Alcoholism known as alcohol use disorder, is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems. The disorder was divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions are present: a person drinks large amounts over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage results in health problems, usage results in risky situations, withdrawal occurs when stopping, alcohol tolerance has occurred with use. Risky situations include having unsafe sex, among other things. Alcohol use can affect all parts of the body, but it affects the brain, liver and immune system; this can result in mental illness, Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome, irregular heartbeat, liver cirrhosis and increased cancer risk, among other diseases.
Drinking during pregnancy can cause damage to the baby resulting in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Women are more sensitive than men to the harmful physical and mental effects of alcohol. Environmental factors and genetics are two components associated with alcoholism, with about half the risk attributed to each. Someone with a parent or sibling with alcoholism is three to four times more to become an alcoholic themselves. Environmental factors include social and behavioral influences. High stress levels and anxiety, as well as alcohol's inexpensive cost and easy accessibility, increase the risk. People may continue to drink to prevent or improve symptoms of withdrawal. After a person stops drinking alcohol, they may experience a low level of withdrawal lasting for months. Medically, alcoholism is considered both a mental illness. Questionnaires and certain blood tests may both detect people with possible alcoholism. Further information is collected to confirm the diagnosis. Prevention of alcoholism may be attempted by regulating and limiting the sale of alcohol, taxing alcohol to increase its cost, providing inexpensive treatment.
Treatment may take several steps. Due to medical problems that can occur during withdrawal, alcohol detoxification should be controlled. One common method involves the use such as diazepam; these can be either given while admitted to a health care institution or while a person remains in the community with close supervision. Mental illness or other addictions may complicate treatment. After detoxification, support such as group therapy or support groups are used to help keep a person from returning to drinking. One used form of support is the group Alcoholics Anonymous; the medications acamprosate, disulfiram or naltrexone may be used to help prevent further drinking. The World Health Organization estimates that as of 2010 there were 208 million people with alcoholism worldwide. In the United States, about 17 million of adults and 0.7 million of those age 12 to 17 years of age are affected. It is more common among young adults, becoming less common in middle and old age, it is the least common in Africa, at 1.1%, has the highest rates in Eastern Europe, at 11%.
Alcoholism directly resulted in 139,000 deaths in 2013, up from 112,000 deaths in 1990. A total of 3.3 million deaths are believed to be due to alcohol. It reduces a person's life expectancy by around ten years. In the United States, it resulted in economic costs of US$224 billion in 2006. Many terms, some insulting and others informal, have been used to refer to people affected by alcoholism. In 1979, the World Health Organization discouraged the use of "alcoholism" due to its inexact meaning, preferring "alcohol dependence syndrome"; the risk of alcohol dependence begins at low levels of drinking and increases directly with both the volume of alcohol consumed and a pattern of drinking larger amounts on an occasion, to the point of intoxication, sometimes called "binge drinking". Young adults are at risk of engaging in binge drinking. Alcoholism is characterised by an increased tolerance to alcohol – which means that an individual can consume more alcohol – and physical dependence on alcohol, which makes it hard for an individual to control their consumption.
The physical dependency caused by alcohol can lead to an affected individual having a strong urge to drink alcohol. These characteristics play a role in decreasing an alcoholic's ability to stop drinking. Alcoholism can have adverse effects on mental health, causing psychiatric disorders and increasing the risk of suicide. A depressed mood is a common symptom of heavy alcohol drinkers. Warning signs of alcoholism include the consumption of increasing amounts of alcohol and frequent intoxication, preoccupation with drinking to the exclusion of other activities, promises to quit drinking and failure to keep those promises, the inability to remember what was said or done while drinking, personality changes associated with drinking, denial or the making of excuses for drinking, the refusal to admit excessive drinking, dysfunction or other problems at work or school, the loss of interest in personal appearance or hygiene and economic problems, the complaint of poor health, with loss of appetite, respiratory infections, or increased anxiety.
Drinking enough to cause a blood alcohol concentration of 0.03–0.12% causes an overall improvement in mood and possible euphoria (a "happy" fee
Foreclosure is a legal process in which a lender attempts to recover the balance of a loan from a borrower who has stopped making payments to the lender by forcing the sale of the asset used as the collateral for the loan. Formally, a mortgage lender, or other lienholder, obtains a termination of a mortgage borrower's equitable right of redemption, either by court order or by operation of law. A lender obtains a security interest from a borrower who mortgages or pledges an asset like a house to secure the loan. If the borrower defaults and the lender tries to repossess the property, courts of equity can grant the borrower the equitable right of redemption if the borrower repays the debt. While this equitable right exists, it is a cloud on title and the lender cannot be sure that they can repossess the property. Therefore, through the process of foreclosure, the lender seeks to terminate the equitable right of redemption and take both legal and equitable title to the property in fee simple. Other lien holders can foreclose the owner's right of redemption for other debts, such as for overdue taxes, unpaid contractors' bills or overdue homeowner association dues or assessments.
The foreclosure process as applied to residential mortgage loans is a bank or other secured creditor selling or repossessing a parcel of real property after the owner has failed to comply with an agreement between the lender and borrower called a "mortgage" or "deed of trust". The violation of the mortgage is a default in payment of a promissory note, secured by a lien on the property; when the process is complete, the lender can sell the property and keep the proceeds to pay off its mortgage and any legal costs, it is said that "the lender has foreclosed its mortgage or lien". If the promissory note was made with a recourse clause and if the sale does not bring enough to pay the existing balance of principal and fees the mortgagee can file a claim for a deficiency judgment. In many states in the United States, items included to calculate the amount of a deficiency judgment include the loan principal, accrued interest and attorney fees less the amount the lender bid at the foreclosure sale.
The mortgage holder can initiate foreclosure at a time specified in the mortgage documents some period of time after a default condition occurs. In the United States and many other countries, several types of foreclosure exist. In the US for example, two of them – namely, by judicial sale and by power of sale – are used, but other modes are possible in a few other U. S. states. Foreclosure is by judicial sale called judicial foreclosure, involves the sale of the mortgaged property under the supervision of a court; the proceeds go first to satisfy the mortgage other lien holders, the mortgagor/borrower if any proceeds are left. Judicial foreclosure is available in every US state and required in many; the lender initiates judicial foreclosure by filing a lawsuit against the borrower. As with all other legal actions, all parties must be notified of the foreclosure, but notification requirements vary from state to state in the US. A judicial decision is announced after the exchange of pleadings at a hearing in a state or local court in the US In some rather rare instances, foreclosures are filed in US federal courts.
Foreclosure by power of sale called nonjudicial foreclosure, is authorized by many states if a power of sale clause is included in the mortgage or if a deed of trust with such a clause was used, instead of an actual mortgage. In some US states, like California and Texas, nearly all so-called mortgages are deeds of trust; this process involves the sale of the property by the mortgage holder without court supervision. This process is much faster and cheaper than foreclosure by judicial sale; as in judicial sale, the mortgage holder and other lien holders are first and second claimants to the proceeds from the sale. Other types of foreclosure are considered minor because of their limited availability. Under strict foreclosure, available in a few states including Connecticut, New Hampshire and Vermont, if the mortgagee wins the court case, the court orders the defaulted mortgagor to pay the mortgage within a specified period of time. Should the mortgagor fail to do so, the mortgage holder gains the title to the property with no obligation to sell it.
This type of foreclosure is available only when the value of the property is less than the debt. Strict foreclosure was the original method of foreclosure. Acceleration is a clause, found in Sections 16, 17, or 18 of a typical mortgage in the US. Not all accelerations are the same for each mortgage, as it depends on the terms and conditions between lender and obligated mortgagor; when a term in the mortgage has been broken, the acceleration clause goes into effect. It can declare the entire payable debt to the lender if the borrower were to transfer the title at a future date to a purchaser; the clause in the mortgage instructs that a notice of acceleration must be served to the obligated mortgagor who signed the Note. Each mortgage gives a time period for the debtor to cure their loan; the most common time periods allot to debtor is 30 days, but for commercial property it can be 10 days. The notice of acceleration is called a Demand and/or Breach Letter. In the letter it informs the Borrower that they have 10 or 30 days from the date on the letter to reinstate their loan.
Demand/Breach letters are sent out by Certified and Regular mail to all notable ad
The Chicago Sun-Times is a daily newspaper published in Chicago, United States. It is the flagship paper of the Sun-Times Media Group, with the biggest circulation in Chicago and the 9th overall in the US; the Chicago Sun-Times claims to be the oldest continuously published daily newspaper in the city. That claim is based on the 1844 founding of the Chicago Daily Journal, the first newspaper to publish the rumor, now believed false, that a cow owned by Catherine O'Leary was responsible for the Chicago fire; the Evening Journal, whose West Side building at 17–19 S. Canal was undamaged, gave the Chicago Tribune a temporary home until it could rebuild. Though the assets of the Journal were sold to the Chicago Daily News in 1929, its last owner Samuel Emory Thomason immediately launched the tabloid Chicago Daily Illustrated Times; the modern paper grew out of the 1948 merger of the Chicago Sun, founded December 4, 1941 by Marshall Field III, the Chicago Daily Times. The newspaper was owned by Field Enterprises, controlled by the Marshall Field family, which acquired the afternoon Chicago Daily News in 1959 and launched WFLD television in 1966.
When the Daily News ended its run in 1978, much of its staff, including Pulitzer Prize-winning columnist Mike Royko, were moved to the Sun-Times. During the Field period, the newspaper had a populist, progressive character that leaned Democratic but was independent of the city's Democratic establishment. Although the graphic style was urban tabloid, the paper was well regarded for journalistic quality and did not rely on sensational front-page stories, it ran articles from The Washington Post/Los Angeles Times wire service. Among the most prominent members of the newspaper's staff was cartoonist Jacob Burck, hired by the Chicago Times in 1938, won a Pulitzer Prize in 1941 and continued with the paper after it became the Sun-Times, drawing nearly 10,000 cartoons over a 44-year career; the advice column "Ask Ann Landers" debuted in 1943. Ann Landers was the pseudonym of staff writer Ruth Crowley, who answered readers' letters until 1955. Eppie Lederer, sister of "Dear Abby" columnist Abigail van Buren, assumed the role thereafter as Ann Landers.
"Kup's Column", written by Irv Kupcinet made its first appearance in 1943. Jack Olsen joined the Sun-Times as editor-in-chief in 1954, before moving on to Time and Sports Illustrated magazines and authoring true-crime books. Hired as literary editor in 1955 was Hoke Norris, who covered the civil-rights movement for the Sun-Times. Jerome Holtzman became a member of the Chicago Sun sports department after first being a copy boy for the Daily News in the 1940s, he and Edgar Munzel, another longtime sportswriter for the paper, both would end up honored by the Baseball Hall of Fame. Famed for his World War II exploits, two-time Pulitzer Prize-winning cartoonist Bill Mauldin made the Sun-Times his home base in 1962; the following year, Mauldin drew one of his most renowned illustrations, depicting a mourning statue of Abraham Lincoln after the November 1963 assassination of John F. Kennedy. Two years out of college, Roger Ebert became a staff writer in 1966, a year was named Sun-Times's film critic.
He continued in this role for the remainder of his life. In 1975, a new sports editor at the Sun-Times, Lewis Grizzard, spiked some columns written by sportswriter Lacy J. Banks and took away a column Banks had been writing, prompting Banks to tell a friend at the Chicago Defender that Grizzard was a racist. After the friend wrote a story about it, Grizzard fired Banks. With that, the editorial employees union intervened, a federal arbitrator ruled for Banks and 13 months he got his job back. A 25-part series on the Mirage Tavern, a saloon on Wells Street bought and operated by the Sun-Times in 1977, exposed a pattern of civic corruption and bribery, as city officials were investigated and photographed without their knowledge; the articles received considerable publicity and acclaim, but a nomination for the Pulitzer Prize met resistance from some who believed the Mirage series represented a form of entrapment. In March 1978, the venerable afternoon publication the Chicago Daily News, sister paper of the Sun-Times, went out of business.
The two newspapers shared the same office building. James F. Hoge, Jr. editor and publisher of the Daily News, assumed the same positions at the Sun-Times, which retained a number of the Daily News's editorial personnel. In 1980, the Sun-Times hired syndicated TV columnist Gary Deeb away from the rival Chicago Tribune. Deeb left the Sun-Times in the spring of 1983 to try his hand at TV, he joined Chicago's WLS-TV in September 1983. In July 1981, prominent Sun-Times investigative reporter Pam Zekman, part of a Pulitzer Prize-winning team with the Chicago Tribune in 1976, announced she was leaving the Sun-Times to join WBBM-TV in Chicago in August 1981 as chief of its new investigative unit. "Salary wasn't a factor," she told the Tribune. "The station showed a commitment to investigative journalism. It was something I wanted to try."Pete Souza left the Sun-Times in 1983 to become official White House photographer for President Ronald Reagan until his second term's end in 1989. Souza returned to that position to be the official photographer for President Barack Obama.
Baseball writer Jerome Holtzman defected from the Sun-Times to the Tribune in late 1981, while Mike Downey left Sun-Times sports in September 1981 to be a columnist at the Detroit Free Press. In January 1984, noted Sun-Times business reporter James Warren quit to join the rival Chicago Tribune, he became the Tribune's Washington bureau chief and its managing editor for features. In 1984, Field Enterprises co-owners, half-brothers Marshall Field
Simon Reynolds is an English music journalist and author who began his professional career on the staff of Melody Maker in the mid-1980s, has since gone on to freelance and publish a number of full-length books on music and popular culture, ranging from historical tomes on rave music, glam rock, the post-punk era to critical works such as The Sex Revolts: Gender and Rock'n' Roll and Retromania: Pop Culture's Addiction to Its Own Past. He has contributed to Spin, Rolling Stone, The New York Times, The Village Voice, The Guardian, The Wire and others. Reynolds grew up in Berkhamsted. Inspired by his younger brother Tim, he became interested in rock and punk in 1978. In the early Eighties, he attended Brasenose Collage at the University of Oxford. After graduating, in 1984 he co-founded the Oxford-based music journal Monitor with his friends and future Melody Maker colleagues Paul Oldfield and David Stubbs along with Hilary Little and Chris Scott. In 1986, Reynolds joined the staff of Melody Maker, where his writing was marked by enthusiasm for a wave of neo-psychedelic rock and hip hop artists that emerged in the mid-1980s.
During this period and his Melody Maker colleagues set themselves in opposition to what they characterized as the conservative humanism of the era's indie rock and pop music, as well as the unadventurous style and approach of most music criticism. Pieces from this late Eighties era would form the remixed collection Blissed Out: The Raptures of Rock, published in 1990. In 1990, Reynolds left the staff of Melody Maker and became a freelance writer, splitting his time between London and New York. In the early 1990s, he became involved in rave culture and the electronic dance music scene that of the UK, became a writer on the development of what he would conceptualise as the "hardcore continuum" along with its surrounding culture such as pirate radio. During this time, he theorized the concept of "post-rock", using the term first in a Melody Maker 1993 feature about Insides and in a more developed form in a May 1994 thinkpiece for The Wire and in a review of Bark Psychosis' album Hex, published in the March 1994 issue of Mojo magazine.
In late 1994, Reynolds moved to the East Village in Manhattan. In 1995, with his wife, Joy Press, Reynolds co-authored The Sex Revolts: Gender and Rock'n' Roll, a critical analysis of gender in rock. In 1998, Reynolds published Energy Flash: a Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture, a history of house music and rave genres like jungle music and gabber; the book was published that same year in America in abridged form, with the title Generation Ecstasy: Into the World of Techno and Rave Culture. In 1998 Reynolds became a senior editor at Spin magazine in the US. In 1999, he returned to freelance work. In 2005, Reynolds released Rip It Up and Start Again: Postpunk 1978–1984, a history of the post-punk era. In 2007, Reynolds published Bring the Noise: 20 Years of Writing about Hip Rock and Hip Hop in the UK, a collection of his writing themed around the relationship between white bohemian rock and black street music. In 2008, an updated edition of Energy Flash was published, with new chapters on the decade of dance music following the appearance of the first edition.
In 2009, a companion volume to Rip It Up and Start Again was published, Totally Wired: Postpunk Interviews and Overviews, containing interview transcripts and new essays. In 2011, Reynolds published Retromania: Pop Culture's Addiction to Its Own Past, a critical investigation into what he perceives as the current situation of chronic retrogression in pop music, with a focus on the effects of the internet and digital culture on music consumption and musical creativity. In 2013, a second expanded update of Energy Flash was published, with new material on the rise of dubstep to worldwide popularity and the EDM or Electronic Dance Music explosion in America. Reynolds's eighth book, a history of the glam rock era and Awe: Glam Rock and Its Legacy, was published in October 2016. In addition to writing books, Reynolds has continued freelancing for magazines, giving lectures, appearing in music documentaries, he operates a blog, Blissblog along with various satellite blogs such as the book-focused outlets Energy Flash and Shock and Awe, the drivel blog Hardly Baked.
Reynolds maintains an archive for his writing, the blog ReynoldsRetro. He resides in Los Angeles. Reynolds' writing has blended cultural criticism with music journalism, he has written extensively on gender, class and sexuality in relation to music and culture. Early in his career, Reynolds made use of critical theory and philosophy in his analysis of music, deriving particular influence from thinkers such as Roland Barthes, Georges Bataille, Julia Kristeva, Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, he has on occasion used the Marxist concepts of commodity fetishism and false consciousness to describe attitudes prevalent in hip hop music. In discussing the relationship between class and music, Reynolds coined the term liminal class, defined as the upper-working class and lower-middle-class, a group he credits with "a lot of music energy". Reynolds has written about drug culture and its relationship to various musical developments and movements. In the 2000s, in tandem with fellow critic and blogger Mark Fisher, Reynolds made use of Jacques Derrida's concept of hauntology to describe a strain of music and popular art preoccupied with the disjointed temporality
Jordan Todosey is a Canadian actress. She is best known for her role as the first transgender character, Adam Torres, on the long-running TV series Degrassi: The Next Generation and as Lizzie McDonald on Life with Derek. Todosey was born and raised in Toronto, Ontario and began working as a child actor at a young age, making appearances in series such as Instant Star, Life with Derek and Flashpoint. Todosey is best known for playing transgender character, Adam Torres, in the Degrassi franchise, becoming the first actor to portray a transgender character in the show's 30-year history. For her performance, Todosey won a Gemini Award in 2011, for Best Performance in a Children's or Youth Program or Series, the two-part episode "My Body Is a Cage" has been recognized, including winning a Peabody Award in 2011, citing that Todosey "beautifully portrayed" a transgender character; when Todosey's character was killed off from the series in 2013, controversy ensued, including a statement from GLAAD condemning the decision to kill off Todosey's character, while calling Todosey's performance "authentic, multi-dimensional..."Linda Schuyler, one of the show's creators, defended the choice to kill the character, saying in a statement that Todosey's storyline "will affect more lives in an authentic way…" Todosey played Lizzie McDonald in the series Life with Derek and the spin-off movie Vacation with Derek.
She appeared in one episode of Flashpoint. She starred in Santa Baby as Amelia. In 2015, she co-starred with Boo Boo Stewart in the thriller He Never Died, she is appearing as Tracey in Between and recently appears in Murdoch Mysteries. Jordan Todosey on IMDb
Metacritic is a website that aggregates reviews of media products: films, TV shows, music albums, video games, books. For each product, the scores from each review are averaged. Metacritic was created by Jason Dietz, Marc Doyle, Julie Doyle Roberts in 1999; the site hyperlinks to its source. A color of green, yellow or red summarizes the critics' recommendations, it has been described as the video game industry's "premier" review aggregator. Metacritic's scoring converts each review into a percentage, either mathematically from the mark given, or which the site decides subjectively from a qualitative review. Before being averaged, the scores are weighted according to the critic's fame and volume of reviews. Metacritic was launched in January 2001 by Marc Doyle, his sister Julie Doyle Roberts, a classmate from the University of Southern California law school, Jason Dietz, after two years of developing the site. Rotten Tomatoes was compiling movie reviews, but Doyle and Dietz saw an opportunity to cover a broader range of media.
They sold Metacritic to CNET in 2005. CNET and Metacritic were acquired by the CBS Corporation. In August 2010, the website's appearance was revamped. In June 2018, the website introduced the'Metacritic: Must-See' label for films that attain scores of 81% or more, with at least 15 professional reviews for the given film. In September 2018, it added the'Metacritic: Must-Play' certification for video games attaining a score of 90% or more, a minimum number of 15 reviews from industry professionals. Scores are weighted averages. Certain publications are given more significance "because of their stature". Metacritic has said. Games Editor Marc Doyle was interviewed by Keith Stuart of The Guardian to "get a look behind the metascoring process". Stuart wrote: "The metascore phenomenon, namely Metacritic and GameRankings, have become an enormously important element of online games journalism over the past few years". Doyle said that because video games lead to a greater investment of time and money, gamers are more informed about reviews than are fans of film or music.
The rating indication of metascores is: Metacritic is regarded as the foremost online review aggregation site for the video game industry. Nick Wingfield of The Wall Street Journal has written that Metacritic "influence the sales of games and the stocks of video game publishers", he explains its influence as coming from the higher cost of buying video games than music or movie tickets. Many executives say that low scores "can hurt the long-term sales potential". Wingfield wrote that Wall Street pays attention to Metacritic and GameRankings because the sites post scores before sales data are publicly available, citing the respective rapid rise and fall in company values after BioShock and Spider-Man 3 were released. In an interview with The Guardian, Marc Doyle cited "two major publishers" that "conducted comprehensive statistical surveys through which they've been able to draw a correlation between high metascores and stronger sales" in certain genres, he claimed that an increasing number of businesses and financial analysts use Metacritic as "an early indicator of a game's potential sales and, by extension, the publisher's stock price".
In 2004, Jason Hall and Marcus Johnson of Warner Bros. began "including'quality metrics' in contracts with partners licensing its movies for games": if a product does not at least achieve a specific score, some deals require the publisher to pay higher royalties. In 2008, Microsoft began using Metacritic averages to de-list underperforming Xbox Live Arcade games. A study done in 2015 over 88 Xbox 360 and 80 PS3 games from 2012 found that "metacritic scores have no impact in determining actual sales" Some game reviewers take issue with the way Metacritic assigns scores; when a reviewer gives a rating of "A", Metacritic assigns it a value of 100, for "F" a value of zero. For a "B–", Metacritic assigns a value of 67, yet some publishers and websurfers believe it should be closer to 80, in line with the conversion used in the US education system. Joe Dodson, former editor at Game Revolution, criticized Metacritic and similar sites for turning reviews into scores that are too low. However, Doyle responded: "I feel that ANY scale needs to be converted directly with its lowest possible grade equating to 0, the highest to 100".
Doyle said that some publishers want him to include extra critics, exclude others because they have given a poor review. Another common complaint from US publishers is that British critics should not be reviewing games that are based on American sports like the NFL, NASCAR, or the NBA. Doyle said: "Conversely, many European publishers feel that American critics are not qualified or properly situated to review football, rally, F1, rugby games...once I've decided to track a publication, I cannot pick and choose which reviews I list on Metacritic based on such individual judgments". Publishers try to persuade Doyle to exclude reviews they feel are unfair, but he said that once a publication is included, he refuses to omit any of its reviews. A Washington Post review of Uncharted 4 was assigned with a rating of 40/100 by Metacritic. Gamers who did not like the review petitioned Metacritic to remove the Post as a trusted source; as a result of its perceived negative influence on the industry, several reviewing sites, including Kotaku and Eurogamer, have dropped numerical reviews that would appear in Metacritic, instead favoring