Grasmere is a village and tourist destination in the centre of the English Lake District. It takes its name from the adjacent lake, it has associations with the Lake Poets, one of whom, William Wordsworth, lived in Grasmere for 14 years and called it as "the loveliest spot that man hath found." Before 1974, Grasmere lay in the former county of Westmorland. It is now part of the county of Cumbria. In 1961 the civil parish had a population of 1029. "'The lake flanked by grass'. Early spellings in'Grys-','Gris-' might suggest ON'griss"young pig' as 1st el. but the weight of the evidence points to OE/ON'gres"grass', with the modern form influenced by Standard English.... The medial'-se-' may, as suggested by Ekwall in DEPN, point to ON'gres-saer"grass-lake' as the original name...". Plus the element "'mere' OE, ModE'lake,'pool'." The village is on the river Rothay. The village is overlooked from the north-west by the rocky hill of Helm Crag, popularly known as The Lion and the Lamb or the Old Lady at the Piano.
These names are derived from the shape of rock formations on its summit, depending on the side from which you view it. A number of frequented walks begin in the village, including the ascent of Helm Crag, a longer route up to Fairfield and a moderate 200-metre ascent to Easedale Tarn; the village is on the route of Alfred Wainwright's Coast to Coast Walk. The A591 connects Grasmere to the Vale of Keswick over Dunmail Raise to the north, Ambleside to the south. In other directions, Grasmere is surrounded by high ground. To the west, a long ridge comes down from High Raise and contains the lesser heights of Blea Rigg and Silver How. To the east, Grasmere is bordered by the western ridge of the Fairfield horseshoe. Grasmere is served by the Stagecoach 555 bus service connecting towns in and near the Lake District, such as Keswick and Lancaster. In summer it is served by an open top double-decker 599 service, operated by Stagecoach, which runs between Grasmere and Bowness-on-Windermere. Grasmere's famous Rushbearing Ceremony, centred on St Oswald's Church, has ancient origins.
The present-day ceremony is an annual event which features a procession through the village with bearings made from rushes and flowers. In this procession there are six Maids of Honour, a brass band, the church choir, anyone who wishes to join in by carrying their own decorated rushbearing; the annual Grasmere Sports take place in August and were first held in 1852. This is the main event in the village's calendar and one of the most popular traditional events in the Lake District. Participants compete in a variety of sports, including Cumberland Wrestling, fell running and hound trails. Grasmere is now home to the winner of the'Get Started Award 2014' awarded by the Institute of Enterprise and Entrepreneurs, the Handmade Chocolate Shop. Today's Grasmere Gingerbread is made to a "secret recipe" popularised by Sarah Nelson. By the early nineteenth century, Grasmere gingerbread was being sold as fairings, as well as being a popular seller in its own right. Poet Dorothy Wordsworth wrote in 1803 that her brother William craved for the gingerbread.
Until September 2013, Grasmere's three main church parishes gathered three times a year to celebrate mass in the Catholic Church of Our Lady of the Wayside. The former civil parish was for a time governed by an urban district council before becoming part of the Lakes UDC in 1934; the village is now part of Lakes parish. Grasmere is represented by Liberal Democrat politicians on both the district council and county council, as well as at Westminster. Grasmere has experienced population decline since the 1960s. In birth order: William Wordsworth, lived in Dove Cottage with his sister Dorothy Wordsworth, in the hamlet of Townend, on the outskirts of Grasmere, from 1799, he breakfasted with Sir Walter Scott at The Swan, a 17th-century coaching inn on the A591 road, whose sign still quotes a line from him: "Who does not know the famous Swan?" In 1808 he moved to the larger Allan Bank, where he remained until 1811, moving to Rydal Mount in 1813. He is buried in the churchyard of St Oswald's, alongside his wife, their family, his sister Dorothy.
Writer Thomas de Quincey rented Dove Cottage after the Wordsworths left. A friend, the writer Lady Maria Farquhar, lived at Dale Lodge. Samuel Taylor Coleridge, spent time at Dove Cottage and is said to have muttered stanzas for The Rime of the Ancient Mariner while walking across the nearby fells. Paul Frederick de Quincey, New Zealand politician, was born at Grasmere. William Angus Knight, Scottish academic, compiled an 11-volume Wordsworth's Works and Life and presented his library of Wordsworth materials to Dove Cottage. William Archibald Spooner, Oxford University academic and instigator of spoonerisms, was buried here, near the house of his wife's family, How Foot. John Haden Badley, progressive educationalist and founder of Bedales School, spent time with his sisters the Misses Badley, at their Grasmere home Winterseeds. Charles Morris and Leeds University vice-chancellor, died at Grasmere; the husband-and-wife artists William Heaton Cooper, landscape painter, Ophelia Gordon Bell, sculptor and are buried at Grasmere.
Fred Yates, was living at Cote How near Grasmere
The Alps are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies in Europe, separating Southern from Central and Western Europe and stretching 1,200 kilometres across eight Alpine countries: France, Italy, Liechtenstein, Austria and Slovenia. The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Extreme shortening caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentary rocks rising by thrusting and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc and the Matterhorn. Mont Blanc spans the French–Italian border, at 4,810 m is the highest mountain in the Alps; the Alpine region area contains about a hundred peaks higher than 4,000 metres. The altitude and size of the range affects the climate in Europe. Wildlife such as ibex live in the higher peaks to elevations of 3,400 m, plants such as Edelweiss grow in rocky areas in lower elevations as well as in higher elevations. Evidence of human habitation in the Alps goes back to the Palaeolithic era.
A mummified man, determined to be 5,000 years old, was discovered on a glacier at the Austrian–Italian border in 1991. By the 6th century BC, the Celtic La Tène culture was well established. Hannibal famously crossed the Alps with a herd of elephants, the Romans had settlements in the region. In 1800, Napoleon crossed one of the mountain passes with an army of 40,000; the 18th and 19th centuries saw an influx of naturalists and artists, in particular, the Romantics, followed by the golden age of alpinism as mountaineers began to ascend the peaks. The Alpine region has a strong cultural identity; the traditional culture of farming and woodworking still exists in Alpine villages, although the tourist industry began to grow early in the 20th century and expanded after World War II to become the dominant industry by the end of the century. The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted in the Swiss, Italian and German Alps. At present, the region has 120 million annual visitors; the English word Alps derives from the Latin Alpes.
Maurus Servius Honoratus, an ancient commentator of Virgil, says in his commentary that all high mountains are called Alpes by Celts. The term may be common to Italo-Celtic, because the Celtic languages have terms for high mountains derived from alp; this may be consistent with the theory. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the Latin Alpes might derive from a pre-Indo-European word *alb "hill". Albania, a name not native to the region known as the country of Albania, has been used as a name for a number of mountainous areas across Europe. In Roman times, "Albania" was a name for the eastern Caucasus, while in the English languages "Albania" was used as a name for Scotland, although it is more derived from the Latin albus, the color white; the Latin word Alpes could come from the adjective albus. In modern languages the term alp, albe or alpe refers to a grazing pastures in the alpine regions below the glaciers, not the peaks. An alp refers to a high mountain pasture where cows are taken to be grazed during the summer months and where hay barns can be found, the term "the Alps", referring to the mountains, is a misnomer.
The term for the mountain peaks varies by nation and language: words such as Horn, Kopf, Spitze and Berg are used in German speaking regions. The Alps are a crescent shaped geographic feature of central Europe that ranges in a 800 km arc from east to west and is 200 km in width; the mean height of the mountain peaks is 2.5 km. The range stretches from the Mediterranean Sea north above the Po basin, extending through France from Grenoble, stretching eastward through mid and southern Switzerland; the range continues onward toward Vienna and east to the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia. To the south it dips into northern Italy and to the north extends to the southern border of Bavaria in Germany. In areas like Chiasso and Allgäu, the demarcation between the mountain range and the flatlands are clear; the countries with the greatest alpine territory are Austria, Italy and Switzerland. The highest portion of the range is divided by the glacial trough of the Rhône valley, from Mont Blanc to the Matterhorn and Monte Rosa on the southern side, the Bernese Alps on the northern.
The peaks in the easterly portion of the range, in Austria and Slovenia, are smaller than those in the central and western portions. The variances in nomenclature in the region spanned by the Alps makes classification of the mountains and subregions difficult, but a general classification is that of the Eastern Alps and Western Alps with the divide between the two occurring in eastern Switzerland according to geologist Stefan Schmid, near the Splügen Pass; the highest peaks of the Western Alps and Eastern Alps are Mont Blanc, at 4,810 m and Piz Bernina at 4,049 metres. The second-highest major
Fall of man
The fall of man, or the fall, is a term used in Christianity to describe the transition of the first man and woman from a state of innocent obedience to God to a state of guilty disobedience. Although not named in the Bible, the doctrine of the fall comes from a biblical interpretation of Genesis chapter 3. At first and Eve lived with God in the Garden of Eden, but the serpent tempted them into eating the fruit from the tree of knowledge of good and evil, which God had forbidden. After doing so, they became ashamed of their nakedness and God expelled them from the Garden to prevent them from eating from the tree of life and becoming immortal. For many Christian denominations, the doctrine of the fall is related to that of original sin, they believe that the fall brought sin into the world, corrupting the entire natural world, including human nature, causing all humans to be born into original sin, a state from which they cannot attain eternal life without the grace of God. The Eastern Orthodox Church accepts the concept of the fall but rejects the idea that the guilt of original sin is passed down through generations, based in part on the passage Ezekiel 18:20 that says a son is not guilty of the sins of his father.
Calvinist Protestants believe that Jesus gave his life as a sacrifice for the elect, so they may be redeemed from their sin. Judaism does not have a concept of "the fall" or "original sin" and has varying other interpretations of the Eden narrative. Lapsarianism, the logical order of God's decrees in relation to the Fall, is the distinction, by some Calvinists, as being supralapsarian or infralapsarian; the story of the Garden of Eden and the fall of man represents a tradition among the Abrahamic peoples, with a presentation more or less symbolical of certain moral and religious truths. The doctrine of the fall of man is extrapolated from Christian exegesis of Genesis 3. According to the narrative, God creates the first man and woman. God places them in the Garden of Eden and forbids them to eat fruit from the tree of knowledge of good and evil; the serpent tempts Eve to eat fruit from the forbidden tree, which she shares with Adam and they become ashamed of their nakedness. Subsequently, God banishes Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden, condemns Adam to working in order to get what he needs to live and condemns Eve to giving birth in pain, places cherubim to guard the entrance, so that Adam and Eve will not eat from the "tree of life".
The Book of Jubilees gives time frames for the events that led to the fall of man by stating that the serpent convinced Eve to eat the fruit on the 17th day, of the 2nd month, in the 8th year after Adam's creation. It states that they were removed from the Garden on the new moon of the 4th month of that year. Christian exegetes of Genesis 2:17 have applied the day-year principle to explain how Adam died within a day. Psalms 90:4, 2 Peter 3:8 and Jubilees 4:29–31 explained that, to God, one day is equivalent to a thousand years and thus Adam died within that same "day"; the Greek Septuagint, on the other hand, has "day" translated into the Greek word for a twenty-four-hour period. According to the Genesis narrative, during the antediluvian age, human longevity approached a millennium, such as the case of Adam who lived 930 years. Thus, to "die" has been interpreted as to become mortal. However, the grammar does not support this reading, nor does the narrative: Adam and Eve are expelled from the Garden lest they eat of the second tree, the tree of life, gain immortality.
Catholic exegesis of Genesis 3 claims that the fall of man was a "primeval event, a deed that took place at the beginning of the history of man." Traditionally, the fall of Adam and Eve is said to have brought “four wounds” to human nature. These are enumerated by St Bede and others St Thomas Aquinas They are original sin, physical frailty and death, darkened intellect and ignorance; these negated or diminished the gifts of God to Adam and Eve of original justice or sanctifying grace, integrity and infused knowledge. This first sin was "transmitted" by Adam and Eve to all of their descendants as original sin, causing humans to be "subject to ignorance and the dominion of death, inclined to sin." Although the state of corruption, inherited by humans after the primeval event of Original Sin, is called guilt or sin, it is understood as a sin acquired by the unity of all humans in Adam rather than a personal responsibility of humanity. Children partake in the effects of the sin of Adam, but not in the responsibility of original sin, as sin is always a personal act.
Baptism is considered to erase original sin, though the effects on human nature remain, for this reason the Catholic Church baptizes infants who have not committed any personal sin. Eastern Orthodoxy rejects the idea that the guilt of original sin is passed down through generations, it bases its teaching in part on Ezekiel 18:20 that says a son is not guilty of the sins of his father. The Church teaches that, in addition to their conscience and tendency to do good and women are born with a tendency to sin due to the fallen condition of the world, it follows Maximus the Confessor and others in characterising the change in human nature as the introduction of a "deliberative will" in opposition to the "natural will" created by God which tends toward the good. Thus, according to St Paul in his epistle to th
The Excursion: Being a portion of The Recluse, a poem is a long poem by Romantic poet William Wordsworth and was first published in 1814. It was intended to be the second part of The Recluse, an unfinished larger work, meant to include The Prelude, Wordsworth's other long poem, published posthumously; the exact dates of its composition are unknown, but the first manuscript is dated as either September 1806 or December 1809. The Poet - the narrator of the poem The Wanderer - first introduced in Book 1, "The Wanderer." Contrary to what his title might suggest, he dwells in a fixed abode but "still he loved to pace the public roads/ And the wild paths. The Pastor - A country pastor, encountered by the Poet, the Wanderer, the Solitary during their excursion; the poem is arranged into nine books: "The Wanderer". The first and second books introduce the Solitary, respectively; the third and fourth books consist of a conversation/debate between the Wanderer and the Solitary regarding the truth of Religion and the virtue of Mankind.
The fifth, sixth and eighth books introduce the character of the Pastor and consist of the Pastor explaining the life stories of many of the townspeople who lie buried in the country-churchyard. In the final two books, all of the aforementioned characters travel to the Parsonage, are introduced to the family of the Pastor, part ways. Full text of The Excursion The Excursion public domain audiobook at LibriVox
Ode: Intimations of Immortality
"Ode: Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood" is a poem by William Wordsworth, completed in 1804 and published in Poems, in Two Volumes. The poem was completed in two parts, with the first four stanzas written among a series of poems composed in 1802 about childhood; the first part of the poem was completed on 27 March 1802 and a copy was provided to Wordsworth's friend and fellow poet, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, who responded with his own poem, "Dejection: An Ode", in April. The fourth stanza of the ode ends with a question, Wordsworth was able to answer it with seven additional stanzas completed in early 1804, it was first printed as "Ode" in 1807, it was not until 1815 that it was edited and reworked to the version, known, "Ode: Intimations of Immortality". The poem is an irregular Pindaric ode in 11 stanzas that combines aspects of Coleridge's Conversation poems, the religious sentiments of the Bible and the works of Saint Augustine, aspects of the elegiac and apocalyptic traditions.
It is split into three movements: the first four stanzas discuss death, the loss of youth and innocence. The poem relies on the concept of pre-existence, the idea that the soul existed before the body, to connect children with the ability to witness the divine within nature; as children mature, they become more worldly and lose this divine vision, the ode reveals Wordsworth's understanding of psychological development, found in his poems The Prelude and Tintern Abbey. Wordsworth's praise of the child as the "best philosopher" was criticised by Coleridge and became the source of critical discussion. Modern critics sometimes have referred to Wordsworth's poem as the "Great Ode" and ranked it among his best poems, but this wasn't always the case. Contemporary reviews of the poem were mixed, with many reviewers attacking the work or, like Lord Byron, dismissing the work without analysis; the critics felt that Wordsworth's subject matter was too "low" and some felt that the emphasis on childhood was misplaced.
Among the Romantic poets, most praised various aspects of the poem however. By the Victorian period, most reviews of the ode were positive with only John Ruskin taking a strong negative stance against the poem; the poem continued to be well received into the 20th century, with few exceptions. The majority ranked it as one of Wordsworth's greatest poems. A divine morning – at Breakfast Wm wrote part of an ode – Mr Olliff sent the Dung & Wm went to work in the garden we sate all day in the Orchard. In 1802, Wordsworth wrote many poems; these poems were inspired by his conversations with his sister, whom he was living with in the Lake District at the time. The poems, beginning with "The Butterfly" and ending with "To the Cuckoo", were all based on Wordsworth's recalling both the sensory and emotional experience of his childhood. From "To the Cuckoo", he moved on to "The Rainbow", both written on 26 March 1802, on to "Ode: Intimation of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood"; as he moved from poem to poem, he began to question why, as a child, he once was able to see an immortal presence within nature but as an adult, fading away except in the few moments he was able to meditate on experiences found in poems like "To the Cuckoo".
While sitting at breakfast on 27 March, he began to compose the ode. He was able to write four stanzas that put forth the question about the faded image and ended, "Where is it now, the glory and the dream?" The poem would remain in its smaller, four-stanza version until 1804. The short version of the ode was finished in one day because Wordsworth left the next day to spend time with Samuel Taylor Coleridge in Keswick. Close to the time Wordsworth and Coleridge climbed the Skiddaw mountain, 3 April 1802, Wordsworth recited the four stanzas of the ode that were completed; the poem impressed Coleridge, while with Wordsworth, he was able to provide his response to the ode's question within an early draft of his poem, "Dejection: An Ode". In early 1804, Wordsworth was able to return his attention to working on the ode, it was a busy beginning of the year with Wordsworth having to help Dorothy recover from an illness in addition to writing his poems. The exact time of composition is unknown, but it followed his work on The Prelude, which consumed much of February and was finished on 17 March.
Many of the lines of the ode are similar to the lines of The Prelude Book V, he used the rest of the ode to try to answer the question at the end of the fourth stanza. The poem was first printed in full for Wordsworth's 1807 collection of poems, Poems, in Two Volumes, under the title "Ode", it was the last poem of the second volume of the work, it had its own title page separating it from the rest of the poems, including the previous poem "Peele Castle". Wordsworth added an epigraph just before publication, "paulò majora canamus"; the Latin phrase is from Virgil's Eclogue 4, meaning "let us sing a somewhat loftier song". The poem was reprinted under its full title "Ode: Intimation of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood" for Wordsworth's collection Poems; the reprinted version contained an epigraph that, according to Henry Crabb Robinson, was added at Crabb's suggestion. The epigraph was from "My Heart Leaps Up". In 1820, Wordsworth issued The Miscellaneous Poems of William Wordsworth that collected the poems he wished to be preserved with an emphasis on ordering the poems, revising the text, including prose that would provide th
Little Gidding (poem)
Little Gidding is the fourth and final poem of T. S. Eliot's Four Quartets, a series of poems that discuss time, perspective and salvation, it was first published in September 1942 after being delayed for over a year because of the air-raids on Great Britain during World War II and Eliot's declining health. The title refers to a small Anglican community in Huntingdonshire, established by Nicholas Ferrar in the 17th century and scattered during the English Civil War; the poem uses the combined image of fire and Pentecostal fire to emphasise the need for purification and purgation. According to the poet, humanity's flawed understanding of life and turning away from God leads to a cycle of warfare, but this can be overcome by recognising the lessons of the past. Within the poem, the narrator meets a ghost, a combination of various poets and literary figures. Little Gidding focuses on the unity of past and future, claims that understanding this unity is necessary for salvation. Following the completion of the third Four Quartets poem, The Dry Salvages, Eliot's health declined and he stayed in Shamley Green, Surrey while he recovered.
During this time, Eliot started writing Little Gidding. The first draft was completed in July 1941 but he was dissatisfied with it, he believed the problems with the poem lay with his own inability to write, that, precipitated by air raids on London, he had started the poem with too little preparation and had written it too quickly. After the first draft was written, he set the poem aside, he left in September to lecture throughout Great Britain. After months of not working on the poem, Eliot began to feel compelled to finish it. In total, there were five drafts; the poem was published in the October New English Weekly. Little Gidding was intended to conclude the Four Quartets series, summarising Eliot's views expressed in this series of poems. Little Gidding was the home of an Anglican community established in 1626 by Nicholas Ferrar; the Ferrar household lived a Christian life according to High Church principles and the Book of Common Prayer. The religious community was dispersed during the English Civil War between Parliamentarians and Royalists but reformed, ending with the death of John Ferrar in 1657.
Eliot had visited the site in May 1936. Unlike the other locations mentioned in the titles of the Four Quartets poems, Eliot had no direct connection to the original Christian community; as such, the community is supposed to represent any religious community. Critics classify Little Gidding as a poem of fire with an emphasis on purgation and the Pentecostal fire; the beginning of the poem discusses winter, with attention paid to the arrival of summer. The images of snow, which provoke desires for a spiritual life, transition into an analysis of the four classical elements of fire, earth and water and how fire is the primary element of the four. Following this is a discussion on death and destruction, things unaccomplished, regret for past events. While using Dante's terza rima style, the poem continues by describing the Battle of Britain; the image of warfare merges with the depiction of Pentecost, the Holy Spirit is juxtaposed with the air-raids on London. In the second section, a ghost, representing the poets of the past stuck between worlds, begins talking to the narrator of the poem.
The ghost discusses change, art in general, how humankind is flawed. The only way to overcome the problematic condition of humanity, according to the ghost, is to experience purgation through fire; the fire is described in a manner similar to Julian of Norwich's writing about God's love and discussed in relationship to the shirt of Nessus, a shirt that burns its wearer. Little Gidding continues by describing the eternalness of the present and how history exists in a pattern; the poem concludes by explaining how sacrifice is needed to allow an individual to die into life and be reborn, that salvation should be the goal of humankind. In terms of renewal, Eliot believed that suffering was needed for all of society before new life could begin; the original Little Gidding community was built for living on monastic lines, but the community was damaged and dispersed by Puritan forces during the English Civil War in 1646. The church, the centre of the community, was restored in 1714 and again in 1853.
The image of religious renewal is combined with the image of the London air-raids and the constant fighting and destruction within the world. This compound image is used to discuss the connection of holy places with the Holy Spirit, communion with the dead, the repetition of history; the theme is internal to Eliot's own poems. The depiction of time within the poem is similar to the way time operates within The Family Reunion. Like the other poems making up the Four Quartets, Little Gidding deals with the past and future, humanity's place within them as each generation is united. In the second section, there is a ghost, the compilation of various poets, including Dante, Swift and others; when the ghost joins the poet, the narrator states "Knowing myself yet being someone other". This suggests that the different times merge at the same time that the different personalities begin to merge, allowing a communication and connection with the dead. In the fourth section, humanity is given a choice between the Holy Spirit or the bombing of London.
God's love allows humankind to escape the living hell through purgation by fire. The end of the poem describes how Eliot has attempted