William Wilkie Collins was an English novelist and short story writer, best known for The Woman in White, No Name and The Moonstone. The last has been called the first modern English detective novel. Born to the family of painter William Collins in London, he grew up in Italy and France, learning French and Italian, he began work as a clerk for a tea merchant. After his first novel, appeared in 1850, he met Charles Dickens, who became a close friend and mentor; some of Collins's works appeared first in Dickens's journals All the Year Round and Household Words and they collaborated on drama and fiction. Collins published his best known works in the 1860s, achieving financial stability and an international following. However, he began suffering from gout. Taking opium for the pain developed into an addiction. In the 1870s and 1880s the quality of his writing declined along with his health. Collins was critical of the institution of marriage: he split his time between Caroline Graves, except for a two-year separation, his common-law wife Martha Rudd, with whom he had three children.
Collins was born at 11 New Cavendish Street, London, the son of a well-known Royal Academician landscape painter, William Collins and his wife, Harriet Geddes. Named after his father, he swiftly became known by his middle name, which honoured his godfather, David Wilkie; the family moved to Pond Street, Hampstead, in 1826. In 1828 Collins's brother Charles Allston Collins was born. Between 1829 and 1830, the Collins family moved twice, first to Hampstead Square and to Porchester Terrace, Bayswater. Wilkie and Charles received their early education from their mother at home; the Collins family were religious, Collins's mother enforced strict church attendance on her sons, which Wilkie disliked. In 1835, Collins began attending school at the Maida Vale academy. From 1836 to 1838, he lived with his parents in Italy and France, which made a great impression on him, he learned Italian while the family was in Italy and began learning French, in which he would become fluent. From 1838 to 1840, he attended the Reverend Cole's private boarding school in Highbury, where he was bullied by a boy who would force Collins to tell him a story before allowing him to go to sleep.
"It was this brute who first awakened in me, his poor little victim, a power of which but for him I might never have been aware.... When I left school I continued story telling for my own pleasure", Collins said. In 1840 the family moved to Bayswater. In late 1840, he left school and was apprenticed as a clerk to the firm of tea merchants Antrobus & Co, owned by a friend of Wilkie's father, he remained employed by the company for more than five years. Collins's first story The Last Stage Coachman, was published in the Illuminated Magazine in August 1843. In 1844 he travelled to Paris with Charles Ward; that same year he wrote Iolani, or Tahiti as It Was. The novel remained unpublished during his lifetime. Collins said of it: "My youthful imagination ran riot among the noble savages, in scenes which caused the respectable British publisher to declare that it was impossible to put his name on the title page of such a novel." It was during the writing of this novel that Collins's father first learned that his assumptions that Wilkie would follow him in becoming a painter were mistaken.
William Collins had intended Wilkie for a clergyman and was disappointed in his son's lack of interest. In 1846 he instead entered Lincoln's Inn to study law, on the initiative of his father, who wanted him to have a steady income. Wilkie showed only a slight interest in law and spent most of his time with friends and on working on a second novel, Antonina, or the Fall of Rome. After his father's death in 1847, Collins produced his first published book, Memoirs of the Life of William Collins, Esq. R. A. published in 1848. The family moved to 38 Blandford Square soon afterwards, where they used their drawing room for amateur theatricals. In 1849, Collins exhibited a painting, "The Smugglers' Retreat", at the Royal Academy summer exhibition. Antonina was published by Richard Bentley in February 1850. Collins went on a walking tour of Cornwall with artist Henry Brandling in July and August 1850, he managed to complete his legal studies and be called to the bar in 1851. Though he never formally practised, he used his legal knowledge in many of his novels.
An instrumental event in his career was an introduction in March 1851 to Charles Dickens by a mutual friend, through the painter Augustus Egg. They became lifelong collaborators. In May of that year, Collins acted with Dickens in Edward Bulwer-Lytton's play Not So Bad As We Seem. Among the audience were Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. Collins's story "A Terribly Strange Bed," his first contribution to Household Words, appeared in April, 1852. In May 1852 he went on tour with Dickens's company of amateur actors, again performing Not So Bad As We Seem, but with a more substantial role. Collins's novel Basil was published by Bentley in November. During the writing of Hide and Seek, in early 1853, Collins suffered what was his first attack of gout, which would plague him for the rest of his life, he was ill from April to early July. After that he stayed with Dickens in Boulogne from July to September 1853 toured Switzerland and Italy with Dickens and Egg from October to December. Collins published Hide and Seek in June 1854.
During this period Collins extended the variety of his writing, publishing articles in George Henry Lewes's paper The Leader, short stories and essays for Bentley's Miscellany, dramatic criticism and the
Nicholas Peter John Hornby is an English writer and lyricist. He is best known for his memoir Fever Pitch and novels High Fidelity and About a Boy, all of which were adapted into feature films. Hornby's work touches upon music and the aimless and obsessive natures of his protagonists, his books have sold more than 5 million copies worldwide as of 2018. In a 2004 poll for the BBC, Hornby was named the 29th most influential person in British culture. Hornby was born in Redhill, the son of Sir Derek Peter Hornby, the chairman of London and Continental Railways, Margaret Audrey, Lady Hornby, he was brought up in Maidenhead, educated at Maidenhead Grammar School and Jesus College, where he read English. His parents divorced. Hornby published his first book in 1992, a collection of essays about American Writers such as Tobias Wolff and Ann Beattie, titled Contemporary American Fiction. Hornby's second book, Fever Pitch published in 1992, is an autobiographical story detailing his fanatical support for Arsenal Football Club.
As a result, Hornby received the William Hill Sports Book of the Year Award. In 1997, the memoir was adapted for film in the UK, in 2005 an American remake was released, following Jimmy Fallon's character's obsession with the Boston Red Sox, a baseball team. With the book's success, Hornby began to publish articles in the Sunday Times, Time Out and the Times Literary Supplement, in addition to his music reviews for the New Yorker. High Fidelity — his third book and first novel — was published in 1995; the novel, about a neurotic record collector and his failed relationships, was adapted into a 2000 film starring John Cusack, a Broadway musical in 2006. His second novel, About a Boy, published in 1998, is about two "boys" — Marcus, an awkward yet endearing adolescent from a single-parent family, the free-floating, mid-30s Will Freeman, who overcomes his own immaturity and self-centeredness through his growing relationship with Marcus. Hugh Grant and Nicholas Hoult starred in the 2002 film version.
In 1999, Hornby received the E. M. Forster Award of the American Academy of Letters. Hornby's next novel, How to Be Good, was published in 2001; the female protagonist in the novel explores contemporary morals and parenthood. It was long listed for the Man Booker Prize in 2001 and won the W. H. Smith Award for Fiction in 2002. Part of the money he earned with his next book, Speaking with the Angel in 2002, was donated to TreeHouse, a charity for children with autism, the disorder that affects Hornby's own son, he was editor of the book. He contributed to the collection with the story "NippleJesus". In 2003, Hornby wrote a collection of essays on selected popular songs and the emotional resonance they carry, called 31 Songs. In 2003, Hornby was awarded the London Award 2003, an award, selected by fellow writers. Hornby has written essays on various aspects of popular culture and, in particular, he has become known for his writing on pop music and mix tape enthusiasts. Since 2003, he has written a book review column, "Stuff I've Been Reading", for the monthly magazine The Believer.
The Dirt, Shakespeare Wrote for Money, More Baths Less Talking. Hornby's novel A Long Way Down was published in 2005, with a film version of this book released in 2014, it was on the shortlist for the Whitbread Novel Award. Hornby has edited two sports-related anthologies: My Favourite Year and The Picador Book of Sports Writing. Hornby's book Slam was published on 16 October 2007; the protagonist of Slam is a 16-year-old skateboarder named Sam whose life changes drastically when his girlfriend gets pregnant. Hornby's following novel, titled Juliet, was published in September 2009. Addressing similar themes as his earlier novel High Fidelity, the book is about a reclusive 1980s rock star, forced out of isolation when the re-release of his most famous album brings him into contact with some of his most passionate fans; this synopsis was revealed to The Guardian newspaper as part of "What not to miss in 2009: books". In 2010, Hornby co-founded the Ministry of Stories, a non-profit organisation in East London dedicated to helping children and young adults develop writing skills and to helping teachers inspire their students to write.
Hornby discussed his bouts of depression in 2012 on the BBC Radio 4 broadcast of "Fever Pitched: Twenty Years On". Hornby's most recent novel, Funny Girl, about a Sixties beauty queen determined to make her mark upon television comedy, was released in late 2014. Hornby has developed a career as a screenwriter, has said that he enjoys the challenge of working in film as opposed to writing novels. In his BAFTA & BFI Screenwriters' Lecture he said, “once you get to a certain point in your novelistic career, unless you screw up badly the book is going to come out. With a screenplay there are all these hurdles; the screenplay has to work and I love that.”In 2009, Hornby adapted an autobiographical memoir by the journalist Lynn Barber for the screen as An Education, a feature film starring Peter Sarsgaard and Carey Mulligan. He was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay and for two BAFTAs for writing the screenplay. In 2014, Hornby adapted another autobiographical memoir, Cheryl Strayed's Wild: From Lost to Found on the Pacific Crest Trail.
Wild, which starred Reese Witherspoon and Laura Dern, was nominated for Best Actress
Jonathan Allen Lethem is an American novelist and short story writer. His first novel, with Occasional Music, a genre work that mixed elements of science fiction and detective fiction, was published in 1994, it was followed by three more science fiction novels. In 1999, Lethem published Motherless Brooklyn, a National Book Critics Circle Award-winning novel that achieved mainstream success. In 2003, he published The Fortress of Solitude. In 2005, he received a MacArthur Fellowship. Lethem was born in Brooklyn, New York, to Judith Frank Lethem, a political activist, Richard Brown Lethem, an avant-garde painter, he was the eldest of three children. His father was Protestant and his mother was Jewish, from a family with roots in Germany and Russia, his brother Blake became an artist involved in the early New York hip hop scene, his sister Mara became a photographer and translator. The family lived in a commune in the pre-gentrified Brooklyn in the northern section of the neighborhood of Gowanus. Lethem's fourth grade teacher at P.
S. 29 in nearby Cobble Hill was future New York City Schools Chancellor Carmen Fariña, whom he called the "perfect" teacher and dedicated his first novel, with Occasional Music to her. Despite the racial tensions and conflicts, he described his bohemian childhood as "thrilling" and culturally wide-reaching, he gained an encyclopedic knowledge of the music of Bob Dylan, saw Star Wars twenty-one times during its original theatrical release, read the complete works of the science fiction writer Philip K. Dick. Lethem said Dick's work was "as formative an influence as marijuana or punk rock—as responsible for beautifully fucking up my life, for bending it irreversibly along a course I still travel."His parents divorced when Lethem was young. When he was thirteen, his mother Judith died from a malignant brain tumor, an event which he has said haunted him and has affected his writing. In 2007, Lethem explained, "My books all have this giant, howling missing —language has disappeared, or someone has vanished, or memory has gone."Intending to become a visual artist like his father, Lethem attended the High School of Music & Art in New York, where he painted in a style he describes as "glib, show-offy cartoonish".
At Music & Art he produced The Literary Exchange, which featured artwork and writing. He created animated films and wrote a 125-page novel, still unpublished. After graduating from high school, Lethem entered Bennington College in Vermont in 1982 as a prospective art student. At Bennington, Lethem experienced an "overwhelming.... Collision with the realities of class—my parents' bohemian milieu had kept me from understanding a little, that we were poor.... at Bennington, all demolished by an encounter with the fact of real privilege." This, coupled with the realization that he was more interested in writing than art, led Lethem to drop out halfway through his sophomore year. He hitchhiked from Denver, Colorado to Berkeley, California in 1984, across "a thousand miles of desert and mountains through Wyoming and Nevada, with about 40 dollars in my pocket," describing it as "one of the stupidest and most memorable things I've done."Lethem lived in California for twelve years, working as a clerk in used bookstores, including Moe's and Pegasus & Pendragon Books, writing on his own time.
Lethem published several more in the early 1990s. Lethem's first novel, with Occasional Music, is a merging of science fiction and the Chandleresque detective story, which includes talking kangaroos, radical futuristic versions of the drug scene, cryogenic prisons; the novel was published in 1994 by Harcourt Brace, in what Lethem described as a "delirious" experience. "I'd pictured my first novels being published as paperback originals," he recalled, "and instead a prestigious house was doing the book in cloth.... I was in heaven." The novel was released to little initial fanfare, but an enthusiastic review in Newsweek, which declared Gun an "audaciously assured first novel", catapulted the book to wider commercial success. Gun, with Occasional Music was a finalist for the 1994 Nebula Award, placed first in the "Best First Novel" category of the 1995 Locus Magazine reader's poll. In the mid-1990s, film producer-director Alan J. Pakula optioned the novel's movie rights, which allowed Lethem to quit working in bookstores and devote his time to writing.
His next book was Amnesia Moon. Inspired by Lethem's experiences hitchhiking cross-country, this second novel uses a road narrative to explore a multi-post-apocalyptic future landscape rife with perception tricks. After publishing many of his early stories in a 1996 collection, The Wall of the Sky, the Wall of the Eye, Lethem published his third novel, As She Climbed Across the Table, it starts with a physics researcher who falls in love with an artificially generated spatial anomaly called "Lack", for whom she spurns her previous partner. Her ex-partner's comic struggle with this rejection, with the anomaly, constitute the majority of the narrative. In 1996, Lethem moved from the San Francisco Bay Area back to Brooklyn, his next book, published after his return to Brooklyn, was Girl in Landscape. In the novel, a young girl must endure puberty while having to face a strange and new world populated by aliens known as Archbuilders. Lethem has said that Girl in Landscape's plot and characters, including the figures
Nine Stories (Salinger)
Nine Stories is a collection of short stories by American fiction writer J. D. Salinger published in April 1953, it includes two of his most famous short stories, "A Perfect Day for Bananafish" and "For Esmé – with Love and Squalor". The stories are: "A Perfect Day for Bananafish" "Uncle Wiggily in Connecticut" "Just Before the War with the Eskimos" "The Laughing Man" "Down at the Dinghy" "For Esmé – with Love and Squalor" "Pretty Mouth and Green My Eyes" "De Daumier-Smith's Blue Period" "Teddy" A summary of the Nine Stories
John Patrick McEnroe Jr. is an American retired tennis player considered among the greatest in the history of the sport. He was known for his shot-making artistry and volleying skills, as well as his confrontational on-court behavior that landed him in trouble with umpires and tennis authorities. McEnroe attained the No. 1 ranking in both singles and doubles, finishing his career with 77 singles and 78 doubles titles. He won seven Grand Slam single titles, including four US Open titles and three Wimbledon titles, added nine men's Grand Slam doubles titles, his singles match record of 82–3 in 1984 remains the best single season win rate of the Open Era. McEnroe excelled at the year-end tournaments, winning eight singles and seven doubles titles, both of which are records. Three of his winning singles year-end championships were at the Masters Grand Prix and five were at the World Championship Tennis Finals, an event which ended in 1989. Since 2000, there has been only the ATP Finals, he was named the ATP Player of the Year and the ITF World Champion three times each: 1981, 1983 and 1984.
McEnroe contributed to five Davis Cup titles for the U. S. and served as team captain. He has stayed active in retirement competing in senior events on the ATP Champions Tour. For many years he has worked as a television commentator during the majors. McEnroe was born in Wiesbaden, West Germany to American parents, John Patrick McEnroe Sr. and his wife Kay, née Tresham. His father, the son of Irish immigrants, was at the time stationed with the United States Air Force. In 1960, the family moved to the New York City area, where McEnroe's father worked daytime as an advertising agent while attending Fordham Law School by night, he has two younger brothers: former professional tennis player Patrick. When he was about nine months old, the family moved to the Stewart Air Force Base in Newburgh, New York because his father was transferred back to the US. In 1961, they moved to Flushing, moving to Douglaston in 1963. McEnroe grew up in Douglaston, New York City, he started playing tennis. When he was nine, his parents enrolled him in the Eastern Lawn Tennis Association, he soon started playing regional tournaments.
He began competing in national juniors tournaments, at twelve—when he was ranked seventh in his age group—he joined the Port Washington Tennis Academy, Long Island, New York. McEnroe attended Trinity School and graduated in 1977; as an 18-year-old amateur in 1977, McEnroe won the mixed doubles at the French Open with Mary Carillo, made it through the qualifying tournament at Wimbledon and into the main draw, where he lost in the semifinals to Jimmy Connors in four sets. It was the best performance by a qualifier at a Grand Slam tournament and a record performance by an amateur in the open era. After Wimbledon in 1977, McEnroe was recruited by Coach Dick Gould and entered Stanford University, where, in 1978, he led the Stanford team to an NCAA championship, won the NCAA singles title. In 1978, he joined the ATP tour and signed his first professional endorsement deal, with Sergio Tacchini, he again advanced to the semifinals at this time the US Open, losing again to Connors. Following which, he proceeded to win five titles that year, including his first Masters Grand Prix, beating Arthur Ashe in straight sets, as well as Grand Prix events at Stockholm and Wembley.
His late season success allowed him to finish as the number four ranked player for the year. In 1979, McEnroe and partner Peter Fleming won the Wimbledon Doubles title, followed shortly by a win in the US Open Doubles; that same week, McEnroe won his first Grand Slam singles title. He defeated his friend Vitas Gerulaitis in straight sets in the final to become the youngest male winner of the singles title at the US Open since Pancho Gonzales, 20 in 1948, he won the prestigious season-ending WCT Finals, beating Björn Borg in four sets. McEnroe won 10 singles and 17 doubles titles that year finishing at number 3 in the ATP year-end rankings. At Wimbledon, McEnroe reached the 1980 Wimbledon Men's Singles final—his first final at Wimbledon—where he faced Björn Borg, gunning for his fifth consecutive Wimbledon title. At the start of the final, McEnroe was booed by the crowd as he entered Centre Court following heated exchanges with officials during his semifinal victory over Jimmy Connors. In a fourth-set tiebreaker that lasted 20 minutes, McEnroe saved five match points and won 18–16.
McEnroe, could not break Borg's serve in the fifth set, which the Swede won 8–6. This match was called the best Wimbledon final by ESPN's countdown show "Who's Number One?" McEnroe exacted revenge two months beating Björn Borg in the five-set final of the 1980 US Open. He was a finalist at the season-ending WCT Finals and finished as the number 2 ranked player for the year behind only Borg. McEnroe remained controversial when he returned to Wimbledon in 1981. Following his first-round match against Tom Gullikson, McEnroe was fined U. S. $1,500 and came close to being thrown out after he called umpire Ted James "the pits of the world" and swore at tournament referee Fred Hoyles. He made famous the phrase "you cannot be serious", which years became the title of McEnroe's autobiography, by shouting it after several umpires' calls during his matches; this behavior was in s
Anton Pavlovich Chekhov was a Russian playwright and short-story writer, considered to be among the greatest writers of short fiction in history. His career as a playwright produced four classics, his best short stories are held in high esteem by writers and critics. Along with Henrik Ibsen and August Strindberg, Chekhov is referred to as one of the three seminal figures in the birth of early modernism in the theatre. Chekhov practiced as a medical doctor throughout most of his literary career: "Medicine is my lawful wife", he once said, "and literature is my mistress."Chekhov renounced the theatre after the reception of The Seagull in 1896, but the play was revived to acclaim in 1898 by Konstantin Stanislavski's Moscow Art Theatre, which subsequently produced Chekhov's Uncle Vanya and premiered his last two plays, Three Sisters and The Cherry Orchard. These four works present a challenge to the acting ensemble as well as to audiences, because in place of conventional action Chekhov offers a "theatre of mood" and a "submerged life in the text".
Chekhov had at first written stories to earn money, but as his artistic ambition grew, he made formal innovations which have influenced the evolution of the modern short story. He made no apologies for the difficulties this posed to readers, insisting that the role of an artist was to ask questions, not to answer them. Anton Chekhov was born on the feast day of St. Anthony the Great 29 January 1860 in Taganrog, a port on the Sea of Azov in southern Russia, he was the third of six surviving children. His father, Pavel Yegorovich Chekhov, the son of a former serf and his Ukrainian wife, was from the village Olhovatka and ran a grocery store. A director of the parish choir, devout Orthodox Christian, physically abusive father, Pavel Chekhov has been seen by some historians as the model for his son's many portraits of hypocrisy. Chekhov's mother, was an excellent storyteller who entertained the children with tales of her travels with her cloth-merchant father all over Russia. "Our talents we got from our father," Chekhov remembered, "but our soul from our mother."
In adulthood, Chekhov criticised his brother Alexander's treatment of his wife and children by reminding him of Pavel's tyranny: "Let me ask you to recall that it was despotism and lying that ruined your mother's youth. Despotism and lying so mutilated our childhood that it's sickening and frightening to think about it. Remember the horror and disgust we felt in those times when Father threw a tantrum at dinner over too much salt in the soup and called Mother a fool."Chekhov attended the Greek School in Taganrog and the Taganrog Gymnasium, where he was kept down for a year at fifteen for failing an examination in Ancient Greek. He sang at the Greek Orthodox monastery in his father's choirs. In a letter of 1892, he used the word "suffering" to describe his childhood and recalled: When my brothers and I used to stand in the middle of the church and sing the trio "May my prayer be exalted", or "The Archangel's Voice", everyone looked at us with emotion and envied our parents, but we at that moment felt like little convicts.
In 1876, Chekhov's father was declared bankrupt after overextending his finances building a new house, having been cheated by a contractor named Mironov. To avoid debtor's prison he fled to Moscow, where his two eldest sons and Nikolay, were attending university; the family lived in poverty in Moscow. Chekhov was left behind to finish his education. Chekhov remained in Taganrog for three more years, boarding with a man by the name of Selivanov who, like Lopakhin in The Cherry Orchard, had bailed out the family for the price of their house. Chekhov had to pay for his own education, which he managed by private tutoring and selling goldfinches, selling short sketches to the newspapers, among other jobs, he sent every ruble he could spare to his family in Moscow, along with humorous letters to cheer them up. During this time, he read and analytically, including the works of Cervantes, Turgenev and Schopenhauer, wrote a full-length comic drama, which his brother Alexander dismissed as "an inexcusable though innocent fabrication."
Chekhov experienced a series of love affairs, one with the wife of a teacher. In 1879, Chekhov completed his schooling and joined his family in Moscow, having gained admission to the medical school at I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University. Chekhov now assumed responsibility for the whole family. To support them and to pay his tuition fees, he wrote daily short, humorous sketches and vignettes of contemporary Russian life, many under pseudonyms such as "Antosha Chekhonte" and "Man without a Spleen", his prodigious output earned him a reputation as a satirical chronicler of Russian street life, by 1882 he was writing for Oskolki, owned by Nikolai Leykin, one of the leading publishers of the time. Chekhov's tone at this stage was harsher than that familiar from his mature fiction. In 1884, Chekhov qualified as a physician, which he considered his principal profession though he made little money from it and treated the poor free of charge. In 1884 and 1885, Chekhov found himself coughing blood, in 1886 the attacks worsened, but he would not admit his tuberculosis to his family or his friends.
He confessed to Leykin, "I am afraid to submit myself to be sounded by my colleagues." He continued writing for weekly periodicals, earning enough mon
Robert Traill Spence Lowell IV was an American poet. He was born into a Boston Brahmin family, his family and present, were important subjects in his poetry. Growing up in Boston informed his poems, which were set in Boston and the New England region; the literary scholar Paula Hayes believes that Lowell mythologized New England in his early work. Lowell stated, "The poets who most directly influenced me... were Allen Tate, Elizabeth Bishop, William Carlos Williams. An unlikely combination!... but you can see that Bishop is a sort of bridge between Tate's formalism and Williams's informal art." Lowell wrote in both metered verse as well as free verse. After the publication of his 1959 book Life Studies, which won the 1960 National Book Award and "featured a new emphasis on intense, uninhibited discussion of personal and psychological struggles," he was considered an important part of the confessional poetry movement. However, much of Lowell's work, which combined the public with the personal, did not conform to a typical "confessional poetry" model.
Instead, Lowell worked in a number of distinctive stylistic modes and forms over the course of his career. He was appointed the sixth Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress, where he served from 1947 until 1948. In addition to winning the National Book Award, he won the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry in 1947 and 1974, the National Book Critics Circle Award in 1977, a National Institute of Arts and Letters Award in 1947, he is "widely considered one of the most important American poets of the postwar era." His biographer Paul Mariani called him "the poet-historian of our time" and "the last of influential public poets." Lowell was born to Commander Robert Traill Spence Lowell III and Charlotte Winslow in Boston, Massachusetts. The Lowells were a Boston Brahmin family that included poets James Russell Lowell, his mother was a descendant of a signer of the United States Constitution. Lowell's parents share a common descent from Philip Livingston, the son of Robert Livingston, were sixth cousins.
As well as a family history steeped in Protestantism, Lowell had notable Jewish ancestors on both sides of his family, which he discusses in Part II of Life Studies. On his father's side, Lowell was the great-great-grandson of Maj. Mordecai Myers, a soldier in the War of 1812 and mayor of Kinderhook and Schenectady; as a youth, Lowell had a penchant for violence and bullying other children. Describing himself as an 8½-year-old in the prose piece "91 Revere Street," Lowell wrote that he was "thick-witted, thuggish"; as a teenager, Lowell's peers gave him the nickname "Cal" after both the villainous Shakespeare character Caliban and the tyrannical Roman emperor Caligula, the nickname stuck with him throughout his life. Lowell would reference the nickname in his poem "Caligula," first published in his book For the Union Dead and republished in a revised sonnet version for his book Notebook 1967–1968. Lowell received his high school education at St. Mark's School, a prominent prep-school in Southborough, Massachusetts.
There he met and was influenced by the poet Richard Eberhart, who taught at the school, as a high school student, Lowell decided that he wanted to become a poet. At St. Mark's, he became lifelong friends with Frank Parker, an artist who created the prints that Lowell used on the covers of most of his books. Lowell attended Harvard College for two years. While he was a freshman at Harvard, he visited Robert Frost in Cambridge and asked for feedback on a long poem he had written on the Crusades. In an interview, Lowell recalled, "I had a huge blank verse epic on the First Crusade and took it to him all in my undecipherable pencil-writing, he read a little of it, said,'It goes on rather a bit, doesn't it?' And he read me the opening of Keats's'Hyperion,' the first version, I thought all of, sublime."After two years at Harvard, Lowell was unhappy, his psychiatrist, Merrill Moore, a poet, suggested that Lowell take a leave of absence from Harvard to get away from his parents and to study with Moore's friend, the poet-professor Allen Tate, living in Nashville and teaching at Vanderbilt.
Lowell traveled to Nashville with Moore. Lowell asked Tate if he could live with him and his wife, Tate joked that if Lowell wanted to, Lowell could pitch a tent on Tate's lawn. Lowell called the act "a terrible piece of youthful callousne