Zuckerman Bound is a trilogy of novels by Philip Roth published in 1985. Each of the books follows the struggles and writing career of Roth's novelist alter ego Nathan Zuckerman; the bound trilogy consists of: The Ghost Writer Zuckerman Unbound The Anatomy Lesson And an epilogue: The Prague Orgy Zuckerman Bound met with great acclaim upon publication. In The New York Times Book Review critic Harold Bloom wrote "'Zuckerman Bound' merits something reasonably close to the highest level of esthetic praise for tragicomedy because as a formal totality it becomes much more than the sum of its parts." The Library of America edition, Zuckerman Bound: A Trilogy & Epilogue 1979–1985 includes a unpublished television screenplay for The Prague Orgy. Harold Bloom on Zuckerman Bound
Sabbath's Theater is a novel by Philip Roth about the exploits of 64-year-old Mickey Sabbath. It won the 1995 U. S. National Book Award for Fiction; the cover is a detail of Girl by German painter Otto Dix. Mickey Sabbath is an unproductive, out-of-work, former puppeteer with a strong affinity for prostitutes and the casual sexual encounter. Sabbath takes great pleasure in his status as the "dirty old man." He takes an equal pleasure in manipulating the people around him women—in a sense, they play the same role as his puppets. The loss of a decades-long sexual sidekick—the depraved Drenka—precipitates a crisis in a life he has long considered an utter failure. Sabbath wonders whether he should take his own life, thereby heeding the advice of the ghost of his departed mother, a frequent visitor who urges suicide as the fitting end for his failed life. Literary critic Harold Bloom has declared Sabbath's Theater Roth's "masterwork." Prominent literary critic James Wood told The Morning News, "I am a great fan of Sabbath’s Theater, it was an extraordinary book."
New York Times critic Michiko Kakutani found it hard to finish and "distasteful and disingenuous". It won the National Book Award for fiction—thirty-five years after Roth's debut novel Goodbye Columbus won the same award, it was a finalist for the 1996 Pulitzer Prize
Sturm und Drang
Sturm und Drang was a proto-Romantic movement in German literature and music that occurred between the late 1760s and early 1780s. Within the movement, individual subjectivity and, in particular, extremes of emotion were given free expression in reaction to the perceived constraints of rationalism imposed by the Enlightenment and associated aesthetic movements; the period is named for Friedrich Maximilian Klinger's play of the same name, first performed by Abel Seyler's famed theatrical company in 1777. The philosopher Johann Georg Hamann is considered to be the ideologue of Sturm und Drang. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller were notable proponents of the movement early in their life, although they ended their period of association with it by initiating what would become Weimar Classicism. French neoclassicism, a movement beginning in the early Baroque, with its emphasis on the rational, was the principal target of rebellion for adherents of the Sturm und Drang movement. For them, sentimentality and an objective view of life gave way to emotional turbulence and individuality, enlightenment ideals such as rationalism and universalism no longer captured the human condition.
The term Sturm und Drang first appeared as the title of a play by Friedrich Maximilian Klinger, written for Abel Seyler's Seylersche Schauspiel-Gesellschaft and published in 1776. The setting of the play is the unfolding American Revolution, in which the author gives violent expression to difficult emotions and extols individuality and subjectivity over the prevailing order of rationalism. Though it is argued that literature and music associated with Sturm und Drang predate this seminal work, it was from this point that German artists became distinctly self-conscious of a new aesthetic; this spontaneous movement became associated with a wide array of German authors and composers of the mid-to-late Classical period. Sturm und Drang came to be associated with literature or music aimed at shocking the audience or imbuing them with extremes of emotion; the movement soon gave way to Weimar Classicism and early Romanticism, whereupon a socio-political concern for greater human freedom from despotism was incorporated along with a religious treatment of all things natural.
There is much debate regarding whose work should or should not be included in the canon of Sturm und Drang. One point of view would limit the movement to Goethe, Johann Gottfried Herder, Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz, their direct German associates writing works of fiction and/or philosophy between 1770 and the early 1780s; the alternative perspective is that of a literary movement inextricably linked to simultaneous developments in prose and drama, extending its direct influence throughout the German-speaking lands until the end of the 18th century. The originators of the movement came to view it as a time of premature exuberance, abandoned in favor of conflicting artistic pursuits; the literary topos of the "Kraftmensch" existed as a precursor to Sturm und Drang among dramatists beginning with F. M. Klinger, the expression of, seen in the radical degree to which individuality need appeal to no outside authority save the self nor be tempered by rationalism; these ideals are identical to those of Sturm und Drang, it can be argued that the name exists to catalog a number of parallel, co-influential movements in German literature rather than express anything different from what German dramatists were achieving in the violent plays attributed to the Kraftmensch movement.
Major philosophical/theoretical influences on the literary Sturm und Drang movement were Johann Georg Hamann and Johann Gottfried Herder, both from Königsberg, both in contact with Immanuel Kant. Significant theoretical statements of Sturm und Drang aesthetics by the movement's central dramatists themselves include Lenz' Anmerkungen übers Theater and Goethe's Von deutscher Baukunst and Zum Schäkespears Tag; the most important contemporary document was the 1773 volume Von deutscher Art und Kunst. Einige fliegende Blätter, a collection of essays that included commentaries by Herder on Ossian and Shakespeare, along with contributions by Goethe, Paolo Frisi, Justus Möser; the protagonist in a typical Sturm und Drang stage work, poem, or novel is driven to action—often violent action—not by pursuit of noble means nor by true motives, but by revenge and greed. Goethe's unfinished Prometheus exemplifies this along with the common ambiguity provided by juxtaposing humanistic platitudes with outbursts of irrationality.
The literature of Sturm und Drang features an anti-aristocratic slant while seeking to elevate all things humble, natural, or intensely real. The story of hopeless love and eventual suicide presented in Goethe's sentimental novel Die Leiden des jungen Werthers is an example of the author's tempered introspection regarding his love and torment. Friedrich Schiller's drama, Die Räuber, provided the groundwork for melodrama to become a recognized dramatic form; the plot portrays a conflict between two aristocratic brothers and Karl Moor. Franz is cast as a villain attempting to cheat Karl out of his inheritance, though the motives for his action are comp
The Prague Orgy
The Prague Orgy is a novella by Philip Roth. The short book is the epilogue to his trilogy Zuckerman Bound; the story follows Roth's alter ego Nathan Zuckerman, on a journey to Communist Prague in 1976 seeking the unpublished manuscripts of a Yiddish writer. The book, presented as journal entries by Zuckerman, details the struggle of demoralized artists in a totalitarian society
Draft evasion is any successful attempt to elude a government-imposed obligation to serve in the military forces of one's nation. Sometimes draft evasion involves refusing to comply with the military draft laws of one's nation. Illegal draft evasion is said to have characterized every military conflict of the 20th and 21st centuries; such evasion is considered to be a criminal offense, laws against it go back thousands of years. There are many draft evasion practices; those that manage to adhere to or circumvent the law, those that do not involve taking a public stand, are sometimes referred to as draft avoidance. Those that involve overt lawbreaking or taking a public stand are sometimes referred to as draft resistance. Draft evaders are sometimes pejoratively referred to as draft dodgers, although in certain contexts that term has been used non-judgmentally or as an honorific. Draft evasion has been a significant phenomenon in nations as different as Colombia, France, South Korea and the United States.
Accounts by scholars and journalists, along with memoiristic writings by draft evaders, indicate that the motives and beliefs of the evaders cannot be stereotyped. Over the years and others have raised several large issues with regard to draft evasion; these observers have asked whether it is politically effective, whether it is a function of class privilege, whether it has positive or negative effects on democracy and community. There is no clear consensus on any of these issues. Young people have engaged in a wide variety of draft evasion practices around the world; some of these practices go back thousands of years. The following list does not aspire to be complete – one book from the counterculture of the 1960s enumerated over 1,000 supposed draft evasion practices in one nation alone; the purpose here is to delineate a representative sampling of draft evasion practices and support activities as identified by scholars and journalists. Examples of many of these practices and activities can be found in the section on draft evasion in the nations of the world, further down this page.
One type of draft avoidance consists of attempts to follow the letter and spirit of the draft laws in order to obtain a valid draft deferment or exemption. Sometimes these deferments and exemptions are prompted by political considerations. Another type consists of attempts to circumvent, manipulate, or surreptitiously violate the substance or spirit of the draft laws in order to obtain a deferment or exemption. Nearly all attempts at draft avoidance are unpublicized. Examples include: Claiming conscientious objector status on the basis of sincerely held religious or ethical beliefs. Claiming a student deferment, when one is in school in order to study and learn. Claiming a medical or psychological problem, if the purported health issue is genuine and serious. Claiming to be homosexual, when one is so and the military excludes homosexuals. Claiming economic hardship, if the hardship is genuine and the military recognizes such a claim. Holding a job in what the government considers to be an essential civilian occupation.
Purchasing exemptions in nations where such payments are permitted. Not being chosen in a draft lottery, where lotteries determine the order of call to military service. Not being able to afford armor, in polities where conscripts were required to bring their own armor. Obtaining conscientious objector status by professing insincere religious or ethical beliefs. Obtaining a student deferment, if the student wishes to attend or remain in school to avoid the draft. Claiming a medical or psychological problem, if the purported problem is feigned, overstated, or self-inflicted. Finding a doctor who would certify a healthy draft-age person as medically unfit, either willingly or for pay. Falsely claiming to be homosexual, where the military excludes homosexuals. Claiming economic hardship, if the purported hardship is overstated. Deliberately failing one's military-related intelligence tests. Becoming pregnant in order to evade the draft, in nations where women who are not mothers are drafted. Having someone exert personal influence on an officer in charge of the conscription process.
Bribing an officer in charge of the conscription process. Draft evasion that involves overt lawbreaking or that communicates conscious or organized resistance to government policy is sometimes referred to as draft resistance. Examples include: Declining to register for the draft, in nations where, required by law. Declining to report for one's draft-related physical examination, or for military induction or call-up, in nations where these are required by law. Participating in draft card burnings or turn-ins. Living "underground" after being indicted for draft evasion. Traveling or emigrating to another country, rather than submitting to induction or to trial. Going to jail, rather than submitting to induction or to alternative government service. Organizing or participating in a peaceful street assembly or demonstration against the draft. Publicly encouraging, aiding, or abetting draft evaders. Deliberately disrupting a military draft agency's processes or procedures. Destroying a military draft agency's records.
Organizing or participating in a riot against the draft. Building an anti-war movement that treats draft resistance as a vital and integral part of it. Draft evasion is said to have characterized every military conflict of the 21st centuries. Laws against certain draft evasion practices go back at least as far as the ancient Greeks. Examples of
A hardcover or hardback book is one bound with rigid protective covers. It has a sewn spine which allows the book to lie flat on a surface when opened. Following the ISBN sequence numbers, books of this type may be identified by the abbreviation Hbk. Hardcover books are printed on acid-free paper, they are much more durable than paperbacks, which have flexible damaged paper covers. Hardcover books are marginally more costly to manufacture. Hardcovers are protected by artistic dust jackets, but a "jacketless" alternative is becoming popular: these "paper-over-board" or "jacketless hardcover" bindings forgo the dust jacket in favor of printing the cover design directly onto the board binding. If brisk sales are anticipated, a hardcover edition of a book is released first, followed by a "trade" paperback edition the next year; some publishers publish paperback originals. For popular books these sales cycles may be extended, followed by a mass market paperback edition typeset in a more compact size and printed on shallower, less hardy paper.
This is intended to, in part, prolong the life of the immediate buying boom that occurs for some best sellers: After the attention to the book has subsided, a lower-cost version in the paperback, is released to sell further copies. In the past the release of a paperback edition was one year after the hardback, but by the early twenty-first century paperbacks were released six months after the hardback by some publishers, it is unusual for a book, first published in paperback to be followed by a hardback. An example is the novel The Judgment of Paris by Gore Vidal, which had its revised edition of 1961 first published in paperback, in hardcover. Hardcover books are sold at higher prices than comparable paperbacks. Books for the general public are printed in hardback only for authors who are expected to be successful, or as a precursor to the paperback to predict sale levels. Hardcovers consist of a page block, two boards, a cloth or heavy paper covering; the pages are sewn together and glued onto a flexible spine between the boards, it too is covered by the cloth.
A paper wrapper, or dust jacket, is put over the binding, folding over each horizontal end of the boards. Dust jackets serve to protect the underlying cover from wear. On the folded part, or flap, over the front cover is a blurb, or a summary of the book; the back flap is. Reviews are placed on the back of the jacket. Many modern bestselling hardcover books use a partial cloth cover, with cloth covered board on the spine only, only boards covering the rest of the book. Bookbinding Paperback
Deception is a 1990 novel by Philip Roth. The novel marks the first time Roth uses his own name as the name of the protagonist within a fictional work. "Roth" would be narrator of the novels Operation Shylock and The Plot Against America. At the center of the book are conversations between a married American named Philip, living in London, a married Englishwoman—trapped with a small child in a loveless upper-middle-class household; the lives of both characters are revealed as they talk before and after making love. Writing in the New York Times Book Review, the writer and critic Fay Weldon called the novel, "extraordinary, disturbing," adding that she had found it, "exhilarating." She continues: "Mr. Roth throws down a gauntlet, he is brave. Is this novel a portrait of Mr. Roth or non-Roth in hateful literary London, having it off with the wives of his friends? What conceit, to think we're interested, yet he gets away with it as he angers us. How skillful this lover, he who started out as the grubby, impetuous Portnoy, has become.
How delicately within this'text without exposition et cetera' he delineates lines of plot, event, desire. How he seduces the reluctant, soothes the aggravated." Deception is included in the fifth volume of Philip Roth's collected works Novels and Other Narratives 1986–1991, published by the Library of America