Simon of Cyrene
Simon of Cyrene was the man compelled by the Romans to carry the cross of Jesus of Nazareth as Jesus was taken to his crucifixion, according to all three Synoptic Gospels. "And as they came out, they found a man of Cyrene, Simon by name: him they compelled to bear his cross." Cyrene was located in northern Africa in eastern Libya. A Greek city in the province of Cyrenaica, it had a Jewish community where 100,000 Judean Jews had been forced to settle during the reign of Ptolemy Soter and was an early center of Christianity; the Cyrenian Jews had a synagogue in Jerusalem. Simon's act of carrying the cross, for Jesus is the fifth or seventh of the Stations of the Cross; some interpret the passage as indicating that Simon was chosen because he may have shown sympathy with Jesus. Others point out that the text itself says nothing, that he had no choice, that there is no basis to consider the carrying of the cross an act of sympathetic generosity. Mark 15:21 identifies Simon as "the dad of Alexander and Rufus".
Tradition states. It has been suggested that the Rufus mentioned by Paul in Romans 16:13 is the son of Simon of Cyrene; some link Simon himself with the "men of Cyrene" who preached the Gospel to the Greeks in Acts 11:20. On the other hand, Simon's name alone does not prove he was Jewish, Alexander and Rufus were both common names and may have referred to others. A burial cave in the Kidron Valley discovered in 1941 by E. L. Sukenik, belonging to Cyrenian Jews and dating before AD 70, was found to have an ossuary inscribed twice in Greek "Alexander son of Simon." It can not, however, be certain. Cyrene was the destination of many "Sicari" who fled the Roman legions at the time of the Jewish Revolt; this was to precipitate further Jewish insurrection in the area in the reign of Hadrian and Trajan. According to the supposed visions of Anne Catherine Emmerich, Simon was a pagan; the Romans recognized he wasn't a Jew by his clothes and chose him to oblige him to help Jesus carry the cross. The Cyrenian or Simon movement in the United Kingdom and Ireland, takes its name from Simon of Cyrene.
It has as its guiding principle "sharing the burden" which it uses to explain its approach to providing services to homeless and other disadvantaged groups in society using volunteers. According to some Gnostic traditions, Simon of Cyrene, by mistaken identity, suffered the events leading up to the crucifixion, died on the cross instead of Jesus; this is the story presented in the Second Treatise of the Great Seth, although it is unclear whether Simon or another died on the cross. This is part of a belief held by some Gnostics that Jesus was not of flesh, but only took on the appearance of flesh. Basilides in his gospel of Basilides is reported by Irenaeus as having taught a docetic doctrine of Christ's passion, he states the teaching that Christ in Jesus, as a wholly divine being, could not suffer bodily pain and did not die on the cross. He performed miracles, thus he himself did not suffer. Rather, a certain Simon of Cyrene was compelled to carry his cross for him, it was he, ignorantly and erroneously crucified, being transfigured by him, so that he might be thought to be Jesus.
Moreover, Jesus assumed the form of Simon, stood by laughing at them. Irenaeus, Against Heresies Poet Ridgely Torrence wrote. A 1920 YWCA production of this play was directed by Dora Cole, sister of composer Bob Cole, starred Paul Robeson. Sidney Poitier was cast as Simon of Cyrene in The Greatest Story Ever Told, directed by George Stevens and released in 1965; this can be considered believable due to the fact that the Synoptic gospels write of an outsider from North Africa who assists Jesus on the Via Dolorosa. On the other end, the contemporary King of Kings has had an African-American soldier in the scene of Jesus’ flagellation; the film The Passion of the Christ portrays him as a Jew being forced by the Romans to carry the cross, who at first is unwilling, but as the journey to Mount Calvary continues, shows compassion to Jesus and helps him make it to the top. Chapel of Simon of Cyrene
The Holy Land is an area located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea that includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River. Traditionally, it is synonymous both with the biblical Land of Israel and with the region of Palestine; the term "Holy Land" refers to a territory corresponding to the modern State of Israel, the Palestinian territories, western Jordan, parts of southern Lebanon and of southwestern Syria. Jews and Muslims all regard it as holy. Part of the significance of the land stems from the religious significance of Jerusalem, as the historical region of Jesus' ministry, as the site of the Isra and Mi'raj event of c. 621 CE in Islam. The holiness of the land as a destination of Christian pilgrimage contributed to launching the Crusades, as European Christians sought to win back the Holy Land from the Muslims, who had conquered it from the Christian Byzantine Empire in the 630s. In the 19th century the Holy Land became the subject of diplomatic wrangling as the Holy Places played a role in the Eastern Question which led to the Crimean War of 1853-1856.
Many sites in the Holy Land have long been pilgrimage destinations for adherents of the Abrahamic religions, including Jews, Christians and Bahá'ís. Pilgrims visit the Holy Land to touch and see physical manifestations of their faith, to confirm their beliefs in the holy context with collective excitation, to connect to the Holy Land. Jews do not refer to the Land of Israel as "Holy Land"; the Tanakh explicitly refers to it as "holy land" in only one passage. The term "holy land" is further used twice in the deuterocanonical books; the holiness of the Land of Israel is implied in the Tanakh by the Land being given to the Israelites by God, that is, it is the "promised land", an integral part of God's covenant. In the Torah many mitzvot commanded to the Israelites can only be performed in the Land of Israel, which serves to differentiate it from other lands. For example, in the Land of Israel, "no land shall be sold permanently". Shmita is only observed with respect to the land of Israel, the observance of many holy days is different, as an extra day is observed in the Jewish diaspora.
According to Eliezer Schweid: The uniqueness of the Land of Israel is...'geo-theological' and not climatic. This is the land which faces the entrance of the spiritual world, that sphere of existence that lies beyond the physical world known to us through our senses; this is the key to the land's unique status with regard to prophecy and prayer, with regard to the commandments From the perspective of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, the holiness of Israel had been concentrated since the sixteenth century for burial, in the "Four Holy Cities": Jerusalem, Hebron and Tiberias - as Judaism's holiest cities. Jerusalem, as the site of the Temple, is considered significant. Sacred burials are still undertaken for diaspora Jews who wish to lie buried in the holy soil of Israel. According to Jewish tradition, Jerusalem is the location of the binding of Isaac; the Hebrew Bible mentions the name "Jerusalem" 669 times because many mitzvot can only be performed within its environs. The name "Zion", which refers to Jerusalem, but sometimes the Land of Israel, appears in the Hebrew Bible 154 times.
The Talmud mentions the religious duty of colonising Israel. So significant in Judaism is the act of purchasing land in Israel, the Talmud allows for the lifting of certain religious restrictions of Sabbath observance to further its acquisition and settlement. Rabbi Johanan said that "Whoever walks four cubits in Eretz Yisrael is guaranteed entrance to the World to Come". A story says. Shammua' and R. Johanan HaSandlar left Israel to study from R. Judah ben Bathyra, they only managed to reach Sidon when "the thought of the sanctity of Palestine overcame their resolution, they shed tears, rent their garments, turned back". Due to the Jewish population being concentrated in Israel, emigration was prevented, which resulted in a limiting of the amount of space available for Jewish learning. However, after suffering persecutions in Israel for centuries after the destruction of the Temple, Rabbis who had found it difficult to retain their position moved to Babylon, which offered them better protection.
Many Jews wanted Israel to be the place in order to be buried there. The sage Rabbi Anan said "To be buried in Israel is like being buried under the altar." The saying "His land will absolve His people" implies that burial in Israel will cause one to be absolved of all one's sins. For Christians, the Land of Israel is considered holy because of its association with the birth, ministry and resurrection of Jesus, whom Christians regard as the Savior or Messiah, because it is the land of the Jewish people. Christian books, including editions of the Bible had maps of the Holy Land. For instance, the Itinerarium Sacrae Scripturae of Heinrich Bünting, a German Protestant pastor, featured such a map, his book was popular, it provided "the most complete available summary of biblical geography and described the geography of the Holy Land by tracing the travels of major figures from the Old and New testaments."As a geographic term, the description "Holy Land" loosely encompasses modern-day Israel, the Palestinian territories, western Jordan and south-western Syria
Joachim Patinir called Patenier, was a Flemish Renaissance painter of history and landscape subjects. He was Flemish, from the area of modern Wallonia, but worked in Antwerp the centre of the art market in the Low Countries. Patinir was a pioneer of landscape as an independent genre and he was the first Flemish painter to regard himself as a landscape painter, he invented the world landscape, a distinct style of panoramic northern Renaissance landscapes, Patinir's important contribution to Western art. There are only five paintings signed by Patinir, but many other works have been attributed to him or his workshop with varying degrees of probability; the ones that are signed read: Joachim D. Patinier, the "D" in his signature signifying Dionantensis, reflecting his place of origin; the 2007 exhibition at the Museo del Prado in Madrid contained 21 pictures listed as by Patinir or his workshop, catalogued a further eight which were not in the exhibition. Patinir was the friend of not only Dürer, but with Quentin Metsys as well, with whom he collaborated.
The Temptation of St Anthony was done in collaboration with Metsys, who added the figures to Patinir's landscape. His career was nearly contemporary with that of the other major pioneer of paintings dominated by landscape, Albrecht Altdorfer, who worked in a different style, he was the uncle of Herri met de Bles, his follower in establishing the world landscape. From Dinant or Bouvignes in present-day Belgium, Patinir became registered as a member of Antwerp's painters' guild Guild of Saint Luke in 1515, where he spent the rest of his life, he may have studied with Gerard David at Bruges, registered as a guild member in the same year as Patinir. In 1511, Patinir is believed to have travelled to Genoa with Adrien Ysenbrandt. In 1521, Patinir's friend Albrecht Dürer painted his portrait. Dürer called Patinir "der gute Landschaftsmaler", thus creating a neologism translated into the French. Patinir let his landscapes dwarf his figures, which are of variable quality; the larger ones were at least sometimes painted by other artists.
Such specialisation had become common in the Low Countries at the time. Many of his works are unusually large for Netherlandish panel paintings of the time, as are those of Hieronymus Bosch, another painter of large landscapes, from a generation earlier. Patinir's immense vistas combine observation of naturalistic detail with lyrical fantasy; the steep outcrops of rocks in his landscapes are more spectacular versions of the group of individual formations just around his native Dinant. His landscapes use a high viewpoint with a high horizon, but his grasp of aerial perspective is far from complete, he uses a consistent and effective colour scheme in his landscapes, influential on landscape painting. The foreground is dominated by brownish shades, while "the middle ground a bluish green and the background a pale blue", creating an effective sense of recession into the distance. There is a triptych attributed to him called The Penitence of St. Jerome. Patinir died in Antwerp in 1524, Quentin Metsys became the guardian of his children.
Early Renaissance painting Renaissance in the Netherlands "Grove": Hans Devisscher. "Patinir, Joachim." Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press. Web. 17 Feb. 2017. Subscription requiredKoch, Robert A. Joachim Patinir. Battistini, Matilde. Symbols & Allegories in Art: The Hereafter. Los Angeles: The J. Paul Getty Museum, 2005. 210, 212–13. Falkenburg, Reindert. Joachim Patinir: Landscape as an Image of the Pilgrimage of Life. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1988. Ball-Krückmann, Landschaft zur Andacht: die Weltlandschaften Joachim Pateniers. Munich 1977 Pioch, Nicolas. "The Northern Renaissance." WebMuseum. 14 October 2002. 28 March 2006. Smith Chipps, Jeffery; the Northern Renaissance. Phaidon. Arts & Ideas, 2004. 321. Voigt, Joachim Patinir and Landscape Painting in the Low Countries Hand: 57. PDF article WGA Gallery Agence photographique de la réunion des Musées nationaux
The Return of the Herd
The Return of the Herd is an oil on wood painting by Pieter Bruegel in 1565. The painting is one in a series of six works; the painting is in the collection of the Kunsthistorisches Museum, located in Vienna, Austria. The autumnal colors of the landscape and the bare trees connect this particular painting to October/November; the surviving Months of the Year cycle are: The Return of the Herd at Kunsthistorisches Museum website Pieter Bruegel the Elder: Drawings and Prints, a full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which includes material on The Return of the Herd
Pieter Aertsen, called Lange Pier because of his height, was a Dutch painter in the style of Northern Mannerism. He is credited with the invention of the monumental genre scene, which combines still life and genre painting and also includes a biblical scene in the background, he was active in his native city Amsterdam but worked for a long period in Antwerp the centre of artistic life in the Netherlands. His genre scenes were influential on Flemish Baroque painting, Dutch still life painting and in Italy, his peasant scenes preceded by a few years the much better-known paintings produced in Antwerp by Pieter Bruegel the Elder. He was apprenticed with Allaert Claesz, he travelled to the Southern Netherlands and took up residence in Antwerp, first with his compatriot Jan Mandijn. Aertsen became a member of Antwerp's Guild of Saint Luke. In the official books of the Guild he is recorded as "Langhe Peter, schilder". In 1542 he became a citizen of Antwerp, he got married to Kathelijne Beuckelaar, the daughter and sister of an Antwerp painter and aunt of Joachim Beuckelaer and Huybrecht Beuckeleer.
Of the couple's eight children, three sons, Pieter and Dirk became successful painters. Aertsen returned to Amsterdam in 1555-56. Notable pupils who trained in his workshop included Stradanus and Aertsen's nephews, Joachim Beuckelaer and Huybrecht Beuckeleer. Joachim Beuckelaer further developed Aertsen's style and subject matter of painting. After beginning by painting religious works, in the 1550s he developed the painting of domestic scenes in which he reproduced articles of furniture, cooking utensils, food with great flair and realism, his Butcher's Shop, with the Flight into Egypt "has been called the earliest example of Mannerist inversion of still life in Northern painting", showing the "lower" subject matter far more prominently than the subject from history painting. A similar inversion in landscape painting had been developed by Joachim Patinir in Antwerp several decades earlier when he invented the world landscape. Unlike these, in Aertsen's works the genre material dominates the front of the image, with the history scene religious, easy to overlook in the background.
This pictorial technique drew on the paintings of another Antwerp artist, Jan Sanders van Hemessen, whose genre treatments of religious and moral scenes had smaller scenes inset into the background in a similar way. In the Uppsala painting the zones behind the butcher's stall show a view through a window of a church, the Holy Family distributing alms on their journey, a worker in the mid-ground, with a merry company eating mussels and oysters in a back room behind; the sign at top right advertises the land behind as for sale. The painting offers the viewer a range of options for life, in an allegory on physical and spiritual food; the painting carries the coat of arms of Antwerp, suggesting it was a civic commission by the rich Butcher's Guild. Such subjects were painted before about 1560. In the Renaissance, the classical example of the painter Peiraikos, known only from Pliny the Elder, was important in justifying genre and other "low" subjects in painting. Aertsen was compared to Peiraikos by the Dutch Renaissance humanist Hadrianus Junius in his Batavia, published posthumously in 1588, which compares Aertsen at each point of Pliny's description in a wholly laudatory manner.
An article by Zoran Kwak argues that a painting by his son Pieter Pietersz the Elder called Market Scene with the Journey to Emmaus, which features prominently a half-naked figure, a cook, in fact represents a self-portrait in a comic spirit, depicted as Peiraikos. In life, he painted more conventional treatments of religious subjects, now lost as during the iconoclasm of the beeldenstorm several paintings, commissioned for Catholic churches were destroyed. Several of his best works, including altarpieces in various churches in Amsterdam, were destroyed during the days surrounding the event known as the Alteratie, or "Changeover", when Amsterdam formally reverted to Protestantism from Catholicism on 26 May 1578 at the start of the Eighty Years' War. One surviving religious work is the Crucifixion in the Royal Museum of Fine Arts Antwerp. Aersten's exact formula of still life and genre figures in the foreground, with small scenes from history painting in the background only persisted for the next generation, but history paintings with prominent and profuse still life elements in the foreground were produced by Rubens and his generation, in the 17th century both Flemish Baroque painting and Dutch Golden Age painting developed important genres of independent still life subjects, which were just produced in Aertsen's day.
Unlike Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Aertsen's genre figures were depicted idealized with considerable dignity and no effort at comedy, using poses that derived from classical art. In some cases they appear to have been borrowed from the contemporary court portraiture of artists such as Anthonis Mor. Two unusual individual genre portraits of female cooks in Genoa and Brussels, one full-length and the other in the three-quarter length format devised by Titian for royal portraits, show them holding roasting spits with poultry as if they were marshall's batons. Falkenberg, R. L. "Pieter Aertsen, Rhyparographer", 1995 Falkenberg, R. L. Iconographical connections between Antwerp
Antwerp is a city in Belgium, is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders. With a population of 520,504, it is the most populous city proper in Belgium, with 1,200,000 the second largest metropolitan region after Brussels. Antwerp is on the River Scheldt, linked to the North Sea by the river's Westerschelde estuary, it is about 40 kilometres north of Brussels, about 15 kilometres south of the Dutch border. The Port of Antwerp is one of the biggest in the world, ranking second in Europe and within the top 20 globally; the city is known for its diamond industry and trade. Both economically and culturally, Antwerp is and has long been an important city in the Low Countries before and during the Spanish Fury and throughout and after the subsequent Dutch Revolt. Antwerp was the place of the world's oldest stock exchange building built in 1531 and re-built in 1872; the inhabitants of Antwerp are nicknamed Sinjoren, after the Spanish honorific señor or French seigneur, "lord", referring to the Spanish noblemen who ruled the city in the 17th century.
The city hosted the 1920 Summer Olympics. According to folklore, notably celebrated by a statue in front of the town hall, the city got its name from a legend about a giant called Antigoon who lived near the Scheldt river, he extracted a toll from passing boatmen, for those who refused, he severed one of their hands and threw it into the river. The giant was killed by a young hero named Silvius Brabo, who cut off the giant's own hand and flung it into the river. Hence the name Antwerpen, from Dutch hand werpen, akin to Old English hand and wearpan, which has evolved to today's warp. A longstanding theory is that the name originated in the Gallo-Roman period and comes from the Latin antverpia. Antverpia would come from Ante Verpia, indicating land that forms by deposition in the inside curve of a river. Note that the river Scheldt, before a transition period between 600 and 750, followed a different track; this must have coincided with the current ringway south of the city, situating the city within a former curve of the river.
However, many historians think it unlikely that there was a large settlement which would be named'Antverpia', but more something like an outpost with a river crossing. However, John Lothrop Motley argues, so do a lot of Dutch etymologists and historians, that Antwerp's name derives from "anda" and "werpum" to give an't werf. Aan't werp is possible; this "warp" is a man-made hill or a river deposit, high enough to remain dry at high tide, whereupon a construction could be built that would remain dry. Another word for werp is pol hence polders. Alfred Michiels has suggested that derivations based on hand werpen, Antverpia, "on the wharf", or "at the warp" lack historical backing in the form of recorded past spellings of the placename, he points instead to Dado's Life of St. Eligius from the 7th century, which records the form Andoverpis, he sees in it a Celtic origin indicating "those who live on both banks". Historical Antwerp had its origins in a Gallo-Roman vicus. Excavations carried out in the oldest section near the Scheldt, 1952–1961, produced pottery shards and fragments of glass from mid-2nd century to the end of the 3rd century.
The earliest mention of Antwerp dates from the 4th century. In the 4th century, Antwerp was first named; the Merovingian Antwerp was evangelized by Saint Amand in the 7th century. At the end of the 10th century, the Scheldt became the boundary of the Holy Roman Empire. Antwerp became a margraviate in 980, by the German emperor Otto II, a border province facing the County of Flanders. In the 11th century, the best-known leader of the First Crusade, Godfrey of Bouillon, was Margrave of Antwerp, from 1076 until his death in 1100, though he was also Duke of Lower Lorraine and Defender of the Holy Sepulchre. In the 12th century, Norbert of Xanten established a community of his Premonstratensian canons at St. Michael's Abbey at Caloes. Antwerp was the headquarters of Edward III during his early negotiations with Jacob van Artevelde, his son Lionel, the Duke of Clarence, was born there in 1338. After the silting-up of the Zwin and the consequent decline of Bruges, the city of Antwerp part of the Duchy of Brabant, grew in importance.
At the end of the 15th century the foreign trading houses were transferred from Bruges to Antwerp, the building assigned to the English nation is mentioned in 1510. Antwerp became the sugar capital of Europe, importing the raw commodity from Portuguese and Spanish plantations; the city attracted Italian and German sugar refiners by 1550, shipped their refined product to Germany Cologne. Moneylenders and financiers developed a large business lending money all over Europe including the English government in 1544–1574. London bankers were too small to operate on that scale, Antwerp had a efficient bourse that itself attracted rich bankers from around Europe. After the 1570s, the city's banking business declined: England ended its borrowing in Antwerp in 1574. Fernand Braudel states that Antwerp became "the centre of the entire international economy, something Bruges had never been at its height." Antwerp was the richest city in Europe at this time. Antwerp's golden age is l
John the Evangelist
John the Evangelist is the name traditionally given to the author of the Gospel of John. Christians have traditionally identified him with John the Apostle, John of Patmos, or John the Presbyter, although this has been disputed by modern scholars; the Gospel of John refers to an otherwise unnamed "disciple whom Jesus loved", who "bore witness to and wrote" the Gospel's message. The author of the Gospel of John seemed interested in maintaining the internal anonymity of the author's identity, although interpreting the Gospel in the light of the Synoptic Gospels and considering that the author names Peter, that James was martyred as early as 44 AD it has been believed that the author was the Apostle John Christian tradition says that John the Evangelist was John the Apostle; the Apostle John was a historical figure, one of the "pillars" of the Jerusalem church after Jesus' death. He was one of the original twelve apostles and is thought to be the only one to have lived into old age and not be killed for his faith.
It is believed that he was exiled to the Aegean island of Patmos, where he wrote the Book of Revelation. However, some attribute the authorship of Revelation to another man, called John of Patmos or to John the Presbyter. Orthodox Roman Catholic scholarship, most Protestant churches, the entire Eastern Orthodox Church attribute all of the Johannine literature to the same individual, the "Holy Apostle and Evangelist, John the Theologian", whom it identifies with the "Beloved Disciple" in the Gospel of John; the authorship of the Johannine works has been debated by scholars since at least the 2nd century AD. The main debate centers on who authored the writings, which of the writings, if any, can be ascribed to a common author. Orthodox tradition attributes all the books to John the Apostle. In the 6th century, the Decretum Gelasianum argued that Second and Third John have a separate author known as "John, a priest". Historical criticssometimes reject the view. Most modern scholars believe that the apostle John wrote none of these works, although some, such as J.
A. T. Robinson, F. F. Bruce, Leon Morris, Martin Hengel, hold the apostle to be behind at least some, in particular the gospel. There may have been a single author for the three epistles; some scholars conclude the author of the epistles was different from that of the gospel, although all four works originated from the same community. The gospel and epistles traditionally and plausibly came from Ephesus, c. 90–110, although some scholars argue for an origin in Syria. In the case of Revelation, most modern scholars agree that it was written by a separate author, John of Patmos, c. 95 with some parts dating to Nero's reign in the early 60s. The feast day of Saint John in the Catholic Church, which calls him "Saint John and Evangelist", in the Anglican Communion and Lutheran Calendars, which call him "John and Evangelist", is on 27 December, the third day of Christmastide. In the Tridentine Calendar he was commemorated on each of the following days up to and including 3 January, the Octave of the 27 December feast.
This Octave was abolished by Pope Pius XII in 1955. The traditional liturgical color is white. John is traditionally depicted in one of two distinct ways: either as an aged man with a white or gray beard, or alternatively as a beardless youth; the first way of depicting him was more common in Byzantine art, where it was influenced by antique depictions of Socrates. In Medieval works of painting and literature, Saint John is presented in an androgynous or femininized manner. Historians have related such portrayals to the circumstances of the believers for whom they were intended. For instance, John's feminine features are argued to have helped to make him more relatable to women. Sarah McNamer argues that because of John's androgynous status, he could function as an'image of a third or mixed gender' and'a crucial figure with whom to identify' for male believers who sought to cultivate an attitude of affective piety, a emotional style of devotion that, in late-medieval culture, was thought to be poorly compatible with masculinity.
Legends from the Acts of John contributed much to Medieval iconography. One of John's familiar attributes is the chalice with a snake emerging from it. According to one legend from the Acts of John, John was challenged to drink a cup of poison to demonstrate the power of his faith; the chalice can be interpreted with reference to the Last Supper, or to the words of Christ to John and James: "My chalice indeed you shall drink". According to the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia, some authorities believe that this symbol was not adopted until the 13th century. Another common attribute is a scroll, in reference to his writings. In France the saint is symbolically represented by an eagle, one of the creatures envisioned by Ezekiel and in the Book of Revelation. John the Evangelist Churches dedicated to St. John the Evangelist Eagle of St. John Luke the Evangelist Mark the Evangelist Matthew the Evangelist "Saint John the Apostle." Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Answers.com St. John the Evangelist at the Christian Iconography web site Caxton's translations of the Golden Legend's two chapters on St. John: Of St. John the Evangelist and The History of St. John Port Latin