieta, led to the formation of a local militia company called the Monte Rangers in February 1854. After the Monte Rangers disbanded, justice for Los Angeles County, in the form of volunteer posses, as in the 1857 hunt for the bandit gang of Juan Flores and Pancho Daniel, or a lynching, was provided by the local vigilantes called the "El Monte Boys". In 1858 the adobe Monte Station was established, a stagecoach stop on the Butterfield Overland Mail Section 2 route. By 1861 El Monte had become a sizeable settlement, during the American Civil War was considered a Confederate stronghold sympathetic to the secession of Southern California from California to support the Confederate States of America. A. J. King an Undersheriff of Los Angeles County with other influential men in El Monte, formed a secessionist militia company, like the Los Angeles Mounted Rifles, called the Monte Mounted Rifles on March 23, 1861.
However the attempt failed when following the battle of Fort Sumter, A. J. King marched through the streets with a portrait of the Confederate General P. G. T. Beauregard and was arrested by a U. S. Marshal. State arms sent from Governor John G. Downey for the unit were held up by Union officers at the port of San Pedro. Union troops established New Camp Carleton near the town in March 1862 to suppress any rebellion, it was shut down three years at the end of the war. El Monte was listed as a township in the 1860 and 1870 Censuses, with a population of 1,004 in 1860 and 1,254 in 1870; the 1860 township comprised several of the old ranchos in the El Monte area, including Rancho Potrero Grande, Rancho La Puente and Rancho La Merced.. The 1870 census added in the former Azusa township. Southern Pacific built a railroad depot in town in 1873, stimulating the growth of local agriculture. El Monte was incorporated as a municipality in 1912. During the 1930s, the city became a vital site for the New Deal's federal Subsistence Homestead project, a Resettlement Administration program that helped grant single-family ranch houses to qualifying applicants.
It became home to many 1930s white immigrants from the Dust Bowl Migration. Famous photographer Dorothea Lange took many pictures of the houses for her work for the Farm Security Admin
Kool is an American brand of menthol cigarette owned and manufactured by ITG Brands LLC, a subsidiary of Imperial Tobacco Company. Kool cigarettes sold. Launched in 1933 by Brown and Williamson as an unfiltered 70-millimeter "regular" cigarette, Kool was the first popular menthol cigarette. Spud cigarettes, introduced in 1927 by the Axton-Fisher Tobacco Company, had been the first menthol cigarette to be distributed and marketed nationwide, but Kool overtook them in sales. Kool enjoyed continued success through the 1950s. A 1953 Roper survey showed that two percent of white Americans and five percent of African Americans preferred the Kool brand. Growing public concern about the health risks associated with smoking prompted Brown and Williamson responded to release filtered varieties of Kool: an 85-millimeter "king-sized" version in the 1960s, followed by a 100-millimeter or "long" version in the 1970s; the 1980s saw the introduction of Kool lights and a loss of marketshare to other menthol brands, such as Newport.
In 2003, Brown and Williamson was purchased by the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, making Kool a Reynolds brand; the iconic green and white pack unchanged for some seventy years, was overhauled, the original unfiltered Kool cigarette was discontinued. These changes did little to boost sales. In 2015 a merger between Reynolds American and the Lorillard Tobacco Company brought the Kool brand into the Imperial Tobacco Company portfolio of properties. Kool cigarette advertising began with the character of "Willie" the penguin, portrayed as several different professions, among which were a doctor, a soldier and a chef. In the early 1950s, the company placed a number of decal signs at entrance doors reading "Come in... it's Kool inside", indicating that the space is air-conditioned. In the early 1960s, the image of the cartoon penguin was no longer used, Kool instead began marketing their cigarettes by linking the country fresh, relaxingly cool taste of menthol to cool outdoor scenes portraying water or snow.
Former Kool Models include Steve Tyler. In 1971, Kool initiated an advertising campaign where consumers could mail order a Snark sailboat with the Kool logo on the sail — for $88 along with one Kool carton flap — including delivery; the sailboats retailed at the time for $120. As one of Kool's highest scoring ads, the company received over 18,000 orders for "Sea Snarks" in 1971; the Snark/Kool campaign won a national POPI award as the most creative and inventive ad of 1971. The Kool Snark promotion was repeated in 1972, adding option payment through charge cards — and again in 1975 for $139. During the 1970s and 1980s, Kool sponsored jazz festivals and many advertisements from the era featured a musician or an actor, playing a saxophone. Kool was notoriously targeted to African-Americans, as were many menthol cigarettes. In 1975, Kool held a sweepstakes with a Rolls-Royce Corniche as the prize. Kool was the main sponsor of Team KOOL Green in the CART series from the 1997 season until the 2002 season.
In 2002, after the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement passed, Kool cigarettes could not be displayed on the cars for the IRL's Indianapolis 500, the logo was replaced with 7-Eleven. Kool cigarettes are sold in the United States, but were or still are sold in Canada, Antigua, Jamaica, Colombia, Germany, Switzerland, Spain and Australia; the Estonian Patent Office denied permission for the Kool trademark to be used in Estonia because the name means "school" in the Estonian language. Kool is available in the following styles in the United States: Green - Filter Kings & Super Longs Blue - Filter Kings & Super Longs Previously, Kool XL, a wider cigarette, was available. Official website Gallery of classic graphic design featuring Kool cigarettes
Radio broadcasting is transmission by radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast a common radio format, either in broadcast syndication or simulcast or both; the signal types can be digital audio. The earliest radio stations did not carry audio. For audio broadcasts to be possible, electronic detection and amplification devices had to be incorporated; the thermionic valve was invented in 1904 by the English physicist John Ambrose Fleming. He developed a device he called an "oscillation valve"; the heated filament, or cathode, was capable of thermionic emission of electrons that would flow to the plate when it was at a higher voltage. Electrons, could not pass in the reverse direction because the plate was not heated and thus not capable of thermionic emission of electrons. Known as the Fleming valve, it could be used as a rectifier of alternating current and as a radio wave detector; this improved the crystal set which rectified the radio signal using an early solid-state diode based on a crystal and a so-called cat's whisker.
However, what was still required was an amplifier. The triode was patented on March 4, 1906, by the Austrian Robert von Lieben independent from that, on October 25, 1906, Lee De Forest patented his three-element Audion, it wasn't put to practical use until 1912 when its amplifying ability became recognized by researchers. By about 1920, valve technology had matured to the point where radio broadcasting was becoming viable. However, an early audio transmission that could be termed a broadcast may have occurred on Christmas Eve in 1906 by Reginald Fessenden, although this is disputed. While many early experimenters attempted to create systems similar to radiotelephone devices by which only two parties were meant to communicate, there were others who intended to transmit to larger audiences. Charles Herrold started broadcasting in California in 1909 and was carrying audio by the next year.. In The Hague, the Netherlands, PCGG started broadcasting on November 6, 1919, making it, arguably the first commercial broadcasting station.
In 1916, Frank Conrad, an electrical engineer employed at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, began broadcasting from his Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania garage with the call letters 8XK. The station was moved to the top of the Westinghouse factory building in East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Westinghouse relaunched the station as KDKA on November 2, 1920, as the first commercially licensed radio station in America; the commercial broadcasting designation came from the type of broadcast license. The first licensed broadcast in the United States came from KDKA itself: the results of the Harding/Cox Presidential Election; the Montreal station that became CFCF began broadcast programming on May 20, 1920, the Detroit station that became WWJ began program broadcasts beginning on August 20, 1920, although neither held a license at the time. In 1920, wireless broadcasts for entertainment began in the UK from the Marconi Research Centre 2MT at Writtle near Chelmsford, England. A famous broadcast from Marconi's New Street Works factory in Chelmsford was made by the famous soprano Dame Nellie Melba on 15 June 1920, where she sang two arias and her famous trill.
She was the first artist of international renown to participate in direct radio broadcasts. The 2MT station began to broadcast regular entertainment in 1922; the BBC was amalgamated in 1922 and received a Royal Charter in 1926, making it the first national broadcaster in the world, followed by Czech Radio and other European broadcasters in 1923. Radio Argentina began scheduled transmissions from the Teatro Coliseo in Buenos Aires on August 27, 1920, making its own priority claim; the station got its license on November 19, 1923. The delay was due to the lack of official Argentine licensing procedures before that date; this station continued regular broadcasting of entertainment and cultural fare for several decades. Radio in education soon followed and colleges across the U. S. began adding radio broadcasting courses to their curricula. Curry College in Milton, Massachusetts introduced one of the first broadcasting majors in 1932 when the college teamed up with WLOE in Boston to have students broadcast programs.
Broadcasting service is – according to Article 1.38 of the International Telecommunication Union´s Radio Regulations – defined as «A radiocommunication service in which the transmission are intended for direct reception by the general public. This service may include sound transmissions, television transmissions or other types of transmission.» Definitions identical to those contained in the Annexes to the Constitution and Convention of the International Telecommunication Union are marked "" or "" respectively. A radio broadcasting station is associated with wireless transmission, though in practice broadcasting transmission take place using both wires and radio waves; the point of this is that anyone with the appropriate receiving technology can receive the broadcast. In line to ITU Radio Regulations each broadcasting station shall be classified by the service in which it operates permanently or temporarily. Broadcasting by radio takes several forms; these include FM stations. There are several subtypes, namely commercial broadcasting, non-commercial educational public broadcasting and non-profit varieties as well as community radio, student-run campus radio stations, and