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The Political Graveyard

The Political Graveyard is a website and database that catalogues information on more than 277,000 American political figures and political families, along with other information. The database attempts to capture basic biographical and office-holding data for its political figures. Besides where they are buried, it records dates and locations of birth and death, offices held and the applicable dates, organizational affiliations, cause of death, it reports their relation with other politicians listed, their political party, limited military history. The names are sorted and indexed by surname, positions held, religion, cause of death, final resting place, with each entry having fewer than five lines of text; the name comes from the website's inclusion of the burial locations of the deceased. The site was created in 1996 by Lawrence Kestenbaum an academic specialist at Michigan State University, on staff at the University of Michigan. Kestenbaum was a county commissioner, in 2004 was elected to be County Clerk/Register of Deeds of Washtenaw County, Michigan.

The site and its underlying database were developed from a personal interest triggered by the Biographical Directory of the U. S. Congress, its original data source. Since his personal research, the information contributions of hundreds of volunteers have expanded the information available, it is licensed under the "Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 1.0" Creative Commons License. Over the years the definition of "eligible political figure" has been expanded, it now includes most high federal officials, all elected and some appointed statewide officeholders, many mayors. It lists unsuccessful candidates, presidential electors, delegates to U. S. presidential nominating conventions of the major political parties. Politicians are listed alphabetically, by office held or sought, by location of birth and death; some are listed in categories, including occupations, ethnicity and organizational affiliation and awards. Politicians accused of crimes or touched by scandal are listed by the nature of the accusation, as well as by decade and by state.

Cause of death is broken down into dozens of categories. The site lists political families. Individuals listed on the site are linked together if their relationship meets the Rule of 1/1000 common ancestry; each cluster of three or more linked politicians is treated as a family, with family name and location assigned by an algorithm. The site's largest cluster, with 2,134 members, is called "Two Thousand Related Politicians"; the largest subset family is the Huntington-Chapin-Waterman family of Connecticut, with 229 members

Hongshan culture

The Hongshan culture was a Neolithic culture in the Liao river basin. Hongshan sites have been found in an area stretching from Inner Mongolia to Liaoning, dated from about 4700 to 2900 BC; the culture is named after a site in Hongshan District, Chifeng. The Hongshanhou site was discovered by the Japanese archaeologist Torii Ryūzō in 1908 and extensively excavated in 1935 by Kōsaku Hamada and Mizuno Seiichi. In northeast China, Hongshan culture was preceded by Xinglongwa culture, Xinle culture, Zhaobaogou culture, which may be contemporary with Xinle and a little later. Yangshao culture was in contemporary with Hongshan culture; these two cultures interacted with each other. Hongshan burial artifacts include some of the earliest known examples of jade working; the Hongshan culture is known for its jade pig dragons and embryo dragons. Clay figurines, including figurines of pregnant women, are found throughout Hongshan sites. Small copper rings were excavated; the archaeological site at Niuheliang is a unique ritual complex associated with the Hongshan culture.

Excavators have discovered an underground temple complex—which included an altar—and cairns in Niuheliang. The temple was constructed with painted walls. Archaeologists have given it the name Goddess Temple due to the discovery of a clay female head with jade inlaid eyes, it was an underground structure, 1m deep. Included on its walls are mural paintings. Housed inside the Goddess Temple are clay figurines as large as three times the size of real-life humans; the exceedingly large figurines are deities, but for a religion not reflective in any other Chinese culture. The existence of complex trading networks and monumental architecture point to the existence of a "chiefdom" in these prehistoric communities. Painted pottery was discovered within the temple. Over 60 nearby tombs have been unearthed, all constructed of stone and covered by stone mounds including jade artifacts. Cairns were discovered atop two nearby two hills, with either round or square stepped tombs, made of piled limestone. Entombed inside were sculptures of tortoises.

It has been suggested that religious sacrifice might have been performed within the Hongshan culture. Just as suggested by evidence found at early Yangshao culture sites, Hongshan culture sites provide the earliest evidence for feng shui; the presence of both round and square shapes at Hongshan culture ceremonial centers suggests an early presence of the gaitian cosmography. Early feng shui relied on astronomy to find correlations between the universe; some Chinese archaeologists such as Guo Da-shun see the Hongshan culture as an important stage of early Chinese civilization. Whatever the linguistic affinity of the ancient denizens, Hongshan culture is believed to have exerted an influence on the development of early Chinese civilization; the culture have contributed to the development of settlements in ancient Korea. The representatives of the Hongshan Culture location Niuheliang identified 3 different Y-chromosome subclades haplotypes: N1, C and O3a. List of Neolithic cultures of China Xinglonggou Allan, The Formation of Chinese Civilization: An Archaeological Perspective, ISBN 0-300-09382-9 Chang, Kwang-chih.

The Archaeology of Ancient China, ISBN 0-300-03784-8 Nelson, Sarah Milledge, The Archaeology of Northeast China: Beyond the Great Wall, ISBN 0-415-11755-0 Hongshan culture Discussion of Hongshan culture

Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998

The Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998 is a United States federal statute that establishes the procedure for filling a vacancy in an appointed officer of an executive agency of the government during the time before a permanent replacement is appointed. The law revises provisions regarding the filling of Federal vacancies to authorize the President, if an appointed officer of an executive agency dies, resigns, or is otherwise unable to perform office functions, to direct a person who serves in an office for which appointment is required to perform such functions temporarily in an acting capacity, subject to specified time limitations. Retains the requirement that the first assistant of such officer shall perform such functions temporarily in an acting capacity as well, subject to specified time limitations and the limitations described below. Any action to perform a function of a vacant office by a person filling a vacancy in violation of requirements or by a person, not filling such vacancy shall have no effect.

The law designates three classes of people who may serve as acting officials: By default, "the first assistant to the office" becomes the acting officer. The President may direct a person serving in a different Senate-confirmed position to serve as acting officer; the President can select a senior "officer or employee" of the same executive agency, equivalent to a GS-15 or above on the federal pay scale, if that employee served in that agency for at least 90 days during the 365 days preceding the end of the previous Senate-confirmed officeholder's service. It has been argued that the "senior officer or employee" clause may be unconstitutional when applied to principal officers such as department secretaries, because the Appointments Clause of the Constitution requires Senate confirmation for these positions. People supporting this interpretation include Neal Katyal, George Conway, Clarence Thomas, John Yoo, people opposing it include David B. Rivkin. An opinion of the Office of Legal Counsel under the George W. Bush administration held that all acting officers are inferior officers and not subject to the requirement for Senate confirmation.

A person nominated to a position may not concurrently serve as an acting officer for that position, unless that person is in a "first assistant" position to that office and either has served in that position for at least 90 days, or was appointed to that position through the advice and consent process. Once a vacancy occurs, the position is eligible to be filled by an acting officer for 210 days from the date of the vacancy, as well as any time when a nomination is pending before the Senate. If a first or second nomination is rejected by the Senate or withdrawn, it activates additional 210-day periods from the date of the rejection, but this does not apply to a third or nomination. If an office remains vacant after 210 days after the rejection, withdrawal, or return of a second presidential appointment nomination, it remains vacant until a person is appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. In such instance, only the head of an executive agency may perform office functions until such appointment is made in the case of an office other than the office of head of an executive agency.

This period is modified around the time of a presidential transition extending the 210-day limit to 300 days. The law makes vacancy and time limitation provisions applicable to any affected office for which an advice and consent appointment is required unless: another statutory provision expressly supersedes such provisions; some agencies are exempt from these provisions through other laws that override the Vacancies Reform Act. For example, the Homeland Security Act of 2002 mandates that the Under Secretary of Homeland Security for Management is third in the line of succession for Secretary of Homeland Security as an explicit exception to the Federal Vacancies Reform Act, establishes an alternate process by which the Secretary can directly establish a line of succession outside the provisions of the FVRA; the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 mandates that the Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence is first in line to the Director of National Intelligence role.

The law applies vacancy provisions of the Federal judicial code with respect to the office of the Attorney General. It requires the executive branch departments and agencies to report to Congress and Government Accountability Office information about the temporary filling of vacant executive agency positions that require presidential appointment with Senate confirmation; the act requires the Comptroller General report to specified congressional committees, the president, the Office of Personnel Management if an acting officer is determined to be serving longer than the 210 days. One of the additional requirements of the Act was to mandate that federal department and agencies create lines of succession plan in case of disaster or emergency. Though the Act was passed in 1998, many agencies didn't fulfill that requirement until after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. President George W. Bush signed executive orders designating line

The Chart (newspaper)

The Chart is the student newspaper of Missouri Southern State University in Joplin, Missouri. The paper was founded in 1939 by Kenneth McCaleb, a student at what was Joplin Junior College; the newspaper is printed weekly during the fall and spring semesters, for a total of 24 issues a year, is written and graphically designed by Missouri Southern students. The newspaper falls under the university's department of communications and offers credit hours, along with hands-on experience, to students on its staff. Though owned by and receiving partial operations funding from Missouri Southern, The Chart's editorial content is selected and edited by student staff. A majority of the students who serve on The Chart staff are communications majors, though the staff is open to students of all majors if they fulfill a set of prerequisites as prescribed by the newspaper's adviser. Students majoring in English, art and various other fields have all served in various capacities on The Chart; the positions a student might have the opportunity to hold on the staff include editor, staff writer, graphic designer, advertising staff and photographer.

Editors and photographers write and produce the 12- to 14-page broadsheet newspaper. The newsroom contains some of the area’s most up-to-date hardware and software to help prepare students for the professional arena. Students can advance through the ranks of The Chart. Editors qualify for performing aid awards and student help funding as well as other scholarships designed to encourage students to pursue careers in print journalism; the Chart focuses on campus news, events and issues, but coverage branches out to community, state and international stories. Until 2011, The Chart stationed a student editor at the Missouri State Capitol each spring during the General Assembly. Many state legislators and college and university presidents read the newspaper in the 1980s and 1990s for the latest information on Missouri s higher education. Upper-level editors have taken their experience around the globe. Past editors traveled to China, Latin America, France, Japan and Russia, upon their return, have produced award-winning news supplements and magazines.

As a student at Missouri Southern’s predecessor Joplin Junior College, Kenneth McCaleb saw a need for a student newspaper. In the fall of 1939, the first issue of The Chart appeared on the school’s campus. McCaleb had chosen the name The Chart to serve as a scale to measure the school’s success, having only been founded in 1937. In its early years, The Chart had numerous faculty members serve as advisers to it and it fell under the jurisdiction of the English department. In 1948, Cleetis Headlee, professor of English and journalism, took the position as faculty adviser of the newspaper, it was during her tenure. Headlee, known as being a stickler for accuracy, served in that role for 19 years, before stepping down in 1967, though she continued serving as an English professor at the college until retiring in 1976. After Headlee’s departure as adviser, the quality and funding for The Chart degraded significantly, but the 1972 arrival of Richard Massa to serve as adviser brought the newspaper new life.

Massa used his early time as adviser to rebuild the work on securing adequate funding. Through his leadership, the student staff was bringing in major awards within just a few years. Massa used the success of The Chart as seed for a new college department and in 1980 the department of communications was created, with Massa serving as director, a title he held until his retirement in 1999; as Massa’s duties increased with the new department, he hired a former Chart editor-in-chief to replace him as adviser. Chad Stebbins, who graduated from Missouri Southern in 1982, took on the role as adviser in 1984 and continued the legacy of success, instilled by Headlee and Massa before him. Under his watch, The Chart twice won the Society of Professional Journalists’ best in the nation award for a non-daily college newspaper. In 1999, the College Media Advisers named Stebbins the National Newspaper Adviser of the Year. Stebbins' close watch of The Chart continued until 1999, when he was promoted to be director of the university's Institute of International Studies.

Since that time, the role of publications manager has handled most of the day-to-day management of the student staff. T. R. Hanrahan, another former Chart editor-in-chief, served as publications manager from 2006 until 2011. Olive Sullivan was named faculty adviser to The Chart in August 2011; the newspaper has seen a significant drop in the number of participating students and campus readership. In 1998, Chart founder Kenneth McCaleb and his wife, Margaret Baughman McCaleb established the McCaleb Initiative for Peace at Missouri Southern State University for the purpose of examining the causes of war and discussing ways by which war can be prevented. McCaleb, a prisoner of war in Germany during World War II, directed that the focus of the Initiative be on Missouri Southern student journalists who, on assignments for The Chart, during the lifetime of the Initiative, visit sites of former wars and present conflicts, they will visit monuments to past victories and defeats and visit with survivors of wars, they will write and publish their observations.

These reporters will compile memories of veterans of battles, of prisoner of war camps, of concentration camps, of resettlement camps, of refugee centers, of those who worked or officiated at such centers. They will detail in their report

Battle of Fallujah (2014)

The Battle of Fallujah or Fall of Fallujah was a battle that took place from late 2013 to early 2014, in which ISIL and other Sunni insurgents captured the city of Fallujah. It was one of the first Iraqi cities to fall out of the control of the Iraqi Government, resulted in the Anbar Campaign. On 30 December 2013, Iraqi forces dismantled a Sunni protest camp. Gunmen proceeded to attack deployed army patrols on the highway. On 2 January 2014, Al-Qaeda seized control of parts of the town, as well as nearby Ramadi. After the army withdrew from the area ISIS fighters and its allies entered both cities. Many videos showed ISIS forces clashing with police forces, ISIS attacks and seizures on the main police station. 100 inmates were freed and ammunition were seized, most police forces abandoned their posts. On January 3, the town was under the control of Sunni Rebels, but Iraq said the city remained contested; the rebels brandished their weapons. The rebels raised their flag in Fallujah, took over all police stations, military posts after security forces left the city.

Most on January 4, the town was taken by Sunni Rebels and Al-Qaeda fighters. The Iraqi army shelled the city with mortars in an attempt to wrestle back the town, but resulted in the deaths of 8 people and wounded 30. 60% of the town was reported to be under rebel control. Much Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki vowed to eliminate "all terrorist groups" in a statement on national television; the police chief of the Anbar said that Iraqi forces were in control of the outskirts of Fallujah, but the city itself was held by ISIS and its allies. Sunni tribesmen held negotiations with them. Iraqi forces proceeded to shell the city from a nearby military base, before withdrawing. Four months the Iraqi Civil War began. Two years Iraqi Government recaptured the city. Fall of Mosul Second Battle of Tikrit Anbar campaign Battle of Ramadi Battle of Ramadi List of wars and battles involving ISIL

King Kamehameha Golf Course Clubhouse

The King Kamehameha Golf Course Clubhouse known as the Waikapu Valley Country Club, is a building in Waikapu, Hawaii. The structure is based on the unbuilt Arthur Miller house conceived by American architect Frank Lloyd Wright. Wright designed the house for Arthur Miller's wife, Marilyn Monroe, but Miller and Monroe divorced soon after and the project was abandoned; the Arthur Miller house design was a modification of two previous unbuilt projects—the Raúl Baillères house and before it, the Robert F. Windfohr house known as the "Crownfield" house. Wright's work remained in the Taliesin archives for more than two decades until 1988 when Pundy Yokouchi and Howard Hamamoto visited Taliesin Architects in Scottsdale and expressed interest in building a Frank Lloyd Wright-designed golf clubhouse. Architect John Rattenbury combined all three unfinished Wright designs, enlarged them to meet the spatial requirements of a commercial clubhouse, designed it to fit into the natural landscape of Waikapu's hilly terrain.

Construction of the clubhouse was completed in 1993. Located at an elevation of 750 feet in the foothills of the West Maui Mountains, the clubhouse looks out across the sugarcane-filled valley of Central Maui's isthmus towards the Upcountry slopes of the Haleakalā volcano in the east, with panoramic coastal views of Ma'alaea Bay in the south and Ho‘okipa Bay in the north. In February 1949, Robert F. Windfohr and his wife Anne Valliant Burnett Tandy asked architect Frank Lloyd Wright to design a luxury home for them on the prairie of Fort Worth, Texas. Calling it "Crownfield", Wright designed it in a short period of time, the Windfohr's discussed modifications, but the project never went anywhere; the Crownfield design was altered in 1952 for Mexican government official Raúl Baillères who planned to build the home in Acapulco, Mexico. Nothing came of the project. In 1957, Marilyn Monroe contacted Wright about building a home for her and her husband Arthur Miller in Roxbury, Connecticut. Wright expanded the original plans for Crownfield, complete with movie theater and nursery for the children Miller and Monroe planned to have.

But the marriage did not last and Wright died shortly after, leaving the unfinished plans archived at Taliesin West. In 1984, businessman Sandy Sims first contacted the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation in Scottsdale and proposed a Golf course development and subdivision using unbuilt designs from Wright's archives to construct Wright-designed residences on the course. Developers Pundy Yokouchi and Howard Hamamoto contacted Taliesin Architects and requested an original Frank Lloyd Wright design for a golf clubhouse in Waikapu, Hawaii. Architect John Rattenbury combined all three designs to produce a new structure that fit into the Waikapu landscape. Due to a period of drought on Maui, the second stage of the project involving a subdivision composed of 30 Wright-designed homes was put on hold and was never built. Lead developer Takeshi Sekiguchi and builder Hawaiian Dredging Construction Company constructed the clubhouse from concrete and steel, completing the project in 1993; the building is split into three levels with two-thirds of the structure underground, with a total area of 74,778 square feet.

Copper fascia surrounds the domed roofs of the building which fits into the landscape of the West Maui Mountains behind it and the golf course bunkers in front. The upper level has an area of 20,421 square feet, it includes the lobby, pro shop, meeting rooms, dining room, kitchen. There are three banquet meeting rooms; the dining room features a 100-foot dome roof with a central 25 foot skylight. At 3,800 sq. feet, the pro shop is the largest in the state of Hawaii. The mid level of the building has an area of 26,741 square feet; the lower level has an area of 27,616 square feet and contains locker rooms for men and women, Japanese baths, golf cart parking and maintenance facilities. The main stairwell sits beneath a stained glass sky panel based on Wright's original butterfly art glass design over the entrance of the Dana-Thomas House in Springfield, Illinois. Endemic nene geese live on the grounds. Native plants in the area include ʻilima and'akia. Common tropical trees and plants on the grounds include plumeria, Cook pine and Bougainvillea.

The clubhouse was owned by the Waikapu Valley Country Club, the Grand Waikapu Golf Resort and Spa which changed ownership and closed in 1999. During this time, the clubhouse was used for special events. In 2004, Makoto Kaneko purchased the business for $12.5 million and invested $40 million in restoring the property. It re-opened in 2006 as the King Kamehameha Golf Course Clubhouse; the clubhouse contains an extensive collection of artwork honoring the culture of Hawaii, including a painting by Herb Kawainui Kane, featherwork by Jo-Anne Kahanamoku-Sterling, kapa by Puanani Van Dorpe, bronze sculptures by Dale Zarella, a portrait by Tonia Marks Baney. List of Frank Lloyd Wright works by location List of Frank Lloyd Wright works Nakoma Golf Resort Byrne, J.. Hawaii Honored; the Maui Golf Review. 13, 30-31, 34. Enomoto, K. C.. Ancient art finds a modern new home; the Maui News. Gomes, A.. Investor to buy Wailuku golf courses. Honolulu Advertiser, C1. Gomes, A.. Wailuku golf course could be reopening. Honolulu Adveriser, C1.

Maui clubhouse from Wright designs.. Architectural Record. 179, 21. ISSN 0003-858X Sandalwood Clubhouse at Waikapu Mauka Golf Course is based on designs by Frank Lloyd Wright.. Honolulu Advertiser/Star-