SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

The Proms

The Proms, or The BBC Proms, more formally known as The Henry Wood Promenade Concerts, is an eight-week summer season of daily orchestral classical music concerts and other events held annually, predominantly in the Royal Albert Hall in central London. The Proms were founded in 1895, are now organised and broadcast by the BBC; each season consists of concerts in the Royal Albert Hall, chamber music concerts at Cadogan Hall, additional Proms in the Park events across the UK on the Last Night of the Proms, associated educational and children's events. The season is a significant event in classical music. Czech conductor Jiří Bělohlávek described the Proms as "the world's largest and most democratic musical festival". Prom is short for promenade concert, a term which referred to outdoor concerts in London's pleasure gardens, where the audience was free to stroll around while the orchestra was playing. In the context of the BBC Proms, promming refers to the use of the standing areas inside the hall for which ticket prices are much lower than for the seating.

Proms concert-goers those who stand, are sometimes referred to as "Prommers" or "Promenaders". Promenade concerts had existed in London's pleasure gardens since the mid 18th century, indoor proms became a feature of 19th century musical life in London from 1838, notably under the direction of Louis Antoine Jullien and Sir Arthur Sullivan; the annual series of Proms continuing today had their roots in that movement. They were inaugurated on 10 August 1895 in the Queen's Hall in Langham Place by the impresario Robert Newman, experienced in running similar concerts at His Majesty's Theatre. Newman wished to generate a wider audience for concert hall music by offering low ticket prices and an informal atmosphere, where eating and smoking were permitted to the promenaders, he stated his aim to Henry Wood in 1894 as follows: I am going to run nightly concerts and train the public by easy stages. Popular at first raising the standard until I have created a public for classical and modern music. George Cathcart, an otolaryngologist, gave financial backing to Newman for the series on condition that Henry Wood be employed as the sole conductor.

Wood, aged 26, seized this opportunity and built the "Queen's Hall Orchestra" as the ensemble specially devoted to performing the promenade concerts. Cathcart stipulated the adoption of French or Open Diapason concert pitch, necessitating the acquisition of an new set of wind instruments for the orchestra, the re-tuning of the Queen's Hall organ; this coincided with the adoption of this lower pitch by concert series. Although the concerts gained a popular following and reputation, Newman went bankrupt in 1902, the banker Edgar Speyer took over the expense of funding them. Wood received a knighthood in 1911. In 1914 anti-German feeling led Speyer to surrender his role, music publishers Chappell & Co. took control of the concerts. Although Newman remained involved in artistic planning, it was Wood's name which became most associated with the Proms; as conductor from the first concert in 1895, Sir Henry was responsible for building the repertoire heard as the series continued from year to year. While including many popular and less demanding works, in the first season there were substantial nights devoted to Beethoven or Schubert, a programme of new works was given in the final week.

Distinguished singers including Sims Reeves and Signor Foli appeared. In the first two decades Wood established the policy of introducing works by contemporary composers and of bringing fresh life to unperformed or under-performed works. A bronze bust of Sir Henry Wood recovered from the ruins of the bombed-out Queen's Hall in 1941, now belonging to the Royal Academy of Music, is still placed in front of the organ for the whole Promenade season. Though the concerts are now called the BBC Proms, are headlined with the BBC logo, the tickets are subtitled "BBC Music presents the Henry Wood Promenade Concerts". In 1927, following Newman's sudden death in the previous year, the BBC – based at Broadcasting House next to the hall – took over the running of the concerts; this arose because William Boosey managing director of Chappell & Co. detested broadcasting and saw the BBC's far-reaching demands and intentions in the control of musical presentation as a danger to the future of public concerts altogether.

He decided to disband the New Queen's Hall Orchestra, which played for the last time at a Symphony concert on 19 March 1927. He found it more expedient to let the Queen's Hall to the broadcasting powers, rather than to continue the Promenade concerts and other big series independently in an unequal competition with what was the Government itself. So the Proms. were saved, but under a different kind of authority. The personnel of the New Queen's Hall Orchestra continued until 1930 as "Sir Henry J. Wood and his Symphony Orchestra"; when the BBC Symphony Orchestra was formed in 1930, it became the main orchestra for the concerts. At this time the season consisted of nights dedicated to particular composers. There were no Sunday performances. With the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the BBC withdrew its support; however private sponsors stepped in to maintain the Proms, always under Sir Henry Wood's direction, until the Queen's Hall was devastated beyond repair during an air raid in May 1941. (The site is

List of lakes and lochs of the United Kingdom

The list of lakes, lochs and llyns of the United Kingdom is a link page for some large lakes of the United Kingdom, including lochs enclosed by land. Lakes in Scotland are called lochs, in Northern Ireland loughs. In Wales a lake is called a llyn; the words "loch" and "lough", in addition to referring to bodies of freshwater, are applied to bodies of brackish water or seawater, which in other countries or contexts may be called fjord, estuary, bay etc. In particular, the term "sea-loch" is used in Scotland in this way, as the English language equivalent of'fjord'; some of the largest lakes in England and Wales are man-made reservoirs, or lakes whose size has been increased by damming. This table includes the ten largest fresh water bodies by area. Lough Neagh is the largest water body in the UK by this measure, although Loch Ness is the largest by volume and contains nearly double the amount of water in all the lakes of England and Wales combined. Loch Morar is Loch Awe the longest. Murray and Pullar note that the mean depth of Loch Ness is 57.4% of the maximum depth – higher than in any other large deep loch in Scotland.

The deepest lake in England is Wast Water. List of lakes in England List of loughs in Ireland List of lochs in Scotland List of lakes in Wales List of lakes in the Lake District Geography of the United Kingdom Waterscape Murray, Sir John and Pullar, Laurence Bathymetrical Survey of the Fresh-Water Lochs of Scotland, 1897-1909. London.

WR 102ea

WR 102ea is a Wolf–Rayet star in the Sagittarius constellation. It is the second most luminous star in the Quintuplet cluster after WR 102hb. With a luminosity of 2,500,000 times solar, it is one of the most luminous stars known. Despite the high luminosity it can only be observed at infra-red wavelengths due to the dimming effect of intervening dust on visual light, it is an evolved massive star which has an emission line spectrum from a strong stellar wind caused by high luminosity and the presence of elements heavier than hydrogen in the photosphere. The spectrum is dominated by ionised helium and nitrogen lines due to convectional and rotational mixing of fusion products to the surface of the star; however it is still in a core hydrogen burning phase and hydrogen lines are visible in the spectrum, in contrast to WN stars without hydrogen which are older, less massive, less luminous. Despite being a unevolved star, WR 102ea has lost over half its mass already