Federation Square is a venue for arts and public events on the edge of the Melbourne central business district. It covers an area of 3.2 ha at the intersection of Flinders and Swanston Streets built above busy railway lines and across the road from Flinders Street station. It incorporates major cultural institutions such as the Ian Potter Centre and ACMI and Koorie Heritage Trust as well as cafes and bars in a series of buildings centred around a large paved square, a glass walled atrium; the corner is occupied by a glass walled pavilion that provides access to the underground Melbourne Visitor Centre. Melbourne's central city grid was designed without a central public square, long seen as a missing element. From the 1920s there were proposals to roof the railway yards on the southeast corner of Flinders and Swanston Streets for a public square, with more detailed proposals prepared in the 1950s and 1960s. In the 1960s, the Melbourne City Council decided that the best place for the City Square was the corner of Swanston and Collins Streets, opposite the town hall.
The first temporary square opened in 1968, a permanent version opened in 1981. It was however not considered a great success, was redeveloped in the 1990s as a smaller simpler space in front of a new large hotel. Meanwhile, the railway yards had been roofed by the construction of the Princes Gate Towers, known as the Gas & Fuel Buildings after their major tenant, the Gas and Fuel Corporation over the old Princes Bridge station, in the 1960s; this included a plaza on the corner, elevated above the street and little used. Between that and Batman Avenue, which ran along the north bank of the Yarra River, were the extensive Jolimont Railway Yards, the through train lines running into Flinders Street station under Swanston Street. In 1996 the Premier Jeff Kennett announced the much-hated Gas & Fuel Buildings would be demolished, the railyards roofed and a complex including arts facilities and a large public space would be built, it was to be named Federation Square, opened in time to celebrate the centenary of Australia's Federation in 2001, would include performing arts facilities, a gallery, a cinemedia centre, the public space, a glazed wintergarden, ancillary cafe and retail spaces.
An architectural design competition was announced. Five designs were shortlisted, which included entries from high-profile Melbourne architects Denton Corker Marshall and Ashton Raggatt McDougall, lesser known Sydney architect Chris Elliott, London based Jenny Lowe/Adrian Hawker; the winner announced in July 1997, was a consortium of Lab Architecture Studio directed by Donald Bates and Peter Davidson from London, Karres en Brands Landscape Architects directed by Sylvia Karres and Bart Brands, who joined with local architects Bates Smart for the second stage. The design costed at between $110 and $128 million, was complex and irregular, with angled'cranked' geometries predominating in both the planning and the facade treatment of the various buildings and the wintergardens that surrounded and defined the open spaces. A series of'shards' provided vertical accents, while interconnected laneways and stairways and the wintergarden would connect Flinders Street to the Yarra River; the open square was arranged as a sloping amphitheatre, focussed on a large viewing screen for public events, with a secondary sloped plaza area on the main corner.
The design was supported by the design community but was less popular with the public. The design was soon criticized when it was realised that the western freestanding'shard' would block views of the south front of St Paul's Cathedral from Princes Bridge; the mix of occupants and tenants were soon modified, with the cinemedia centre becoming the new body known as ACMI, as well as including offices for multicultural broadcaster SBS and the gallery space becoming the Australian art wing of the National Gallery of Victoria, the performance arts space was dropped, the number of commercial tenancies increased, with a new rearranged design revealed in late 1998. After the 1999 State election, while construction was well underway, the incoming Bracks Government ordered a report by the University of Melbourne's Professor Evan Walker into the western shard, which concluded in February 2000 that the "heritage vista" towards St Paul's cathedral should be preserved, the shard be no more than 8m in height.
Budgets on the project blew out due to the initial cost being under estimated, given the expense of covering the railyards, changes to the brief, the need to resolve construction methods for the angular design, the long delays. Among measures taken to cut costs was concreting areas designed for paving; the final cost of construction was $467 million, the main funding from the state government, with $64 million from the City of Melbourne, some from the federal government, while private operators and sponsors paid for fitouts or naming rights. The square was opened on 26 October 2002. Unlike many Australian landmarks, it was not opened by the reigning monarch, Elizabeth II, nor was she invited to its unveiling. In 2006, Federation Wharf redeveloped the vaults under Princes Walk into a large bar, with extensive outdoor areas on the Yarra riverbank, with elevator access to Federation Square. Several proposals have been prepared for the area known as Federation Square East, the remaining area of railyards to the east.
There have been proposals for office towers and, more a combination of open space and a hotel, or another campus for the National Gallery of Victoria to h
Walter Baldwin Spencer
Sir Walter Baldwin Spencer referred to as W. Baldwin Spencer or Baldwin Spencer, was an English-Australian biologist and anthropologist. Baldwin was born in Lancashire, his father, Reuben Spencer, who had come from Derbyshire in his youth, obtained a position with Rylands and Sons, cotton manufacturers, rose to be chairman of its board of directors when Rylands became a company. Baldwin was educated at Old Trafford school, on leaving entered the Manchester School of Art, he never forgot his training in drawing. After leaving the school of arts Spencer went to Owens College where Milnes Marshall guided him in his study of biology, he gained a scholarship at Oxford. Before going to Oxford he won the Dalton Prize for natural history. Spencer began his studies at Oxford in 1881. In June 1884 he qualified for his BA degree. In 1885 he became assistant to Professor Moseley and shortly afterwards had valuable experience helping him and Professor Tylor to remove the Lane-Fox Pitt-Rivers collection from South Kensington to Oxford.
His association with these distinguished men in this task no doubt helped to develop his interest in anthropology and museum work. In January 1886 he obtained a fellowship at Oxford, he had contributed various papers to scientific journals, one of which, on the Pineal eye in lizards, had aroused much interest, having applied for the professorship of biology at Melbourne in June 1886 was elected to that chair in January 1887. A few days he was married to Mary Elizabeth Bowman and left for Australia where he arrived in March, he set about organising his new school and succeeded in getting a grant of £8000 to begin building his lecture rooms and laboratories. He showed much capability as a lecturer and organiser, took a full part in the general activities of the university, his interests were not confined to his university duties. In 1894 a new field was opened up for Spencer when he joined the W. A. Horn scientific expedition which left Adelaide in May 1894 to explore Australia. In July he met Francis James Gillen at Alice Springs with whom he was to be so much associated in the study of the Aborigines.
The expedition covered some 2000 miles in about three months and on his return Spencer busied himself with editing the report to which he largely contributed. It was published in 1896. In November 1896 Spencer was again at Alice Springs beginning the work with Gillen which resulted in Native Tribes of Central Australia, published in 1899 and opposed by Carl Strehlow and Moritz von Leonhardi, he continued this work with Gillen during the vacations of the two following years. A large amount of material relating to tribal customs was accumulated, the book appeared with the names of both Gillen and Spencer on the title page. Spencer was recruited as science writer for the Australasian by David Watterston. Spencer had been appointed a trustee of the public library in 1895; when Sir Frederick McCoy died in May 1899 he became honorary director of the national museum. He was to do an enormous amount of work in the following years, to present to the museum many valuable collections of sacred and ceremonial Aboriginal objects collected during his journeys.
He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, London, in 1900 and in 1901 spent 12 months in the field with Gillen going from Oodnadatta to Powell Creek and eastward to Borraloola on the Gulf of Carpentaria. Their experiences and studies formed the basis of the next book, The Northern Tribes of Central Australia, which appeared in 1904, dedicated to David Syme, who had given £1000 towards the cost of the expedition. In this year Spencer became president of the professorial board, an office he was to hold for seven years. There was no paid vice-chancellor at Melbourne university and much administrative work fell on Spencer's shoulders. Outside of these duties, he took an interest in the sporting activities of the undergraduates. In 1911 at the request of the Commonwealth government he led an expedition in the Northern Territory sent to make inquiries into conditions there, in the following year he published his Across Australia and accepted the position of special commissioner and chief protector of Aborigines.
The story of this will be found in Native Tribes of the Northern Territory of Australia. In 1914 Spencer was honorary secretary for the meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science held in Melbourne, he did work for the national museum. In 1916 at the request of the Felton Bequest's committee he went to England to obtain an art adviser for the Felton Bequest, he took an interest in Australian artists. He had been made CMG in 1904 and in 1916 he was created a KCMG in 1919 he resigned his professorship and in 1920 became vice-president of the trustees of the public library of Victoria. Spencer was awarded the Clarke Medal in 1923. Spencer paid two more visits to the centre of Australia, one in 1923 with Dr Leonard Keith Ward, the government geologist of South Australia, the other in 1926; these visits enabled Spencer to revise his earlier researches and consider on the spot various opposing theories, brought forward. His The Arunta: a Study of a Stone Age People and reaffirms his earlier conclusions.
Wanderings in Wild Australia, published a year and mor
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
En plein air
En plein air is the act of painting outdoors. This method contrasts with academic rules that might create a predetermined look. Artists have long painted outdoors, but in the mid-19th century, working in natural light became important to the Barbizon school, Hudson River School, Impressionists. In 1830, the Barbizon School in France, inspired by John Constable, enabled artists like Charles-François Daubigny and Théodore Rousseau to more depict the appearance of outdoor settings in various light and weather conditions. In the late 1800s, the en plein air approach was incorporated with the impressionists’ style, artists such as Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Frédéric Bazille, Edgar Degas began creating their work outdoors. From France, the movement expanded to America, starting in California moving to other American locales notable for their natural light qualities, including the Hudson River Valley in New York; the Macchiaioli were a group of Italian painters active in Tuscany in the second half of the nineteenth century, breaking with the antiquated conventions taught by the Italian academies of art, did much of their painting outdoors in order to capture natural light and colour.
This practice relates the Macchiaioli to the French Impressionists who came to prominence a few years although the Macchiaioli pursued somewhat different purposes. Their movement began in Florence in the late 1850s; the Newlyn School in England is considered another major proponent of the technique in the latter 19th century. The popularity of painting en plein air increased in the 1840s with the introduction of paints in tubes. Painters made their own paints by grinding and mixing dry pigment powders with linseed oil; the act of outdoor painting from observation has been continually popular well into the 21st century. It was during the mid-19th century that the'box easel' known as the'French box easel' or'field easel', was invented, it is uncertain who developed it, but these portable easels with telescopic legs and built-in paint box and palette made it easier to go into the forest and up the hillsides. Still made today, they remain a popular choice since they fold up to the size of a brief case and thus are easy to store.
The Pochade Box is a compact box that allows the artist to keep all their supplies and palette within the box and have the work on the inside of the lid. Some designs allow for a larger canvas. There are designs which can hold a few wet painting canvases or panels within the lid; these boxes have a rising popularity as while they are used for plein air painting, can be used in the studio, home, or classroom. Since pochade boxes are used for painting on location, the canvas or work surface may be small not more than 20 inches. Challenges include the type of paint used to paint outdoors, bugs and environmental conditions such as weather. Acrylic paint may harden and dry in warm, sunny weather and it cannot be reused. On the opposite side of the spectrum is the challenge of painting in moist or damp conditions with precipitation; the advent of plein air painting predated the invention of acrylics. The traditional and well-established method of painting en plein air incorporates the use of oil paint.
French impressionist painters such as Claude Monet, Camille Pissarro, Pierre-Auguste Renoir advocated plein air painting, much of their work was done outdoors in the diffuse light of a large white umbrella. Claude Monet was an avid en plein air artist who deduced that to seize the closeness and likeness of an outside setting at a specific moment one had to be outside to do so rather than just paint an outside setting in their studio. In the second half of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century in Russia, painters such as Vasily Polenov, Isaac Levitan, Valentin Serov, Konstantin Korovin and I. E. Grabar were known for painting en plein air, but enthusiasts of plein air painting were not limited to the Old World. American impressionists too, such as those of the Old Lyme school, were avid painters en plein air. American impressionist painters noted for this style during this era included Guy Rose, Robert William Wood, Mary DeNeale Morgan, John Gamble, Arthur Hill Gilbert. In Canada, the Group of Seven and Tom Thomson are examples of en plein air advocates.
Art colonies Heidelberg School Urban Sketchers Media related to Painting en plein air at Wikimedia Commons
Golden Summer, Eaglemont
Golden Summer, Eaglemont is an 1889 painting by Australian artist Arthur Streeton. Painted during a summer drought when Streeton was twenty-one years old, it is an idyllic depiction of sunlit, undulating plains in rural Heidelberg on Melbourne's outskirts. Naturalistic yet poetic, a conscious effort by Streeton to create his most epic work yet, it is a prime example of the artist's distinctive, high-keyed blue and gold palette, what he considered "nature's scheme of colour in Australia", it is considered a masterpiece of Australian Impressionism. Streeton painted it en plein air in January 1889 at an artists' camp he established the previous year at Mount Eagle, near Heidelberg, on the outskirts of Melbourne. There, Charles Conder, Tom Roberts and other artists occupied an old weatherboard house. Streeton described the location in a letter to Roberts, calling it "our hill of gold": I sit here in the upper circle surrounded by copper and gold, smile with joy under my fly net as all the light and quivering brightness passes and before my eyes.
Nothing happier than this. I laugh at my immense wealth, all free and without responsibility. Who could steal this from me? No one. Years Streeton recalled painting Golden Summer as he, fellow plein air painter John Ford Paterson shared cheese and a bottle of claret; the so-called "impressionist school" at Heidelberg has done some good after all. Table Talk reported in 1889 that Golden Summer, Eaglemont "abundantly testifies to perfect sense of colour... He paints summer effects as if he loved the country." When the painting appeared at the Victorian Artists Society's 1889 winter show, the critic for The Argus, while opposed to what he called "the impressionist fad", said Golden Summer "is the best example of this class of work in the exhibition."Conder took Golden Summer, Eaglemont to London in April 1890, the following year as Golden Summer, Australia, it became the first painting by an Australian-born artist to be exhibited at the Royal Academy. In 1892, it appeared at the Paris Salon, won an award.
One critic noted the popularity of Golden Summer with "the crowds that throng the Salon", saying that it was "simply impossible" to pass by the painting "as it is utterly different from any other picture in the vast collection". Australian artist John Longstaff based in Paris, said the painting "created quite a sensation and stood out in oneness and quality all through everything else on the walls." Scottish shipbuilder Charles Mitchell purchased Golden Summer, Eaglemont on the opening day of the 1892 Paris Salon. In 1898, it appeared at the Exhibition of Australian Art in London, it remained part of Mitchell's estate until Streeton re-acquired the painting from the shipbuilder's widow in 1919. Ahead of its public auction in Australia in 1924, Lionel Lindsay extolled the work in the hope that it would enter a public gallery: This tranquil landscape, so yet so exquisitely fashioned, possesses for Australians a sentiment no other people may enjoy, it is the first great Australian landscape, untrammeled by picture making formula, to come from the hand of the native born.
It is, therefore the most important landscape in Australia. A private collector acquired it for 1,000 guineas a record for a painting by an Australian artist. Streeton used the money to commission an architect to design and build'Longacres', a new house and studio in Olinda, outside Melbourne. Golden Summer broke the same sales record in 1995 when the National Gallery of Australia purchased it for $3.5 million. Golden Summer, Eaglemont at the National Gallery of Australia
A picture frame is a decorative edging for a picture, such as a painting or photograph, intended to enhance it, make it easier to display or protect it. The frame along with its mounts protects and makes the art look better. Art work framed well will stay in good condition for a long period of time. Joan Miró once did a work to frame with a flea market frame. Many painters and photographers who work with canvas "gallery-wrap" their artwork, a practice wherein the image extends around the edges of the stretched canvas and therefore precludes use of a traditional picture frame, although a floater frame may be used; as picture frames can be expensive when purchased new, some people remove the pictures from a frame and use the frame for other pictures. Picture frames have traditionally been made of wood, still the most common material, although other materials are used including silver, bronze and plastics such as polystyrene. A picture frame may be of any color or texture, but gilding is common on older wooden frames.
Some picture frames have elaborate molding. Complicated older frames are made of moulded and gilded plaster over a plain wood base. Picture frames come in a variety of profiles, but the lengths of moulding feature a "lip" and rabbet, the function of, to allow a space to hold in the materials in the frame; the lip extends about 1⁄4 inch past the edge of the rabbet. The picture frame may contain a pane of picture framing glass or an acrylic glass substitute such as acrylite or plexiglas to protect the picture. In some instances where the art in the frame is dispensable or durable, no protection may be necessary. Glass is common over watercolors and other artwork on paper, but rare over oil paintings, except valuable ones in some museums. Picture framing glass may be treated with anti-reflective coatings to make the glass invisible under certain lighting conditions; when a picture frame is expected to be exposed to direct sunlight, or harsh lighting conditions such as fluorescent lights, UV filtering may be added to slow down the photocatalytic degradation of organic materials behind picture framing glass.
For pieces to be framed under glass, except for the most disposable and inexpensive posters or temporary displays, the glass must be raised off the surface of the paper. This is done by means of matting, a lining of plastic "spacers", stacking two mouldings with the glass in between, similar methods. If the paper were to touch the glass directly, any condensation inside the glass would absorb directly into the art, having no room to evaporate; this is harmful to any medium. It causes art sticking to the glass, mildew or mold spore growth, other ill effects. Raising the glass is necessary when a piece is done in a loose media such as charcoal or pastel, to prevent smudging. Care should be taken with these works however, if acrylic glass is used, as a static charge can build up which will attract the pigment particles off the paper. Using real glass helps to prevent this. Certain kinds of pieces do not need glass when framed, including paintings done in acrylic or oil paint, stained glass or tiles, laminated posters.
These kinds of pieces are still sometimes put under glass though, if for example they are framed using mats, or they are kept in a climate-controlled environment. The treatment of the back of the framed artwork varies from nothing in the case of oils, to the frequent use of foam-core boards and other backing boards to provide support, or backing paper or "dust covers" to keep dust and insects out. While these are invariably functional, there are some examples of works in which they have been decorated, with this being considered part of the artwork; the use of backing boards is common with watermedia and other art on paper. Paper dust covers will be inexpensive craft paper or heavy duty archival papers. Plique-à-jour picture frames, made of enamel by Bulushoff, are among the most expensive frames in the world. Picture frames are square or rectangular, though circular and oval frames are not uncommon. Frames in more unusual shapes such as football shapes, hearts can be hand carved by a professional wood carver or carpenter.
There are picture frames designed to go around corners. A popular design is an indent in the frame adding depth. One of the earliest frames was a discovery made in an Egyptian tomb dating back to 2nd century A. D. in which a fayum mummy portrait was discovered at Hawara still within its wooden frame. This finding suggests the mummy portraits may have been hung in the owners' homes prior to inclusion within the funerary equipment; the portrait and its frame were most preserved by the desert climate, according to frame historian and installation expert Marilyn Murdoch explained in a historical talk to museum docents. Although framing borders in ancient art were used to divide scenes and ornamentation by ancient Egyptian and Greek artists in pottery and wallpaintings, the first carved wooden frames as we know them today appeared on small panel paintings in twelfth and thirteenth century Europe. According to a historical series published in Picture Frame Magazine, these early "framed panel paintings were made from one piece.
The area to be painted was carved out, leaving a raised framing border around the outside edge, like a tray. The whole piece was gessoed and gilded. Painting the image on the flat panel was the last thing