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The Proclamation of Dušan's Law Codex

The Proclamation of Dušan's Law Codex is the name given to each of seven versions of a composition painted by Paja Jovanović which depict Dušan the Mighty introducing Serbia's earliest surviving law codex to his subjects in Skopje in 1349. The Royal Serbian Government commissioned the first version for 30,000 dinars in 1899, intending for it to be displayed at the following year's Exposition Universelle in Paris; when commissioned, the painting was intended to depict Dušan's 1346 coronation as Emperor of Serbia. After consulting with the politician and historian Stojan Novaković, Jovanović decided against painting a scene from Dušan's coronation, opted to depict the proclamation of his law codex instead. Thus, the painting has erroneously been described as depicting the coronation. Jovanović paid a great deal of attention to historical detail in preparation for the work, visiting several medieval Serbian Orthodox monasteries in Kosovo and Macedonia, studying medieval costumes and weaponry and consulting experts on the period.

The first version was finished in time for the world's fair, where it received widespread critical acclaim and was awarded a gold medal by the fair's artistic committee. In the opinion of one art historian, the artistic committee's decision affirmed that the painting was on par with the works of the world's greatest visual artists. A number of historians and critics consider The Proclamation of Dušan's Law Codex to be one of Jovanović's finest works, Jovanović himself felt the painting was his "most beautiful composition". Stefan Dušan was one of Serbia's most powerful rulers. In the mid-14th century, he oversaw the establishment of a large Serbian state that stretched from the Danube to the Greek mainland; as a result of his achievements, in Serbian historiography he is referred to as Dušan the Mighty or Dušan the Lawgiver. The first suffix is in recognition of his expansion of Serbia's territory and the second in recognition of the law codex he introduced during his reign called Dušan's Code.

In 1343, as King of Serbs and the Coast, Dušan added "King of the Romans" to his title. In late 1345, he began referring to himself as the Emperor of Serbia. On Easter Day, 16 April 1346, Dušan convoked an assembly in Skopje, attended by the Serbian Archbishop Joanikije II, the Archbishop of Ochrid Nikolaj I, the Bulgarian Patriarch Simeon and various religious leaders from Mount Athos; the assembly ceremonially performed the raising of the autocephalous Serbian Archbishopric to the status of Patriarchate. From on, the Archbishop was titled the Serbian Patriarch, with his seat in Patriarchal Monastery of Peć. Dušan was subsequently crowned Emperor of Serbia by Joanikije. Dušan had ambitions of conquering all the Byzantine lands, including Constantinople, proclaiming himself Byzantine Emperor. In order to achieve this goal, he knew. Thus, Dušan decreed that lands inhabited by Greeks were to have Greek governors and follow traditional Byzantine laws as opposed to Serbian customary law; this had the effect of reducing tensions between Serbs and Greeks and made it easier for the Serbs to occupy Greek lands without any considerable threat of revolt.

In 1349, Dušan issued a national legal code from his capital, one that applied only to the northern half of the empire where Serbs predominated. Dušan's Code is Serbia's earliest surviving legal code, it was one of the most advanced legal texts of its time, the first wide-ranging set of laws promulgated by the South Slavs. Because it only covers specific crimes, it was part of a three-part legal document that included an abridgement of Matthew Blastares' Syntagma and the Law of Justinian; the third part, Dušan's Code itself, was thus intended to supplement the first two texts by touching upon issues not covered in them rather than serve as a stand-alone legal system. In the late 1890s, Serbia was invited to participate at the 1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris. In 1897, the Royal Serbian Government created a special committee to select which Serbs would go to France as representatives of their country, it was decided that Serbia's contribution to the fair would predominantly consist of art, most of, to be displayed at the Serbian Pavilion, a building in the Serbo-Byzantine style designed by the architect Milan Kapetanović.

Other Serbian works were to be displayed at the Grand Palais. The rules of the fair's art exhibit held that each canvas had to measure 390 by 589 centimetres and contain over seventy figures in various complex, positions. In Serbia, the period between 1889 and 1914 was marked by a spate of patriotic literature and visual art. Serbian artists competed with one another over who would produce the best depictions of Serbia's medieval history, the best Serbian national romantic art was made during this time. One of the most prominent Serb artists of the day was the realist Paja Jovanović, known for his sprawling historical works. In 1899, the special committee hired him to compose a scene depicting Dušan's coronation to be displayed in Paris. In return for his services, he received an honorarium of 30,000 dinars; the government felt it was essential that Jovanović's work and those of other Serbian artists be well received. Given decades of political instability in the Balkans, the authorities sought to promote a positive image of their country abroad by familiarizing Western Europeans with Serbian art.

Hence, Jovanović was painting for a dual audience, both domestic and fo

Pascal Soriot

Pascal Claude Roland Soriot is the chief executive officer of the Anglo-Swedish pharmaceutical multinational company AstraZeneca, since October 2012. In July 2017, it was reported that Soriot would become the next CEO of Israel-based Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, succeeding Erez Vigodman, though this was soon refuted. Born in France, his father died when Soriot was 20, he studied veterinary medicine at university. He obtained an MBA at HEC Paris. In April 1986, he joined Roussel Uclaf as a salesman. In 1996 he became General Manager of Hoechst Marion Roussel in Australia, moving to Tokyo in April 1997 In 2000 he moved to Aventis in America, becoming chief operating officer of Aventis USA in 2002, which became Sanofi Aventis USA in 2004, he joined Roche in 2006. From April 2009 to 2010 he was chief executive of the Roche subsidiary Genentech, he rejoined Roche Pharma AG in 2010 as chief operating officer. In August 2012 he was named as the new chief executive of AstraZeneca, the world's fifth largest pharmaceutical company, when aged 53.

He took up the post on 1 October 2012. In September 2018 he made headlines commenting on his pay of £9.4m in salary and bonuses,"The truth is I’m the lowest-paid CEO in the whole industry", he said. "It is annoying to some extent. But at the end of the day it is what it is", he has two children. He has three brothers. Roche

SO (complexity)

Second-order logic is an extension of first-order with second order quantifiers, hence the reader should first read FO to be able to understand this article. In descriptive complexity we can see that the languages recognised by SO formulae are equal to the languages decided by Turing machines in the polynomial hierarchy. Extensions of SO with some operators give us the same expressivity given by some well known complexity class, so it is a way to do proofs about the complexity of some problems without having to go to the algorithmic level. We define second-order variable, a SO variable has got an arity k and represent any proposition of arity k, i.e. a subset of the k -tuples of the universe. They are written in upper-case. Second order logic is the set of FO formulae where we add quantification over second-order variables, hence we will use the terms defined in the FO article without defining them again; every formula is equivalent to a formula in prenex normal form, where we first write quantification on variable on second order and a FO-formula in prenex normal form.

SO is equal to Polynomial hierarchy, more we have that formula in prenex normal form where existential and universal of second order alternate k times are the kth level of the polynomial hierarchy. This means that SO with only existential second-order quantification is equal to Σ 1, NP, with only universal quantification is equal to Π 1, Co-NP. SO is the set of boolean queries definable with SO formulae in disjunctive normal form such that the first order quantifiers are all universal and the quantifier-free part of the formula is in Horn form, which means that it is a big AND of OR, in each "OR" every variable except one are negated; this class is equal to P. Those formulae can be made in prenex form where the second order is existential and the first order universal without loss of generalities. SO is the set of boolean queries definable with second-order formulae in conjunctive normal form such that the first order quantifiers are universal and the quantifier-free part of the formula is in Krom form, which means that the first order formula is a big AND of OR, in each "OR" there is at most two variables.

This class is equal to NL. Those formulae can be made in prenex form where the second order is existential and the first order universal without loss of generalities. SO is to SO what FO is to FO; the TC operator can now take second-order variable as argument. SO is equal to PSPACE. SO is to SO what FO is to FO; the LFP operator can now take second-order variable as argument. SO is equal to EXPTIME. SO is to SO what FO is to FO, but we now have second-order quantifier in the quantifier block. It is known that: S O is equal to PSPACE it is another way to write SO. S O is equal to EXPTIME it is another way to write SO First order High order Complexity zoo about SO, see the class under it also