Thomas Moore was an Irish poet, singer and entertainer, now best remembered for the lyrics of "The Minstrel Boy" and "The Last Rose of Summer". As Lord Byron's named literary executor, along with John Murray, Moore was responsible for burning Lord Byron's memoirs after his death. In his lifetime he was referred to as Anacreon Moore. From a early age Moore showed an interest in music and other performing arts, he sometimes appeared in musical plays with his friends, such as The Poor Soldier by John O'Keeffe, at one point had ambitions to become an actor. Moore attended several Dublin schools including Samuel Whyte's English Grammar School in Grafton Street where he learned the English accent with which he spoke for the rest of his life. In 1795 he graduated from Trinity College, which had allowed entry to Catholic students, in an effort to fulfill his mother's dream of his becoming a lawyer. Moore was a good student, but he put less effort into his studies, his time at Trinity came amidst the ongoing turmoil following the French Revolution, a number of his fellow students such as Robert Emmet were supporters of the United Irishmen movement, although Moore himself never was a member.
This movement sought support from the French government to launch a revolution in Ireland. In 1798 a rebellion broke out followed by a French invasion. Besides Emmet, another formative influence was Edward Hudson a fellow student at Trinity College, who played a crucial role in introducing Moore to Edward Bunting's A General Collection of the Ancient Irish Music one of the main sources of his own collection of Irish Melodies. Thomas Moore was born at 12 Aungier Street in Ireland. Over his father's grocery shop, his father being from the Kerry Gaeltacht and his mother, Anastasia Codd, from Wexford, he had two younger sisters and Ellen. From a early age Moore showed an interest in music and other performing arts, he sometimes appeared in musical plays with his friends, such as The Poor Soldier by John O'Keeffe, at one point had ambitions to become an actor. Moore attended several Dublin schools including Samuel Whyte's English Grammar School in Grafton Street where he learned the English accent with which he spoke for the rest of his life.
In 1795 he graduated from Trinity College, which had allowed entry to Catholic students, in an effort to fulfill his mother's dream of his becoming a lawyer. Moore was a good student, but he put less effort into his studies, his time at Trinity came amidst the ongoing turmoil following the French Revolution, a number of his fellow students such as Robert Emmet were supporters of the United Irishmen movement, although Moore himself never was a member. This movement sought support from the French government to launch a revolution in Ireland. In 1798 a rebellion broke out followed by a French invasion. Besides Emmet, another formative influence was Edward Hudson a fellow student at Trinity College, who played a crucial role in introducing Moore to Edward Bunting's A General Collection of the Ancient Irish Music one the main sources of his own collection of Irish Melodies. In 1799 he travelled to London to study law at Middle Temple, he had difficulties in paying the fees and his tailor's bills. He was helped in this by his friends in the expatriate Irish community in London, including Barbara, widow of Arthur Chichester, 1st Marquess of Donegall.
She and her sister became his lifelong friends. However, it was as a poet, translator and singer that he found fame, his work soon became immensely popular and included "The Harp That Once Through Tara’s Halls", "Believe Me, if All Those Endearing Young Charms", "The Meeting of the Waters" and many other specimens from his collections of Irish Melodies. Called "Moore's Melodies", they were published between 1808 and 1834, but Moore was far more than a balladeer. He had major success as a society figure in London, meeting the Prince of Wales on several occasions and enjoying in particular the patronage of the Irish aristocrat Lord Moira. Moore stayed at Moira's house at Donnington Park in Leicestershire where he enjoyed the extensive library, he collaborated with Michael Kelly and Charles Edward Horn in staging operas to his librettos in 1801 and 1811. In 1803 he was appointed registrar to the Admiralty in Bermuda, he spent around three months on the island, but he found his work light and uninspiring.
There were several other prize courts nearby and few captured ships were brought to Bermuda leaving him little to do. Although he drew inspiration from the scenery of Bermuda he found its society limited and soon departed for Norfolk in Virginia; because of his brief stay there, he has sometimes been treated as an unofficial poet laureate of Bermuda. His "Ode to Nea" caused something of a scandal since the language suggested a love affair and local gossip, rightly or wrongly, identified Nea with Hester Tucker, the young wife of one of his colleagues. From Norfolk he travelled across the United States and Canada in a Grand Tour. During this visit Moore developed a critical view of the United States, he disliked the governing Democratic-Republican Party and the President Thomas Jefferson. While in Washington he stayed with Anthony Merry, the British ambassador, met Jefferson briefly: the meeting had a touch of farce since the President mistook Moore, an exceptionally small man, for a child, he travelled through various American towns and cities, enjoying his time most in Philadelphia where he had a
Brian Merriman or in Irish Brian Mac Giolla Meidhre was an Irish language poet and teacher. His single surviving work of substance, the 1000-line long Cúirt An Mheán Oíche is regarded as the greatest comic poem in the history of Irish literature. Merriman in an oral account collected after his death was said to have been born illegitimately in Clondagad or Ennistymon, County Clare, his mother was surnamed Quilkeen and his father's identity remains unknown. Shortly after his birth, his mother married a stonemason, working on the walls of the Deerpark estate in Ennistymon; the family moved to Feakle and some years Merriman is known to have owned a 20-acre farm near Loch Gréine. He was a teacher of mathematics and is known to have taught the hedge school nearby in the townland of Kilclaren, he had two daughters. In 1797, the Royal Dublin Society awarded him two prizes for his flax crop. Around 1800 he moved to County Limerick, he is buried in Fiacla graveyard. The poem begins by using the conventions of the Aisling, or vision poem, in which the poet is out walking when he has a vision of a woman from the other world.
This woman is Ireland and the poem will lament her lot and/or call on her'sons' to rebel against foreign tyranny. In Merriman's hands, the convention is made to take a satirical and ironic twist. In the opening section of the poem, a hideous female giant appears to the poet and drags him kicking and screaming to the court of Queen Aoibheal of the Fairies. On the way to the ruined monastery at Moinmoy, the messenger explains that the Queen, disgusted by the twin corruptions of Anglo-Irish landlords and English Law, has taken the dispensing of justice upon herself. There follows a traditional court case under the Brehon law form of a three-part debate. In the first part, a young woman calls on Aoibheal declares her case against the young men of Ireland for their refusal to marry, she complains that, despite desperate attempts to capture a husband via intensive flirtation at hurling matches and pattern days, the young men insist on ignoring her in favour of late marriages to much older women. The young woman further bewails the contempt with which she is treated by the married women of the village.
She is answered by an old man who first denounces the wanton promiscuity of young women in general, suggesting that the young woman who spoke before was conceived by a Tinker under a cart. He vividly describes the infidelity of his own young wife, he declares his humiliation at finding her pregnant on their wedding night and the gossip which has surrounded the "premature" birth of "his" son since. He disgustedly attacks the dissolute lifestyles of young women in general. However, he declares that there is nothing wrong with his illegitimate children and denounces marriage as "out of date." He demands that the Queen replace it with a system of free love. The young woman, however, is infuriated by the old' man's words and is restrained from physically attacking him, she mocks his inability to fulfill his marital duties with his young wife, saying that she was a homeless beggar who married him to avoid starvation. She vividly argues, she calls for the abolition of priestly celibacy, alleging that priests would otherwise make wonderful husbands and fathers.
In the meantime, she will keep trying to attract an older man in hopes that her unmarried humiliation will end. In the judgement section Queen Aoibheal rules that all laymen must marry before the age of 21, on pain of corporal punishment at the hands of Ireland's women, she advises them to target the romantically indifferent and unmarried skirt chasers who boast of the number of notches on their belts. Aoibheal tells them to be careful, not to leave any man unable to father children, she states that abolishing priestly celibacy is beyond her mandate and counsels patience. To the poet's horror, the younger woman angrily points him out as a 30-year-old and describes her many failed attempts to attract his interest in hopes of becoming his wife, she declares. As a crowd of infuriated women prepares to flog him into a quivering bowl of jelly, he awakens to find it was all a terrible nightmare; the language of the poem is the everyday Munster Irish of the time, the vernacular of Clare. In its frank and satirical treatment of sexuality, ironic parody of the battle of the sexes, its biting social commentary, Cúirt An Mheán Óiche is a unique document in the history of Irish poetry in either language.
Cúirt An Mheán Oíche was never written down by its author and was preserved, like much Gaelic poetry, in an oral format. It was first published in 1850 in an edition by the Irish scholar John O'Daly. In the 20th century, a number of translations were produced, including notable English versions by Arland Ussher, Frank O'Connor, Edward Pakenham, 6th Earl of Longford, David Marcus, Ciarán Carson, Thomas Kinsella and a partial translation by Seamus Heaney. Brendan Behan is believed to have written an unpublished version. O'Connor's translation, the most popular, was banned in Ireland by the Censorship Board in 1946, because of the sexual frankness of the content. Cúirt an Mheán Oíche has been dramatised by Tom MacIntyre and Celia de Fréine and has been turned into a comic opera by composer Ana Sokolović with English libretto by Paul Bentley. Cumann Merriman was founded in 1967 to promote the poet's work, they run an annual Merriman Summer School in County Clare each Aug
Charles Gavan Duffy
Sir Charles Gavan Duffy KCMG, Irish-Australian nationalist, journalist and politician, was the 8th Premier of Victoria and one of the most colourful figures in Victorian political history. The suburb of Duffy in the Australian Capital Territory is named after him. Duffy was born in Dublin Street, Monaghan Town, County Monaghan, the son of a Catholic shopkeeper. Both his parents died while he was still a child and his uncle, Fr James Duffy, the Catholic parish priest of Castleblayney, became his guardian for a number of years, he was educated at St Malachy's College in Belfast. Duffy edited The Vindicator from its foundation in 1839 until 1842, while editing the Belfast based paper he studied law at the King's Inns in Dublin, was admitted to the Irish Bar in 1845. Before being admitted to the bar, Duffy was active on the Irish land question, in that connection in 1842 he became an ally of James Godkin. Duffy became a leading figure in Irish literary circles, he edited Ballad Poetry of Ireland and contributed works on Irish literature and political history, including Young Ireland: a fragment of Irish history, 1840-1850, The league of north and south.
An episode in Irish history, 1850-1854. Gavan Duffy became its first editor. All three were members of Daniel O'Connell's Repeal Association; this paper, under Gavan Duffy, transformed from a literary voice into a "rebellious organisation". As a result of The Nation's support for Repeal, Gavan Duffy, as owner, was arrested and convicted of seditious conspiracy in relation to the Monster Meeting planned for Clontarf, just outside Dublin, but was released after an appeal to the House of Lords. In 1849 Duffy toured Ireland with Scottish writer Thomas Carlyle to record the ongoing Great Hunger in Ireland, it seems Duffy had invited Carlyle - a staunch Calvinist and Unionist, to record the happenings of the time as he was a well respected writer in Britain at that time. When their journey concluded Duffy wrote a damning editorial about the political establishment in'The Nation'. While Carlyle showed little sympathy to the destitute Irish. In August 1850, Gavan Duffy formed the Tenant Right League to bring about reforms in the Irish land system and protect tenants' rights, in 1852 he was elected to the House of Commons for New Ross.
In November 1852, Lord Derby's government introduced a land bill to secure to Irish tenants on eviction, in accordance with the principles of the Tenant League, compensation for improvements prospective and retrospective made by them in the land. The bill passed the House of Commons in 1853 and 1854, but in both years failed to pass the House of Lords. In 1855 the cause of the Irish tenants, indeed of Ireland seemed to Duffy more hopeless than ever. Broken in health and spirit, he published in 1855 a farewell address to his constituency, declaring that he had resolved to retire from parliament, as it was no longer possible to accomplish the task for which he had solicited their votes. In 1842, he married Emily McLaughlin, who died in 1845, he married Susan Hughes in 1846, with. In 1856, despairing of the prospects for Irish independence, he resigned from the House of Commons and emigrated with his family to Australia. After being feted in Sydney and Melbourne, Duffy settled in the newly formed Colony of Victoria.
A public appeal was held to enable him to buy the freehold property necessary to stand for the colonial Parliament. He was elected to the Legislative Assembly for Villiers and Heytesbury in the Western District in 1856. A Melbourne Punch cartoon depicted Duffy entering Parliament as a bog Irishman carrying a shillelagh atop the parliamentary benches, he represented Dalhousie and North Gippsland. With the collapse of the Victorian Government's Haines Ministry, during 1857, another Irish Catholic, John O'Shanassy, unexpectedly became Premier and Duffy his second-in-charge. Duffy was Commissioner for Public Works, President of the Board of Land and Works, Commissioner for Crown Lands and Survey. Irish Catholics serving as Cabinet Ministers was hitherto unknown in the British Empire and the Melbourne-based Protestants "were not prepared to counternance so startling a novelty". In 1858–59, Melbourne Punch cartoons linked Duffy and O'Shanassy with images of the French Revolution to undermine their Ministry.
One famous Punch image, "Citizens John and Charles", depicted the pair as French revolutionaries holding the skull and cross bone flag of the so-called Victorian Republic. The O'Shanassy Ministry was defeated at a new government formed. Like other radicals, Duffy's main priority was to unlock the colony's lands from the grip of the squatter class, but his 1862 lands bill was amended into ineffectiveness by the Legislative Council. Historian Don Garden commented that "Unfortunately Duffy's dreams were on a higher plane than his practical skills as a legislator and the morals of those opposed to him." In 1871 Duffy led the opposition to Premier Sir James McCulloch's plan to introduce a land tax, on the grounds that it unfairly penalised small farmers. When McCulloch's government was defeated on this issue, Duffy became Chief Secretary. Victoria's finances were in a poor state and he was forced to introduce a tariff bill to provide government revenue, despite his adherence to British free trade principles.
An Irish Catholic Premier was unpopular with the Protestant majority in the colony, Duffy was accused of favouring Catholics in government appointments, an example being the appointment of John Cashel Hoey to a position in L
John Hewitt (poet)
John Harold Hewitt, born in Belfast, Northern Ireland, was the most significant Belfast poet to emerge before the 1960s generation of Northern Irish poets that included Seamus Heaney, Derek Mahon and Michael Longley. He was appointed the first writer-in-residence at Queen's University Belfast in 1976, his collections include The Day of the Corncrake and Out of My Time: Poems 1969 to 1974. He was made a Freeman of the City of Belfast in 1983, was awarded honorary doctorates the University of Ulster and Queen's University Belfast. From November 1930 to 1957, Hewitt held positions in the Belfast Art Gallery, his radical socialist ideals proved unacceptable to the Belfast Unionist establishment and he was passed over for promotion in 1953. Instead in 1957 he moved to Coventry, a city still rebuilding following its devastation during World War II. Hewitt was appointed Director of the Herbert Art Gallery & Museum where he worked until retirement in 1972. Hewitt had an active political life, describing himself as "a man of the left", was involved in the British Labour Party, the Fabian Society and the Belfast Peace League.
He was attracted to the Ulster dissenting tradition and was drawn to a concept of regional identity within the island of Ireland, describing his identity as Ulster, Irish and European. John Hewitt opened the Belfast Unemployed Resource Centre Offices on Mayday 1985, his life and work are celebrated in two prominent ways – the annual John Hewitt International Summer School – and, less conventionally, a Belfast pub is named after him – the John Hewitt Bar and Restaurant, situated on the city's Donegall Street and which opened in 1999. The bar was named after him as he opened the Belfast Unemployed Resource Centre, which owns the establishment, it is a popular meeting place for local writers, journalists and artists. Both the Belfast Festival at Queen's and the Belfast Film Festival use the venue to stage events. After attending Agnes Street National School, Hewitt attended the Royal Belfast Academical Institution from 1919 to 1920 before moving to Methodist College Belfast, where he was a keen cricketer.
In 1924, he started an English degree at the Queen's University of Belfast, obtaining a BA in 1930, which he followed by obtaining a teaching qualification from Stranmillis College, Belfast. During these years, his calling to radical and socialist causes deepened. Hewitt attended the Northern Ireland Labour Party Annual Conference as a Belfast City delegate in 1929 and 1930, he resisted the advocacy of a workers’ republic in the party's constitution. In 1930, Hewitt was appointed Art Assistant at the Belfast Museum and Art Gallery, where amongst other duties, he gave public lectures on art, at one of which he met Roberta "Ruby" Black, whom he was to marry in 1934. Roberta was a convinced Socialist, the couple became members of the Independent Labour Party, the Belfast Peace League, the Left Book Club and the British Civil Liberties Union. Hewitt began experimenting with poetry. Thorough, his notebooks from these years are filled with hundreds of poems, in dozens of styles. Yeats, for the most part the verse is either romantic, or socialist, a theme which increased in prominence as the 1930s began.
Morris is the key figure, combining both these strains, allowing Hewitt to articulate the radical, dissenting strain which he inherited from his Methodist forbearers, including his father. As the 1920s moved into the 1930s, Hewitt's writing began to mature. Firstly, his role models became more modern, and most he began his lifelong work of excavation and discovery of the poetry of Ulster, starting with Richard Rowley, Joseph Campbell and George William Russell. This research culminated, in part, with the publications of Fibres and Cordage in 1948, Rhyming Weavers and other Country Poets of Antrim and Down in 1974, a book called The Rhyming Weavers in 1979. All of these publications and more, were based on his interest in the Ulster rhyming weaver poets of the 19th century, such as Henry MacDonald Flecher, David Herbison, Alexander MacKenzie, James MacKowen, James Orr. Hewitt himself felt that his juvenilia ended with the poem Ireland, which he placed at the start of his Collected Poems, indeed it is more complex than most of his earlier work, begins his lifelong preoccupation with bleak landscapes of bog and rock.
The 1930s was a period of transition in Hewitt's poetry, one in which he began to address the tortured history of his native province, the contradictions between his love for the people and the landscape, his inspiration in the radical dissenting tradition, the bloody, fratricidal conflicts which scar Northern Ireland to this day. A key text is The Bloody Brae: A Dramatic Poem, which tells of a legendary massacre of Roman Catholics by Cromwellian troops in Islandmagee, County Antrim, in 1642. Jo
Vikings were Norse seafarers speaking the Old Norse language, who during the late 8th to late 11th centuries and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of Europe, explored westwards to Iceland and Vinland. The term is commonly extended in modern English and other vernaculars to the inhabitants of Norse home communities during what has become known as the Viking Age; this period of Nordic military and demographic expansion constitutes an important element in the early medieval history of Scandinavia, the British Isles, Kievan Rus' and Sicily. Facilitated by advanced sailing and navigational skills, characterised by the longship, Viking activities at times extended into the Mediterranean littoral, North Africa, the Middle East. Following extended phases of exploration and settlement, Viking communities and governments were established in diverse areas of north-western Europe, Belarus and European Russia, the North Atlantic islands and as far as the north-eastern coast of North America.
This period of expansion witnessed the wider dissemination of Norse culture, while introducing strong foreign cultural influences into Scandinavia itself, with profound developmental implications in both directions. Popular, modern conceptions of the Vikings—the term applied casually to their modern descendants and the inhabitants of modern Scandinavia—often differ from the complex picture that emerges from archaeology and historical sources. A romanticised picture of Vikings as noble savages began to emerge in the 18th century. Perceived views of the Vikings as alternatively violent, piratical heathens or as intrepid adventurers owe much to conflicting varieties of the modern Viking myth that had taken shape by the early 20th century. Current popular representations of the Vikings are based on cultural clichés and stereotypes, complicating modern appreciation of the Viking legacy; these representations are not always accurate — for example, there is no evidence that they wore horned helmets.
One etymology derives víking from the feminine vík, meaning "creek, small bay". Various theories have been offered that the word viking may be derived from the name of the historical Norwegian district of Viken, meaning "a person from Viken". According to this theory, the word described persons from this area, it is only in the last few centuries that it has taken on the broader sense of early medieval Scandinavians in general. However, there are a few major problems with this theory. People from the Viken area were not called'Viking' in Old Norse manuscripts, but are referred to as víkverir,'Vík dwellers'. In addition, that explanation could explain only the masculine and ignore the feminine, a serious problem because the masculine is derived from the feminine but hardly vice versa; the form occurs as a personal name on some Swedish runestones. The stone of Tóki víking was raised in memory of a local man named Tóki who got the name Tóki víking because of his activities as a viking; the Gårdstånga Stone uses the phrase "ÞeR drængaR waRu wiða unesiR i wikingu", referring to the stone's dedicatees as vikings.
The Västra Strö 1 Runestone has an inscription in memory of a Björn, killed when "i viking". In Sweden there is a locality known since the middle ages as Vikingstad; the Bro Stone was risen in memory of Assur, said to have protected the land from vikings. There is little indication of any negative connotation in the term before the end of the Viking Age. Another etymology, one that gained support in the early twenty-first century, derives Viking from the same root as Old Norse vika, f.'sea mile', originally'the distance between two shifts of rowers', from the root *weik or *wîk, as in the Proto-Germanic verb *wîkan,'to recede'. This is found in the Proto-Nordic verb *wikan,'to turn', similar to Old Icelandic víkja'to move, to turn', with well-attested nautical usages. Linguistically, this theory is better attested, the term most predates the use of the sail by the Germanic peoples of North-Western Europe, because the Old Frisian spelling shows that the word was pronounced with a palatal k and thus in all probability existed in North-Western Germanic before that palatalisation happened, that is, in the 5th century or before.
In that case, the idea behind it seems to be that the tired rower moves aside for the rested rower on the thwart when he relieves him. The Old Norse feminine víking may have been a sea journey characterised by the shifting of rowers, i.e. a long-distance sea journey, because in the pre-sail era, the shifting of rowers would distinguish long-distance sea journeys. A víkingr would originally have been a participant on a sea journey characterised by the shifting of rowers. In that case, the word Viking was not connected to Scandinavian seafarers but assumed this meaning when the Scandinavians begun to dominate the seas. In Old English, the word wicing appears first in the Anglo-Saxon poem, which dates from the 9th century. In Old English, in the history of the archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen written by Adam of Bremen in about 1070, the term referred to Scandi
The Kildare Poems or Kildare Lyrics are a group of sixteen poems written in an Irish dialect of Middle English and dated to the mid-14th century. Together with a second, shorter set of poems in the so-called Loscombe Manuscript, they constitute the first and most important linguistic document of the early development of Irish English in the centuries after the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland; the sixteen poems have satirical contents. They are preserved in a single manuscript, where they are scattered between a number of Latin and Old French texts; the conventional modern designation "Kildare poems" refers both to the town of Kildare in Ireland, proposed as their place of origin, to the name of the author of at least one of the poems, who calls himself "Michael Kildare". The poems have been edited by A. Lucas; the Kildare Poems are found in a manuscript, produced around 1330. It is a small parchment book, measuring only 140 mm by 95 mm, may have been produced as "a travelling preacher’s'pocket-book'" The authors or compilers were Franciscan friars.
Scholars have debated whether the poems' place of origin is Kildare in eastern Ireland or Waterford in the south. The case for Kildare is based on the reference to the authorship of "Michael of Kildare", a reference to one "Piers of Birmingham", known to have lived in Kildare and, buried in the Franciscan church in Kildare; the case for Waterford is based, among other things, on a reference to "yung men of Waterford" in one part of the manuscript, as well as on certain dialectal features. It has been surmised that a core of the work was produced in Kildare and copied and expanded with further material in Waterford; the manuscript was in the possession of George Wyse during the 16th century. In 1608, the manuscript was noted by the antiquarian Sir James Ware, who described it as "a smale olde booke in parchment called the booke of Rose or of Waterford". Ware made several excerpts from the book, including the "Yung men of Waterford" poem, no longer found in Harley 913 today. Ware's manuscript copy has been preserved as Ms. Landsdowne 418 in the British Library.
The original book came into the possession of Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer, whose library was acquired by the British Museum in 1754. A first modern printed edition of the text was published by Thomas Wright in Reliquiae Antiquae I in 1841. A standard philological edition of the text is that by Wilhelm Heuser; the religious and satirical contents of the Kildare poems are thought to display ideas characteristic of Franciscan concerns, including a concern for the poor and a dislike of older, established monastic orders. The Kildare poems comprise the following items: The Land of Cokaygne: a satirical piece about a corrupt community of monks, who lead a life of fantastic luxury and dissipation in the mythical land of Cockaigne; this satire may be directed against the Cistercian abbey near Waterford. Five hateful things: a short, seven-line poem expressing a gnomic saying about human vices Satire: a satirical piece about human vices, in twenty short stanzas, each in the form of an incantation to a different saint Song of Michael of Kildare: a religious poem, considered the most ambitious literary work among this group of poems, the only one that names its author.
Sarmun, Fifteen Signs before Judgment and Passion, Ten Commandments: four religious verse sermons, in rhymed quatrains Christ on the Cross: a religious poem in irregular rhymed long lines Lollai, litil child: a religious poem in the form of a lullaby song directed to a child Song of the Times: a satirical poem criticizing political and social disorder, containing a moral animal fable. Seven Sins: a religious poem in six-line stanzas Piers of Bermingham: an obituary of an English knight, Sir Piers of Birmingham ), praised for his military exploits against the Irish and whose death is dated to 13 April 1308. Elde, a poem about the problems of old age Repentance of Love, a brief poem of three quatrains expressing a lover's complaint Nego, a moral poem about denial, symbolized by the Latin word negō Erth a moral poem about earth, in two parallel versions in English and Latin The Kildare Poems show many linguistic features common to the Middle English dialects of the west and south-west of England, from which most English-speaking settlers in medieval Ireland had come, but they display a number of unique features that point towards an independent development of English dialects in Ireland, either because of levelling between different source dialects of English, or because of the influence of Irish.
Among the conspicuous features are: Occasional replacement of th with t. This may reflect fortition of /θ/ to a dental stop, as found in some forms of Irish English. Voicing of initial /f/ to /v/, while older /v/ is rendered as <w> Loss of nasals before coronal stops: fowden for founden, powde for pound h-dropping in words like is for his, abbiþ for habbiþ raising of short /e/ to /i/ in unstressed final syllables metathesis in words like fryst < first, gradener < gardener related to similar phenomena in Irish epenthesis of <e> in consonant clusters in some words like Auerill < April, uerisse < freshe possibly related to similar
Saint Columba was an Irish abbot and missionary Evangelist credited with spreading Christianity in what is today Scotland at the start of the Hiberno-Scottish mission. He founded the important abbey on Iona, which became a dominant religious and political institution in the region for centuries, he is the Patron Saint of Derry. He was regarded by both the Gaels of Dál Riata and the Picts, is remembered today as a Catholic saint and one of the Twelve Apostles of Ireland. Colmcille studied under some of Ireland's most prominent church figures and founded several monasteries in the country. Around 563 he and his twelve companions crossed to Dunaverty near Southend, Argyll, in Kintyre before settling in Iona in Scotland part of the Ulster kingdom of Dál Riata, where they founded a new abbey as a base for spreading Celtic Christianity among the northern Pictish kingdoms who were pagan, he remained active in Irish politics. Three surviving early medieval Latin hymns may be attributed to him. Colmcille was born to Fedlimid and Eithne of the Cenel Conaill in Gartan, a district beside Lough Gartan, in Tír Chonaill in the north of Ireland.
On his father's side, he was great-great-grandson of Niall of the Nine Hostages, an Irish high king of the 5th century. He was baptised in Temple-Douglas, in the County Donegal parish of Conwal, by his teacher and foster-uncle Saint Crunathan, it is not known for sure if his name at birth was Colmcille or if he adopted this name in life. In the Irish language his name means'dove', the same name as the Prophet Jonah, which Adomnán of Iona as well as other early Irish writers were aware of, although it is not clear if he was deliberately named after Jonah or not; when sufficiently advanced in letters he entered the monastic school of Movilla, at Newtownards, under St. Finnian who had studied at St. Ninian's "Magnum Monasterium" on the shores of Galloway, he was about twenty, a deacon when, having completed his training at Movilla, he travelled southwards into Leinster, where he became a pupil of an aged bard named Gemman. On leaving him, Colmcille entered the monastery of Clonard, governed at that time by Finnian, noted for sanctity and learning.
Here he imbibed the traditions of the Welsh Church, for Finnian had been trained in the schools of St. David. In early Christian Ireland the druidic tradition collapsed due to the spread of the new Christian faith; the study of Latin learning and Christian theology in monasteries flourished. Colmcille became a pupil at the monastic school at Clonard Abbey, situated on the River Boyne in modern County Meath. During the sixth century, some of the most significant names in the history of Celtic Christianity studied at the Clonard monastery, it is said that the average number of scholars under instruction at Clonard was 3,000. Colmcille was one of twelve students of St. Finnian who became known as the Twelve Apostles of Ireland, he became a monk and was ordained a priest. Another preceptor of Colmcille was St. Mobhi, whose monastery at Glasnevin was frequented by such famous men as St. Canice, St. Comgall, St. Ciarán. A pestilence which devastated Ireland in 544 caused the dispersion of Mobhi's disciples, Colmcille returned to Ulster, the land of his kindred.
He was a striking figure of great stature and powerful build, with a loud, melodious voice which could be heard from one hilltop to another. The following years were marked by the foundation of several important monasteries: Derry, at the southern edge of Inishowen. While at Derry it is said that he planned a pilgrimage to Rome and Jerusalem, but did not proceed farther than Tours. Thence he brought a copy of those gospels that had lain on the bosom of St. Martin for the space of 100 years; this relic was deposited in Derry. Tradition asserts that, sometime around 560, he became involved in a quarrel with Saint Finnian of Movilla Abbey over a psalter. Colmcille copied the manuscript at the scriptorium under Saint Finnian. Saint Finnian disputed his right to keep the copy; the dispute led to the pitched Battle of Cúl Dreimhne in Cairbre Drom Cliabh in 561, during which many men were killed. A second grievance that led him to induce the clan Neill to rise and engage in battle against King Diarmait at Cooldrevny in 561 was the king's violation of the right of sanctuary belonging to Colmcille's person as a monk on the occasion of the murder of Prince Curnan, the saint's kinsman.
Prince Curnan of Connaught, who had fatally injured a rival in a hurling match and had taken refuge with Colmcille, was dragged from his protector's arms and slain by Diarmaid's men, in defiance of the rights of sanctuary. A synod of clerics and scholars threatened to excommunicate him for these deaths, but St. Brendan of Birr spoke on his behalf with the result that he was allowed to go into exile instead. Colmcille's own conscience was uneasy, on the advice of an aged hermit, Molaise, he resolved to expiate his offence by going into exile and win for Christ as many souls as had perished in the terrible battle of Cúl Dreimhne, he left Ireland, to return only many years later. Colmcille's copy of the psalter has been traditionally associated with the Cathach of St. Colmcille. In 563, he travelled to Scotland with twelve companions in a wicker currach covered with leather. According to legend he first landed o