John Newbery, called "The Father of Children's Literature", was an English publisher of books who first made children's literature a sustainable and profitable part of the literary market. He supported and published the works of Christopher Smart, Oliver Goldsmith and Samuel Johnson. In recognition of his achievements the Newbery Medal was named after him in 1922. Newbery was born in 1713 to Robert Newbery, a farmer, in Waltham St Lawrence, England; when he was younger he gave himself an education. He was apprenticed to William Ayers, at the age of sixteen; the business was sold to William Carnan. In 1737 Carnan died, leaving the business to his brother, Charles Carnan, Newbery. Two years Newbery married William Carnan's widow, Jordan Mary, he adopted Mary's three children, John and Anna-Maria. In 1740 their daughter Mary was born. John, born in 1741, died at age 11. Son Francis arrived in 1743. By 1740 Newbery had started his publishing business in Reading, his first two publications were an edition of Richard Allestree's The Whole Duty of Man and Miscellaneous Works Serious and Humerous In Verse and Prose.
In 1743, Newbery left Reading, putting his stepson John Carnan in charge of his business there, established a shop in London, first at the sign of the Bible and Crown near Devereux Court. He published several adult books, but became interested in expanding his business to children's books, his first children's book, A Little Pretty Pocket-Book, appeared 18 July 1744. A Little Pretty Pocket-Book is the first in Newbery's successful line of children's books; the book cost six pence but for an extra two the purchaser received a red and black ball or pincushion. Newbery, like John Locke, believed that play was a better enticement to children's good behaviour than physical discipline, the child was to record their behaviour by either sticking a pin in the red side for good behaviour or the black side if they were bad. A Little Pretty Pocket-Book, though it would seem didactic today, was well received. Promising to "infallibly make Tommy a good boy and Polly a good girl", it had poems, proverbs and an alphabet song.
The book was child sized with a brightly coloured cover that appealed to children—something new in the publishing industry. Known as gift books, these early books became the precursor to the toy books popular in the nineteenth century. In developing his particular brand of children's literature, Newbery borrowed techniques from other publishers, such as binding his books in Dutch floral paper and advertising his other products and books within the stories he wrote or commissioned; this improvement in the quality of books for children, as well as the diversity of topics he published, helped make Newbery the leading producer of children's books in his time. In 1745 Newbery moved his firm to a more upmarket address at 65 St. Paul's Churchyard and named it the Bible and Sun, continuing to publish a mix of adult and children's titles; this new shop did so well he sold the Reading business. His success allowed his son Francis to attend both Oxford Universities. Jan Susina, writing in The Lion and the Unicorn says "Newbery's genius was in developing the new product category, children's books, through his frequent advertisements... and his clever ploy of introducing additional titles and products into the body of his children's books."About one-fifth of the five hundred books Newbery produced were children's stories, including ABC books, children's novels and children's magazines.
He published his own books as well as those by authors like Oliver Goldsmith. Scholars have speculated that Goldsmith or Giles and Griffith Jones wrote The History of Little Goody Two-Shoes, Newbery's most popular book, it had 29 editions between 1765 and 1800. Some sources credit Newbery with publishing the first edition of Mother Goose in England, but others now say the book may have been planned, but was never produced. Newbery published a series of books written by "Tom Telescope" that were wildly popular, going through seven editions between 1761 and 1787 alone; these were based on the emerging science of the day and consisted of a series of lectures given by a boy, Tom Telescope. The most famous is The Newtonian System of Philosophy Adapted to the Capacities of Young Gentlemen and Ladies. John Newbery died 22 December 1767, in Islington, north London, he is buried in his birthplace of Waltham Saint Lawrence. Newbery's prosperity did not just come from publishing; some of his fortune came from the patent and sales of Dr Robert James's Fever Powder, a medicine which claimed to cure the gout, scrofula, scurvy and distemper in cattle.
This product became successful due in part to Newbery's advertisements for it in his literature. In Goody Two-Shoes, the heroine's father dies because he was "seized with a violent fever in a place where Dr James Fever Powder was not to be had."Newbery used his fortune to help writers through financial difficulties. Those he is known to have assisted include Johnson, who called him "Jack Whirler" for his constant activity and inability to sit still. Locke had written, he suggested that picture books be created for children. Locke argued that children should be considered "reasoning beings". Newbery acted upon these suggestions. A Pretty Little Pocket-Book was a hodge-podge of information and games, includ
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
William Jackson (journalist)
The Reverend William Jackson was a noted Irish preacher, playwright and spy who lived much of his life outside of his homeland. William Jackson was born in Co.. Down, in 1737, he became an Anglican curate. Much is unclear about Jackson's early life, he was evidently an attractive young man, notable for his popular preaching style and his outspoken opposition politics. He lost his first wife to breast cancer in the early1770s. In the 1760s, Jackson served in some capacity in the household of Augustus John Hervey the third Earl of Bristol, he claims to have travelled to Ireland when Hervey's older brother, was made Lord Lieutenant in 1766. In that same decade, Jackson moved to London, where he preached at the Tavistock Chapel and St Mary-le-Strand. Although Jackson gained some popularity as a preacher, he remained unbeneficed and turned to journalism to support himself. In 1766, Jackson became the editor of The Public Ledger. Under his editorship, this London paper became strident and oppositional in its politics.
Jackson gained notoriety for harsh criticisms of public figures. It was in his capacity as the editor of ‘‘The Public Ledger’’ that he was introduced to Elizabeth Chudleigh by one of her lawyers, John Cockayne. If Jackson had not met Chudleigh before, he was familiar with her history, for her first husband was his former employer, Augustus Hervey. Embroiled in scandal over her trial for bigamy, Chudleigh hired Jackson to provide sympathetic press coverage. Jackson soon became advisor. Jackson's chief contribution to Chudleigh's cause came in the form of a smear campaign against the popular actor and playwright, Samuel Foote. A mimic and satirist, Foote earned Chudleigh’s enmity by writing a play that capitalised on her legal troubles. Chudleigh exerted enough influence to have the play, A Trip to Calais, suppressed by the Lord Chamberlain in 1775; when Foote threatened to publish the banned play, Jackson spearheaded a newspaper campaign that accused Foote of being a sodomite. Foote responded by vilifying Jackson in a play called The Capuchin.
Jackson was the model for the character, Dr. Viper, the unscrupulous editor of the fictional Scandalous Chronicle. To make the association clear, the actor playing Viper wore a copy of Jackson’s well-known silk coat embroidered with frogs. Jackson carried on the literary dispute by publishing two anti-Foote poems and Sodom and Onan. In the end, Jackson was forced to flee to France in April 1777 to avoid a trial for libel that Foote had initiated. Jackson did not have to stay long in exile. After Foote’s death, Jackson returned to England, he resumed his political activities by publishing The Constitutions of the Several Independent States of America in 1783, with a dedication to the opposition leader, the Duke of Portland. But the following year, he was secretly hired by the Prime Minister, William Pitt the Younger, to support the government in The Morning Post. Publishing anonymously, Jackson attacked his former allies with his usual vehemence until he was found out and was soundly damned for his apostasy.
As a result of this episode, he found himself excluded from English politics. Jackson’s next appearance in the public resulted in yet another scandal. In 1787 he joined forces with “Gentleman” John Palmer—the actor who had ridiculed him as Dr. Viper in Foote's play a decade earlier, their goal was to build from the ground up a new theatre in the City of London. Jackson and Palmer persuaded investors to sink more than eighteen thousand pounds into the construction of the Royalty Theatre. Jackson and Palmer had no such authorisation, so the theatre was shut down after just one night; the duped investors initiated legal action, so Jackson again fled to France, where he arrived on the eve of revolution. During his stay in Paris, Jackson was swept up in the revolutionary fervour and became involved with the radical British expatriate set there, he was in attendance at the famous meeting at White's Hotel in November 1792, a gathering that included Lord Edward Fitzgerald and Thomas Paine. Jackson became allied politically with the Jacobins and in response to the English declaration of war against France, he published An Answer to the Declaration of the King of England Respecting his Motives for Carrying on the Present War.
Swept up in the general arrest of British subjects in 1793, Jackson was released from prison on the strength of his radical commitments, including the publication of the anti-English pamphlet. Upon his release from prison, Jackson became inspector of horses for Meaux and in 1793 was commissioned as a spy for the French. Nicholas Madgett, an Irishman who worked in the Marine Ministry, recruited Jackson to go to England and Ireland to assess the public's inclination towards armed revolution. Jackson arrived in London in early 1794 and became reacquainted with John Cockayne, the lawyer who had introduced him to Elizabeth Chudleigh two decades earlier. Jackson revealed his mission to Cockayne, who promptly revealed it to the Prime Minister out of fear of being tried for treason himself; when Jackson left London for Dublin, he was accompanied by Cockayne. In Ireland they met with several radical
Leonard McNally, sometimes spelled MacNally or Macnally, was a Dublin barrister, lyricist, founding member of the United Irishmen and spy for the British Government within Irish republican circles. He was a successful lawyer in late 18th and early 19th century Dublin, wrote a law book, crucial in the development of the "beyond reasonable doubt" standard in criminal trials. However, during his time, he was best known for his popular comic operas and plays, together with his most enduring work, the romantic song "The Lass of Richmond Hill", he is now remembered as a important informer for the British government within the Irish revolutionary society, the United Irishmen and played a major role in the defeat of the Irish Rebellion of 1798. In return for payments from the government, McNally would betray his United Irishmen colleagues to the authorities and as defence counsel at their trial, secretly collaborate with the prosecution to secure a conviction, his notable republican clients included Napper Tandy, Wolfe Tone, Robert Emmet and Lord Edward FitzGerald.
McNally was born in Dublin in 1752, the son of William McNally, a grocer. McNally was born into a Roman Catholic family, but at some point in the 1760s he converted to the Church of Ireland, he was self-educated, he became a grocer like his father. However, in 1774 he went to London to study law at the Middle Temple but returned to Dublin to be called to the Irish bar in 1776. After returning to London in the late 1770s he qualified as a barrister in England, as well, in 1783, he practised for a short time in London, while there, supplemented his income by writing plays and editing The Public Ledger. Returning to Ireland, McNally developed a successful career as a barrister in Dublin, he developed an expertise in the law of evidence and, in 1802, published what became a much-used textbook, The Rules of Evidence on Pleas of the Crown. The text played a crucial role in defining and publicising the beyond reasonable doubt standard for criminal trials. Not long after returning to Ireland, he became involved in radical politics, having in 1782 published a pamphlet in support of the Irish cause.
He became Dublin's leading radical lawyer of the day. In 1792, he represented Napper Tandy, a radical member of the Irish Parliament, in a legal dispute over parliamentary privilege. In the early 1790s, McNally became a founder member of the United Irishmen, a clandestine society which soon developed into a revolutionary Irish republican organisation, he ranked high in its leadership and acted as the organisation's chief lawyer, representing many United Irishmen in court. This included defending Wolfe Tone and Robert Emmet, the leaders of the 1798 and 1803 rebellions at their trials for treason. In 1793, McNally was wounded in a duel with Sir Jonah Barrington, who had insulted the United Irishmen. Barrington subsequently described McNally as "a good-natured, hospitable and dirty fellow". After his death in 1820, it emerged that he had for many years been an informant for the government, one of the most successful British spies in Irish republican circles that there has been. When, in 1794, a United Irishmen plot to seek aid from Revolutionary France was uncovered by the British government, McNally turned informer to save himself, subsequently, he received payment for his services.
McNally was paid an annual pension in respect of his work as an informer of £300 a year, from 1794 until his death in 1820. From 1794, McNally systematically informed on his United Irishmen colleagues, who gathered at his house for meetings, it was McNally that betrayed Lord Edward FitzGerald, one of the leaders of the 1798 rebellion, as well as Robert Emmet in 1803. A significant factor in the failure of the 1798 rebellion was the excellent intelligence provided to the government by its agents. McNally was considered to be one of the most damaging informers; the United Irishmen represented by McNally at their trials were invariably convicted and McNally was paid by the crown for passing the secrets of their defence to the prosecution. During the trial of Emmet, McNally provided details of the defence's strategy to the crown and conducted his client's case in a way that would assist the prosecution. For example, three days before the trial he assured the authorities that Emmet "does not intend to call a single witness, nor to trouble any witness for the Crown with a cross-examination, unless they misrepresent facts… He will not controvert the charge by calling a single witness".
For his assistance to the prosecution in Emmet's case, he was paid a bonus of £200, on top of his pension, half of, paid five days before the trial. After McNally's death, his activities as a government agent became known when his heir attempted to continue to collect his pension of £300 per year, he is still remembered with opprobrium by Irish nationalists. In 1997, the Sinn Féin newspaper, An Phoblacht in an article on McNally, described him as "undoubtedly one of the most treacherous informers of Irish history". McNally was a successful dramatist and wrote a number of well-constructed but derivative comedies, as well as comic operas, his first dramatic work was The Ruling Passion, a comic opera written in 1771, he is known to have authored at least twelve plays between 1779 and 1796 as well as other comic operas. His works include The Apotheosis of Punch a satire on the Irish playwright Sheridan, Tristram Shandy, an adaptation of Lawrence Sterne's novel, Robin Hood, Fashionable Levities, Richard Cœur de Lion, Critic Upon Critic.
He wrote a number of songs and operettas for Covent Garden. One of his songs, Sweet Lass of Richmond Hill, became well-known and popular following
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
For the mayor of Warsaw of the same name, see Alexander Chalmers. Alexander Chalmers was a Scottish writer, he was born in Aberdeen. Trained as a doctor, he gave up medicine for journalism, was for some time editor of the Morning Herald. Besides editions of the works of William Shakespeare, James Beattie, Henry Fielding, Samuel Johnson, Joseph Warton, Alexander Pope, Edward Gibbon, Henry St John, Viscount Bolingbroke, he published A General Biographical Dictionary in 32 volumes. A quotation is attributed to him: "The three grand essentials of happiness are: Something to do, someone to love, something to hope for."His papers are held at the National Library of Scotland. Cooper, Thompson. "Chalmers, Alexander". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 9. London: Smith, Elder & Co; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Chalmers, Alexander". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5. Cambridge University Press. Works by or about Alexander Chalmers in libraries
Public Ledger (Philadelphia)
The Public Ledger was a daily newspaper in Philadelphia, published from March 25, 1836 to January 1942. Its motto was "Virtue Liberty and Independence". For a time, it was Philadelphia's most popular newspaper, it operated a syndicate, the Ledger Syndicate, from 1915 until 1946. Founded by William Moseley Swain, Arunah S. Abell, Azariah H. Simmons, edited by Swain, the Public Ledger was the first penny paper in Philadelphia. At that time most papers sold for five cents or more, a high price which limited their appeal to only the reasonably well-off. Swain and Abell drew on the success of the New York Herald, one of the first penny papers and decided to use a one cent cover price to appeal to a broad audience, they mimicked the Herald's use of bold headlines to draw sales. The formula was a success and the Ledger posted a circulation of 15,000 in 1840, growing to 40,000 a decade later. To put this into perspective, the entire circulation of all newspapers in Philadelphia was estimated at only 8,000 when the Ledger was founded.
The Ledger was a technological innovator as well. It was the first daily to make use of a pony express, among the first papers to use the electromagnetic telegraph. From 1846, it was printed on the first rotary printing press. By the early 1860s, The Ledger was a money-losing operation, squeezed by rising paper and printing costs, it had lost circulation by supporting the Copperhead Policy of opposing the American Civil War and advocating an immediate peace settlement with the Confederate States of America. Most readers in Philadelphia at the time supported the Union, although there was a strong contingent of Southern sympathizers and families with ties to the South, as Southerners had long had second homes in Philadelphia and sent their daughters to finishing schools there. In the face of declining circulation, publishers were reluctant to increase the one-cent subscription cost, although it was needed to cover the costs of production. In December 1864, the paper was sold to George William Childs and Anthony J. Drexel for a reported $20,000.
Upon buying the paper, Childs changed its policy and methods. He changed the editorial policy to the Loyalist line, raised advertising rates, doubled the cover price to two cents. After an initial drop, circulation rebounded and the paper resumed profitability. Childs was involved in all operations of the paper, from the press room to the composing room, he intentionally upgraded the quality of advertisements appearing in the publication to suit a higher-end readership. Childs's efforts bore fruit and the Ledger became one of the most influential journals in the country. Circulation growth led the firm to outgrow its facilities. Designed by architect John McArthur, Jr. the building had at its corner a larger-than-life-sized statue of Benjamin Franklin by Joseph A. Bailly, which Childs had commissioned; the quality and profitability of the Ledger improved dramatically. By 1894, The New York Times described it as "...the finest newspaper office in the country." Toward the end of Child's leadership, the Ledger was estimated to generate profits of $500,000 per year.
In 1870, Mark Twain mocked the Ledger for its rhyming obituaries, in a piece entitled "Post-Mortem Poetry", in his column for The Galaxy: There is an element about some poetry, able to make physical suffering and death cheerful things to contemplate and consummations to be desired. In 1902, Adolph Ochs, owner of The New York Times, bought the paper from Drexel's estate for a reported $2.25 million. He merged it with the Philadelphia Times, installed his brother George as editor. Oakes served as editor until 1914. In 1913, Cyrus H. K. Curtis purchased the paper from Ochs for $2 million and hired his step son-in-law John Charles Martin as editor. Curtis was owner of Ladies' Home Journal and The Saturday Evening Post, his intention was to establish the Ledger as Philadelphia's premier newspaper, which he achieved by buying and closing several competing papers: the Philadelphia Evening Telegraph, the Philadelphia North American, The Philadelphia Press among them. Philadelphia went from a peak of 13 papers in 1900 to seven in 1920, a time when the newspaper industry in the United States was consolidating in general.
Under Curtis' ownership, the conservative appearance of the Ledger was increased: it avoided bold headlines and printed photographs on the front page. Its conservative format has been compared by scholars to the Wall Street Journal or New York Times of the twentieth century. Curtis built the Ledger's foreign news service and syndicated it to other papers via his Ledger Syndicate. From 1918 to 1921, former President William Howard Taft was on staff as an editorial contributor. To broaden the market, compete against The Evening Bulletin, in 1914 Curtis began publishing the Evening Public Ledger, a bolder paper designed to appeal to a broader public; the Ledger suffered by competition from an ascendant The Evening Bulletin, which under publisher William L. McLean grew in size from 12 pages in 1900 to 28 pages in 1920, from circulation of 6,000 to a leadership position of over 500,000 readers in the same time; the Bulletin's bolder and more commercial approach attracted additional advertising, which in turn drew more readers.
Advertising, which comprised only 1/3 of the Bulletin in 1900, grew to nearly 3/4 of its pages in 1920. At the same time, the circulation at the Ledger stagnated. Curtis built a new Public Ledger