Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, notable as the home of the U. S. film industry, including several of its historic studios. Its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the people associated with it. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality in 1903, it was consolidated with the city of Los Angeles in 1910 and soon thereafter, a prominent film industry emerged becoming the most recognizable film industry in the world. In 1853, one adobe hut stood in Nopalera, named for the Mexican Nopal cactus indigenous to the area. By 1870, an agricultural community flourished; the area was known as the Cahuenga Valley, after the pass in the Santa Monica Mountains to the north. According to the diary of H. J. Whitley known as the "Father of Hollywood", on his honeymoon in 1886 he stood at the top of the hill looking out over the valley. Along came a Chinese man in a wagon carrying wood; the man bowed. The Chinese man was asked what he was doing and replied, "I holly-wood," meaning'hauling wood.'
H. J. Whitley decided to name his new town Hollywood. "Holly" would represent England and "wood" would represent his Scottish heritage. Whitley had started over 100 towns across the western United States. Whitley arranged to buy the 480 acres E. C. Hurd ranch, they shook hands on the deal. Whitley shared his plans for the new town with General Harrison Gray Otis, publisher of the Los Angeles Times, Ivar Weid, a prominent businessman in the area. Daeida Wilcox learned of the name Hollywood from Ivar Weid, her neighbor in Holly Canyon and a prominent investor and friend of Whitley's, she recommended the same name to Harvey. H. Wilcox, who had purchased 120 acres on February 1, 1887, it wasn't until August 1887 Wilcox decided to use that name and filed with the Los Angeles County Recorder's office on a deed and parcel map of the property. The early real-estate boom busted at the end of that year. By 1900, the region had a post office, newspaper and two markets. Los Angeles, with a population of 102,479 lay 10 miles east through the vineyards, barley fields, citrus groves.
A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from it, but service was infrequent and the trip took two hours. The old citrus fruit-packing house was converted into a livery stable, improving transportation for the inhabitants of Hollywood; the Hollywood Hotel was opened in 1902 by H. J. Whitley, a president of the Los Pacific Boulevard and Development Company. Having acquired the Hurd ranch and subdivided it, Whitley built the hotel to attract land buyers. Flanking the west side of Highland Avenue, the structure fronted on Prospect Avenue, still a dusty, unpaved road, was graded and graveled; the hotel was to become internationally known and was the center of the civic and social life and home of the stars for many years. Whitley's company sold one of the early residential areas, the Ocean View Tract. Whitley did much to promote the area, he paid thousands of dollars for electric lighting, including bringing electricity and building a bank, as well as a road into the Cahuenga Pass.
The lighting ran for several blocks down Prospect Avenue. Whitley's land was centered on Highland Avenue, his 1918 development, Whitley Heights, was named for him. Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality on November 14, 1903, by a vote of 88 for and 77 against. On January 30, 1904, the voters in Hollywood decided, by a vote of 113 to 96, for the banishment of liquor in the city, except when it was being sold for medicinal purposes. Neither hotels nor restaurants were allowed to serve liquor before or after meals. In 1910, the city voted for merger with Los Angeles in order to secure an adequate water supply and to gain access to the L. A. sewer system. With annexation, the name of Prospect Avenue changed to Hollywood Boulevard and all the street numbers were changed. By 1912, major motion-picture companies had set up production in Los Angeles. In the early 1900s, most motion picture patents were held by Thomas Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company in New Jersey, filmmakers were sued to stop their productions.
To escape this, filmmakers began moving out west to Los Angeles, where attempts to enforce Edison's patents were easier to evade. The weather was ideal and there was quick access to various settings. Los Angeles became the capital of the film industry in the United States; the mountains and low land prices made Hollywood a good place to establish film studios. Director D. W. Griffith was the first to make a motion picture in Hollywood, his 17-minute short film In Old California was filmed for the Biograph Company. Although Hollywood banned movie theaters—of which it had none—before annexation that year, Los Angeles had no such restriction; the first film by a Hollywood studio, Nestor Motion Picture Company, was shot on October 26, 1911. The H. J. Whitley home was used as its set, the unnamed movie was filmed in the middle of their groves at the corner of Whitley Avenue and Hollywood Boulevard; the first studio in Hollywood, the Nestor Company, was established by the New Jersey–based Centaur Company in a roadhouse at 6121 Sunset Boulevard, in October 1911.
Four major film companies – Paramount, Warner Bros. RKO, Columbia – had studios in Hollywood, as did several minor companies and rental studios. In the 1920s, Hollywood was the fifth-largest industry in the nation. By the 1930s, Hollywood studios became vertically integrated, as production and exhibition was controlled by these companies, enabling Hollywood to produce 600 films per year. H
Per Gottfrid Svartholm Warg, alias anakata, is a Swedish computer specialist, known as the former co-owner of the web hosting company PRQ and co-founder of the BitTorrent site The Pirate Bay together with Fredrik Neij and Peter Sunde. Parts of an interview with Svartholm commenting on the May 2006 police raid of The Pirate Bay are featured in Good Copy Bad Copy and Steal This Film, he is a main focus of the documentary TPB AFK. In May 2013, WikiLeaks revealed Svartholm Warg collaborated with the organization for the 2010 release of Collateral Murder, the helicopter cockpit gunsight video of a July 2007 airstrike by U. S. forces in Baghdad. According to WikiLeaks, Svartholm served as technical consultant and managed infrastructure critical to the organization. On 27 November 2013 he was extradited to Denmark, where he was charged with infiltrating the Danish social security database, driver’s licence database, the shared IT system used in the Schengen zone. Awaiting his court trial, he was being held in solitary confinement.
The court trial ended on 31 October 2014 and he was found guilty by the jury and sentenced to three and a half years in prison. He appealed the sentence, fearing that he may try to evade his sentence, the judges ruled that he should be held in confinement until the appeal court trial. After spending three years in different prisons from Sweden and Denmark, he was released on 29 September 2015 and is ready to get back to work again in IT. Svartholm Warg co-founded The Pirate Bay, he created the tracker software Hypercube, used to run The Pirate Bay web site and tracker. On 31 January 2008, The Pirate Bay operators — Peter Sunde, Fredrik Neij, Gottfrid Svartholm and Carl Lundström — were charged with "promoting other people’s infringements of copyright laws"; the trial began on 16 February 2009. On 17 April 2009, Sunde and his co-defendants were found to be guilty of "assisting in making copyright content available" in the Stockholm District Court; each defendant was sentenced to one year in prison and they were ordered to pay damages of 30 million SEK, to be apportioned among the four defendants.
The defendants lawyers have appealed to the Svea Court of Appeal together with a request for a retrial in the district court because of the recent suspicion of bias by judge Tomas Norström. Under Swedish law, the verdict is not lawful. In April 2009, Svartholm was the subject of an investigation by Swedish prosecutors looking into his role in The Student Bay, a file sharing site specializing in academic texts. Svartholm claimed; the site was reported by the Swedish Association for Educational Writers in December 2008 claiming it violated copyright law. In October 2009, Stockholm District Court ordered that Svartholm be banned from operating the Pirate Bay, despite the facts that he was no longer living in Sweden, the Pirate Bay was no longer located there. In October 2011, a Swedish court ordered that Svartholm be jailed for not attending a court appearance. On 30 August 2012, at the request of Swedish authorities, Svartholm was arrested by Cambodian police in the capital Phnom Penh, where he had been living for several years.
Cambodia has no extradition treaty with Sweden, but Cambodian police spokesman Kirth Chantharith told the AFP news agency "we'll look into our laws and see how we can handle this case". Subsequently, Cambodian police were reported stating that the Swedish government had requested that Gottfrid be deported in connection with "a crime related to information technology". Torrentfreak speculated that Svartholm's arrest may have been connected to a 400 million kronor two-year "democratic development, human rights and climate change" grant from the Swedish government to the Cambodian government; the grant was announced on 5 September 2012. Gottfrid has since been deported back to Sweden where he served his jail term in the Mariefred prison in Mariefred, he has been investigated for two alleged instances of hacking, including breaking into the Swedish tax office between 2010 and April 2012, is suspected of serious fraud. As of January 2013, no charges had been filed for these matters yet; as of early June 2013 Warg was named as a suspect in a Danish case, where millions of personal identification numbers were stolen from a police database.
Danish police have asked that he can be tried in Denmark. It was confirmed that Svartholm would be extradited to Denmark, to undergo a similar trial to Sweden, the timing of, dependent on the outcome in Sweden. On 20 June 2013, Gottfrid was sentenced to two years in prison; this two-year prison sentence was reduced to one year by appeal. In November 2013, Gottfrid was deported to Denmark and on 31 October 2014 was subsequently sentenced to three and a half years in prison for breaking into computers owned by CSC. Svartholm Warg started the website Americas Dumbest Soldiers which listed deceased US soldiers in the Iraq War and asked users of the site to rate how "dumb" the soldiers were based on how they died. Fredrik Neij provided Svartholm Warg's site Internet access via a Swedish provider and British Telecom. According to Neij, someone at the US State Department contacted the head of British Telecom, who in turn contacted the head of the Swedish provider, asking them to remove the site. Invoking freedom of speech and parody, they questioned the request, but removed the site.
Media related to Gottfrid Svartholm at Wikimedia Commons
Internet Relay Chat
Internet Relay Chat is an application layer protocol that facilitates communication in the form of text. The chat process works on a client/server networking model. IRC clients are computer programs that users can install on their system or web based applications running either locally in the browser or on 3rd party server; these clients communicate with chat servers to transfer messages to other clients. IRC is designed for group communication in discussion forums, called channels, but allows one-on-one communication via private messages as well as chat and data transfer, including file sharing. Client software is available for every major operating system; as of April 2011, the top 100 IRC networks served more than half a million users at a time, with hundreds of thousands of channels operating on a total of 1,500 servers out of 3,200 servers worldwide. IRC usage has been declining since 2003, losing 60% of its users and half of its channels. IRC was created by Jarkko Oikarinen in August 1988 to replace a program called MUT on a BBS called OuluBox at the University of Oulu in Finland, where he was working at the Department of Information Processing Science.
Jarkko intended to extend the BBS software he administered, to allow news in the Usenet style, real time discussions and similar BBS features. The first part he implemented was the chat part, which he did with borrowed parts written by his friends Jyrki Kuoppala and Jukka Pihl; the first IRC network was running on a single server named tolsun.oulu.fi. Oikarinen found inspiration in a chat system known as Bitnet Relay, which operated on the BITNET. Jyrki Kuoppala pushed Jarkko to ask Oulu University to free the IRC code so that it could be run outside of Oulu, after they got it released, Jyrki Kuoppala installed another server; this was the first "irc network". Jarkko got some friends at the Helsinki University and Tampere University to start running IRC servers when his number of users increased and other universities soon followed. At this time Jarkko realized that the rest of the BBS features wouldn't fit in his program. Jarkko got in touch with people at the University of Oregon State University.
They wanted to connect to the Finnish network. They had obtained the program from one of Jarkko's friends, Vijay Subramaniam—the first non-Finnish person to use IRC. IRC grew larger and got used on the entire Finnish national network—Funet—and connected to Nordunet, the Scandinavian branch of the Internet. In November 1988, IRC had spread across the Internet and in the middle of 1989, there were some 40 servers worldwide. In August 1990, the first major disagreement took place in the IRC world; the "A-net" included a server named eris.berkeley.edu. It required no passwords and had no limit on the number of connects; as Greg "wumpus" Lindahl explains: "it had a wildcard server line, so people were hooking up servers and nick-colliding everyone". The "Eris Free Network", EFnet, made the eris machine the first to be Q-lined from IRC. In wumpus' words again: "Eris refused to remove that line, it wasn't much of a fight. A-net was formed with the eris servers, EFnet was formed with the non-eris servers.
History showed most users went with EFnet. Once ANet disbanded, the name EFnet became meaningless, once again it was the one and only IRC network, it is around that time that IRC was used to report on the 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt throughout a media blackout. It was used in a similar fashion during the Gulf War. Chat logs of these and other events are kept in the ibiblio archive. Another fork effort, the first that made a big and lasting difference, was initiated by'Wildthang' in the U. S. October 1992, it was meant to be just a test network to develop bots on but it grew to a network "for friends and their friends". In Europe and Canada a separate new network was being worked on and in December the French servers connected to the Canadian ones, by the end of the month, the French and Canadian network was connected to the US one, forming the network that came to be called "The Undernet"; the "undernetters" wanted to take ircd further in an attempt to make it less bandwidth consumptive and to try to sort out the channel chaos that EFnet started to suffer from.
For the latter purpose, the Undernet implemented timestamps, new routing and offered the CService—a program that allowed users to register channels and attempted to protect them from troublemakers. The first server list presented, from February 15, 1993, includes servers from USA, France and Japan. On August 15, the new user count record was set to 57 users. In May 1993, RFC 1459 was published and details a simple protocol for client/server operation, one-to-one and one-to-many conversations, it is notable that a significant number of extensions like CTCP, colors and formats are not included in the protocol specifications, nor is character encoding, which led various implementations of servers and clients to diverge. In fact, software implementation varied from one network to the other, each network implementing their own policies and standards in their own code bases. During the summer of 1994, the Undernet was itself forked; the new network was called DALnet, formed for better user service and more user and channel protections.
One of the more significant changes in DALnet was use of lo
Pirate Party (Sweden)
The Pirate Party is a political party in Sweden founded in 2006. Its sudden popularity has given rise to parties with the same name and similar goals in Europe and worldwide, forming the International Pirate Party movement; the Pirate Party was formed to reform laws regarding copyright and patents. The party agenda includes support for strengthening the individual's right to privacy, both on the Internet and in everyday life, the transparency of state administration; the Pirate Party has intentionally chosen to be bloc independent of the traditional left-right scale to pursue their political agenda with all mainstream parties. The party stayed neutral on other matters, but started broadening into other political areas in 2012; the Pirate Party participated in the 2006 Riksdag elections and gained 0.63% of the votes, making them the third largest party outside parliament. In terms of membership, it passed the Green Party in December 2008, the Left Party in February 2009, the Liberal People's Party and the Christian Democrats in April 2009, the Centre Party in May 2009, making it, for the time being, the third largest political party in Sweden by membership.
The Pirate Party's associated youth organisation, Young Pirate, for a part of 2009 and 2010, the largest political youth organisation in Sweden by membership count. The Pirate Party came 5th in the 2009 European Parliament elections with 7.13% of the vote and 1 MEP. Christian Engström became the first MEP for the party, Amelia Andersdotter took the second seat on 1 December 2009. Rick Falkvinge, founder of the party, stepped down on 1 January 2011 after five years as party leader, making vice leader Anna Troberg the party leader. On 1 December 2014, Anna Troberg announced that she would not be available for re-election in 2015 after her term ended on 31 December 2014; the Pirate Party believes that people with an access to free communication and knowledge grow, feel better and create a more enjoyable and humane society for everyone to live in. We see modern information technology opening up possibilities for people to take action for their own lives and participate in affecting the development of society.
We see how a freer flow of information enables cultural creation and the economy to grow. The party advocates a severe reduction of economic sole right of copyrighted works, which today exist for 70 years after the creator's death, they advocate releasing all non-commercial sharing of copyrighted material, which means that all films and programs can be shared as long as the operation isn't run commercially. The party has personal privacy as a core value, is critical towards laws such as ACTA, IPRED, the Telecoms Package, the change in legislation regulating the National Defence Radio Establishment; the party advocates strengthened individual privacy, are against the Data Retention Directive, wants to elevate secrecy of correspondence to general secrecy of communication, create a constitutional right to privacy. The party seeks to modify the laws of intellectual property, but doesn't want to change the laws of trademarks or industrial design rights; the party views itself as a defender of the individual's civil rights with regards to surveillance, government accountability and political and business corruption.
Before the Swedish general election of 2010 the party stayed neutral in all other political matters, could be considered a single-issue party. After 2010 the party started opening up for a broader political agenda. A new declaration of principles was formed in 2011, at the spring member meeting of 2012 several new political standpoints were decided on areas such as school and health care. Works related to Pirate Party Declaration of Principles at Wikisource The website for the Pirate Party was launched on 1 January 2006, marking the foundation of the Party. Six phases were presented on the website, with phase one being the collection of at least 2,000 signatures to be handed over to the Swedish Election Authority before the 4th of February, so that the Party would be allowed to participate in the upcoming 17 September general election. In less than 24 hours after the opening of the website, the Party had collected over 2,000 signatures. By the morning of the 3rd of January, the Party closed the signature collection.
In about 36 hours, they had gathered 4,725 signatures. As signatories are required by Swedish election law to identify themselves when giving support for a new party, international media reported this as a significant feat, given the nature of the Party. However, signatures presented to the election authorities are required to be handwritten; the goal of at least 1,500 handwritten signatures was reached February 10 and the final confirmation from the authorities was presented three days later. The Party claimed to have recruited 900 members within the first month, each member paying a membership fee of 5 Swedish kronor, payable by SMS. Phases two to five included registering with the Election Authority, getting candidates for the Riksdag, raising money for printing ballots, preparing an organization for the election, including local organizations in all municipalities of Sweden with a population in excess of 50,000, which in 2005 meant 43 municipalities. During this phase fundraising was started, with an initial goal of raising 1 million SEK.
The sixth and final phase was the election itself. The Party, which claims that there are between 800,000 an
Economic sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted self-governing state, group, or individual. Economic sanctions may include various forms of trade barriers and restrictions on financial transactions. An embargo is similar, but implies a more severe sanction. Economic sanctions aim to change the behavior of elites in the target country. However, the efficacy of sanctions is debatable and sanctions can have unintended consequences. Economic sanctions are not imposed because of economic circumstances—they may be imposed for a variety of political and social issues. Economic sanctions can be used for achieving international purposes. An embargo is the partial or complete prohibition of commerce and trade with a particular country/state or a group of countries. Embargoes are considered strong diplomatic measures imposed in an effort, by the imposing country, to elicit a given national-interest result from the country on which it is imposed.
Embargoes are considered legal barriers to trade, not to be confused with blockades, which are considered to be acts of war. Embargoes can mean limiting or banning export or import, creating quotas for quantity, imposing special tolls, banning freight or transport vehicles, freezing or seizing freights, bank accounts, limiting the transport of particular technologies or products for example CoCom during the cold-war. In response to embargoes, a closed economy or autarky develops in an area subjected to heavy embargo. Effectiveness of embargoes is thus in proportion to the extent and degree of international participation. Embargo can be an opportunity to some countries to develop faster a self-sufficiency. Economic sanctions are used as a tool of foreign policy by many governments. Economic sanctions are imposed by a larger country upon a smaller country for one of two reasons. —either the latter is a threat to the security of the former nation or that country treats its citizens unfairly. They can be used as a coercive measure for achieving particular policy goals related to trade or for humanitarian violations.
Economic sanctions are used as an alternative weapon instead of going to war to achieve desired outcomes. Some policy analysts believe imposing. According to the data of Hufbauer et al. regime change, the most frequent foreign-policy objective of economic sanctions, accounts for just over 39 percent of cases of their imposition. Researchers debate the effectiveness of economic sanctions in their ability to achieve their stated purpose. Hufbauer et al. claimed. When Robert A. Pape examined their study, he claimed that only five of their forty so-called "successes" stood up, reducing economic sanctions' success rate to 4% in his analysis. Success of sanctions as a form of measuring effectiveness has been debated by scholars of economic sanctions. Success of a single sanctions-resolution does not automatically lead to effectiveness, unless the stated objective of the sanctions regime is identified and reached. Imposing sanctions on an opponent affects the economy of the imposing country to some degree.
If import restrictions are promulgated, consumers in the imposing country may have restricted choices of goods. If export restrictions are imposed or if sanctions prohibit companies in the imposing country from trading with the target country, the imposing country may lose markets and investment opportunities to competing countries. British diplomat Jeremy Greenstock suggests that the reason sanctions are popular is not that they are known to be effective, but "that there is nothing else between words and military action if you want to bring pressure upon a government". Companies must be aware of embargoes. Embargo check is difficult for both exporters to follow. Before exporting or importing to other countries, they must be aware of embargoes or risk facing unintended punitive measures for violating sanctions. Subsequently, firms need to make sure that they are not dealing with embargoed countries by checking those related regulations, they need a license in order to ensure a smooth export or import business.
Sometimes the situation becomes more complicated with the changing of politics of a country. Embargoes keep changing. In the past, many companies relied on spreadsheets and manual process to keep track of compliance issues related to incoming and outgoing shipments, which takes risks of these days help companies to be compliant on such regulations if they are changing on a regular basis. If an embargo situation exists, the software blocks the transaction for further processing; the United States Embargo of 1807 involved a series of laws passed by the U. S. Congress 1806–1808, during the second term of President Thomas Jefferson. Britain and France were engaged in a major war. S. wanted to remain neutral and to trade with both sides, but neither side wanted the other to import American supplies. American policy aimed to use the new laws to avoid war and to force both France and Britain to respect American rights; the embargo failed to achieve its aims, Jefferson repealed the embargo legislation in March 1809.
One of the most comprehensive attempts at an embargo occurred during the Napoleonic Wars of 1803-1815. In an att
Closed-circuit television known as video surveillance, is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors. It differs from broadcast television in that the signal is not transmitted, though it may employ point to point, point to multipoint, or mesh wired or wireless links. Though all video cameras fit this definition, the term is most applied to those used for surveillance in areas that may need monitoring such as banks and other areas where security is needed. Though Videotelephony is called'CCTV' one exception is the use of video in distance education, where it is an important tool. Surveillance of the public using CCTV is common in many areas around the world. In recent years, the use of body worn video cameras has been introduced as a new form of surveillance used in law enforcement, with cameras located on a police officer's chest or head. Video surveillance has generated significant debate about balancing its use with individuals' right to privacy when in public.
In industrial plants, CCTV equipment may be used to observe parts of a process from a central control room, for example when the environment is not suitable for humans. CCTV systems may only as required to monitor a particular event. A more advanced form of CCTV, utilizing digital video recorders, provides recording for many years, with a variety of quality and performance options and extra features. More decentralized IP cameras equipped with megapixel sensors, support recording directly to network-attached storage devices, or internal flash for stand-alone operation. There are about 350 million surveillance cameras worldwide as of 2016. About 65% of these cameras are installed in Asia; the growth of CCTV has been slowing in recent years. The first CCTV system was installed by Siemens AG at Test Stand VII in Peenemünde, Nazi Germany in 1942, for observing the launch of V-2 rockets; the noted German engineer Walter Bruch was responsible for the technological design and installation of the system.
In the U. S. the first commercial closed-circuit television system became available in 1949, called Vericon. Little is known about Vericon except it was advertised as not requiring a government permit; the earliest video surveillance systems involved constant monitoring because there was no way to record and store information. The development of reel-to-reel media enabled the recording of surveillance footage; these systems required magnetic tapes to be changed manually, a time consuming and unreliable process, with the operator having to manually thread the tape from the tape reel through the recorder onto an empty take-up reel. Due to these shortcomings, video surveillance was not widespread. VCR technology became available in the 1970s, making it easier to record and erase information, the use of video surveillance became more common. During the 1990s, digital multiplexing was developed, allowing several cameras to record at once, as well as time lapse and motion-only recording; this increased savings of time and money which led to an increase in the use of CCTV.
CCTV technology has been enhanced with a shift toward Internet-based products and systems, other technological developments. Closed-circuit television was used as a form of pay-per-view theatre television for sports such as professional boxing and professional wrestling. Boxing telecasts were broadcast live to a select number of venues theaters, where viewers paid for tickets to watch the fight live; the first fight with a closed-circuit telecast was Joe Louis vs. Joe Walcott in 1948. Closed-circuit telecasts peaked in popularity with Muhammad Ali in the 1960s and 1970s, with "The Rumble in the Jungle" fight drawing 50 million CCTV viewers worldwide in 1974, the "Thrilla in Manila" drawing 100 million CCTV viewers worldwide in 1975. In 1985, the WrestleMania I professional wrestling show was seen by over one million viewers with this scheme; as late as 1996, the Julio César Chávez vs. Oscar De La Hoya boxing fight had 750,000 viewers. Closed-circuit television was replaced by pay-per-view home cable television in the 1980s and 1990s.
In September 1968, New York was the first city in the United States to install video cameras along its main business street in an effort to fight crime. Another early appearance was in 1973 in Times Square in New York City; the NYPD installed it in order to deter crime, occurring in the area. During the 1980s video surveillance began to spread across the country targeting public areas, it was seen as a cheaper way to deter crime compared to increasing the size of the police departments. Some businesses as well those that were prone to theft, began to use video surveillance. From the mid-1990s on, police departments across the country installed an increasing number of cameras in various public spaces including housing projects and public parks departments. CCTV became common in banks and stores to discourage theft, by recording evidence of criminal activity. In 1998, 3,000 CCTV systems were in use in New York City. A study by Nieto in 2008 found many businesses in the United States had invested in video surveillance technology to protect products and promote safe workplace and consumer environments.
A nationwide survey of a wide variety of companies found. In private sector CCTV surveillance technology is operated in a wide variety of establishments such as in industry/manufacturing, financial/insurance/banking and distribution, util
The HTTP 404, 404 Not Found, 404 error message is a Hypertext Transfer Protocol standard response code, in computer network communications, to indicate that the client was able to communicate with a given server, but the server could not find what was requested. The website hosting server will generate a "404 Not Found" web page when a user attempts to follow a broken or dead link; when communicating via HTTP, a server is required to respond to a request, such as a web browser request for a web page, with a numeric response code and an optional, mandatory, or disallowed message. In the code 404, the first digit indicates a client error, such as a mistyped Uniform Resource Locator; the following two digits indicate. HTTP's use of three-digit codes is similar to the use of such codes in earlier protocols such as FTP and NNTP. At the HTTP level, a 404 response code is followed by a human-readable "reason phrase"; the HTTP specification suggests the phrase "Not Found" and many web servers by default issue an HTML page that includes both the 404 code and the "Not Found" phrase.
A 404 error is returned when pages have been moved or deleted. In the first case, it is better to employ URL mapping or URL redirection by returning a 301 Moved Permanently response, which can be configured in most server configuration files, or through URL rewriting; because these two options require special server configuration, most websites do not make use of them. 404 errors should not be confused with DNS errors, which appear when the given URL refers to a server name that does not exist. A 404 error indicates that the server itself was found, but that the server was not able to retrieve the requested page. Web servers can be configured to display a customised 404 error page, including a more natural description, the parent site's branding, sometimes a site map, a search form or 404 page widget; the protocol level phrase, hidden from the user, is customized. Internet Explorer, will not display custom pages unless they are larger than 512 bytes, opting instead to display a "friendly" error page.
Google Chrome included similar functionality, where the 404 is replaced with alternative suggestions generated by Google algorithms, if the page is under 512 bytes in size. Another problem is that if the page does not provide a favicon, a separate custom 404 page exists, extra traffic and longer loading times will be generated on every page view. Many organizations use 404 error pages as an opportunity to inject humor into what may otherwise be a serious website. For example, Metro UK shows a polar bear on a skateboard, the web development agency Left Logic has a simple drawing program. During the 2015 UK General election campaign the main political parties all used their 404 pages to either take aim at political opponents or show relevant policies to potential supporters. While many websites send additional information in a 404 error message—such as a link to the homepage of a website or a search box—some endeavor to find the correct web page the user wanted. Extensions are available for some popular content management systems to do this.
The term "soft 404" was introduced in 2004 by Ziv al.. Soft 404s are problematic for automated methods of discovering; some search engines, like Google, use automated processes to detect soft 404s. Soft 404s can occur as a result of configuration errors when using certain HTTP server software, for example with the Apache software, when an Error Document 404 is specified as an absolute path rather than a relative path; this can be done on purpose to force some browsers to display a customized 404 error message rather than replacing what is served with a browser-specific "friendly" error message. Some proxy servers generate a 404 error when the remote host is not present, rather than returning the correct 500-range code when errors such as hostname resolution failures or refused TCP connections prevent the proxy server from satisfying the request; this can confuse programs that expect and act on specific responses, as they can no longer distinguish between an absent web server and a missing web page on a web server, present.