Literacy is traditionally understood as the ability to read and use arithmetic. The concept of literacy is expanding in OECD countries to include skills to access knowledge through technology and ability to assess complex contexts. A person who travels and resides in a country but is unable to read or write in the language of the host country would be regarded by the locals as being illiterate. The key to literacy is reading development, a progression of skills that begins with the ability to understand words and decode written words. The inability to do so is called illiteracy or analphabetism, Literacy involves a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and potential, and to participate fully in their community and wider society. Literacy is thought to have first emerged with the development of numeracy, script developed independently at least four times in human history in Mesopotamia, lowland Mesoamerica, and China. The earliest forms of written communication originated in Sumer, located in southern Mesopotamia about 3500-3000 BCE, writing systems in Mesopotamia first emerged from a recording system in which people used impressed token markings to manage trade and agricultural production.
The token system served as a precursor to early cuneiform writing once people began recording information on clay tablets, proto-cuneiform texts exhibit not only numerical signs, but ideograms depicting objects being counted. Egyptian hieroglyphs emerged from 3300-3100 BCE and depicted royal iconography that emphasized power amongst other elites, the Egyptian hieroglyphic writing system was the first notation system to have phonetic values. Writing in lowland Mesoamerica was first put into practice by the Olmec and Zapotec civilizations in 900-400 BCE and these civilizations used glyphic writing and bar-and-dot numerical notation systems for purposes related to royal iconography and calendar systems. The earliest written notations in China date back to the Shang Dynasty in 1200 BCE and these systematic notations were found inscribed on bones and recorded sacrifices made, tributes received, and animals hunted, which were activities of the elite. These oracle-bone inscriptions were the ancestors of modern Chinese script and contained logosyllabic script.
According to social anthropologist Jack Goody, there are two interpretations that regard the origin of the alphabet, many classical scholars, such as historian Ignace Gelb, credit the Ancient Greeks for creating the first alphabetic system that used distinctive signs for consonants and vowels. Thus, many argue that the ancient Semitic-speaking peoples of northern Canaan invented the consonantal alphabet as early as 1500 BCE. Much of this development is credited to English archeologist Flinders Petrie. Ten years later, English Egyptologist Alan Gardiner reasoned that these contain an alphabet. In 1948, William F. Albright deciphered the text using additional evidence that had been discovered subsequent to Goodys findings and this included a series of inscriptions from Ugarit, discovered in 1929 by French archaeologist Claude F. A. Schaeffer. Some of these inscriptions were mythological texts that consisted of a 32-letter cuneiform consonantal alphabet, another significant discovery was made in 1953 when three arrowheads were uncovered, each containing identical Canaanite inscriptions from twelfth century BCE
Bookselling is the commercial trading of books, the retail and distribution end of the publishing process. People who engage in bookselling are called booksellers, bookwomen, or bookmen, the founding of libraries in 300 BC stimulated the energies of the Athenian booksellers. In Rome, toward the end of the republic, it became the fashion to have a library, and Roman booksellers carried on a flourishing trade. The spread of Christianity naturally created a demand for copies of the Gospels, other sacred books. The modern system of bookselling dates from soon after the introduction of printing, in the course of the 16th and 17th centuries the Low Countries for a time became the chief centre of the bookselling world. Modern book selling has changed dramatically with the advent of the Internet, with major websites such as Amazon, eBay, and other big book distributors offering affiliate programs, book sales have now, more than ever, been put in the hands of the small business owner. Bookstores may be part of a chain, or local independent bookstores.
Stores can range in size offering from several hundred to several hundred thousands of titles and they may be brick-and-mortar stores or internet only stores or a combination of both. Sizes for the larger bookstores exceed half a million titles, bookstores often sell other printed matter besides books, such as newspapers and maps, additional product lines may vary enormously, particularly among independent bookstores. Another common type of bookstore is the used bookstore or second-hand bookshop which buys and sells used, a range of titles are available in used bookstores, including in print and out of print books. Book collectors tend to frequent used book stores, large online bookstores offer used books for sale, too. In the book of Jeremiah the prophet is represented as dictating to Baruch the scribe and these scribes were the earliest booksellers, and supplied copies as they were demanded. Aristotle possessed an extensive library, and Plato is recorded to have paid the large sum of one hundred minae for three small treatises of Philolaus the Pythagorean.
When the Alexandrian library was founded about 300 BC, various expedients were used for the purpose of procuring books, in Rome, toward the end of the republic, it became the fashion to have a library as part of the household furniture. Roman booksellers carried on a flourishing trade and their shops were chiefly in the Argiletum, and in the Vicus Sandalarius. On the door, or on the posts, was a list of the books on sale, and Martial. In the time of Augustus the great booksellers were the Sosii, according to Justinian, a law was passed granting to the scribes the ownership of the material written, this may be the beginnings of the modern law of copyright. All references had to be certified by the local mayor, if the application was accepted, the bookseller would have to swear an oath of loyalty to the régime
An incunable, or sometimes incunabulum, is a book, pamphlet, or broadside that was printed—not handwritten—before the year 1501 in Europe. Incunable is the singular form of incunabula, Latin for swaddling clothes or cradle. A former term for incunable is fifteener, referring to the 15th century, but since 2009 we know that this lexical invention should no more be assigned to Mallinckrodt, dated 1569, it has to be credited to the Dutch Physician Hadrianus Junius. The term came to denote the printed books themselves in the late 17th century, post-incunable typically refers to books printed after 1500 up to another arbitrary end date such as 1520 or 1540. As of 2014, there are about 30,000 distinct incunable editions known to be extant, many authors reserve the term incunabula for the typographic ones only. The spread of printing to cities both in the north and in Italy ensured that there was great variety in the chosen for printing. Printers congregated in urban centres where there were scholars, lawyers, standard works in Latin inherited from the medieval tradition formed the bulk of the earliest printing, but as books became cheaper, works in the various local vernaculars began to appear.
Other printers of incunabula were Günther Zainer of Augsburg, Johannes Mentelin and Heinrich Eggestein of Strasbourg, Heinrich Gran of Haguenau and William Caxton of Bruges, the first incunable to have woodcut illustrations was Ulrich Boners Der Edelstein, printed by Albrecht Pfister in Bamberg in 1461. The data in this section were derived from the Incunabula Short-Title Catalogue, printing towns, The number of printing towns and cities stands at 282. These are situated in some 18 countries in terms of present-day boundaries, Only about one edition in ten has any illustrations, woodcuts or metalcuts. Survival, The commonest incunable is Schedels Nuremberg Chronicle of 1493, very many incunabula are unique, but on average about 18 copies survive of each. This makes the Gutenberg Bible, at 48 or 49 known copies, a complete incunable may consist of a slip, or up to ten volumes. Formats, In terms of format, the 29, 000-odd editions comprise,2,000 broadsides,9,000 folios,15,000 quartos,3,000 octavos,18 12mos,230 16mos,20 32mos, and 3 64mos.
Caxton, ISTC at present cites 528 extant copies of books printed by Caxton, Apart from migration to mainly North American and Japanese universities, there has been remarkably little movement of incunabula in the last five centuries. None were printed in the Southern Hemisphere, and the latter appears to less than 2,000 copies – i. e. about 97. 75% remain north of the equator. However many incunabula are sold at auction or through the book trade every year. The British Librarys Incunabula Short Title Catalogue now records over 29,000 titles, studies of incunabula began in the 17th century. Hain was expanded in subsequent editions, by Walter A, North American holdings were listed by Frederick R. Goff and a worldwide union catalogue is provided by the Incunabula Short Title Catalogue
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
A bookcase, or bookshelf, is a piece of furniture with horizontal shelves, often in a cabinet, used to store books or other printed materials. Bookcases are used in homes and university libraries and bookstores. Bookcases range from small, low models the height of a table to high models reaching up to ceiling height, shelves may be fixed or adjustable to different positions in the case. In rooms entirely devoted to the storage of books, such as libraries, a bookcase may be fitted with glass doors that can be closed to protect the books from dust or moisture. Bookcase doors are almost always glazed with glass, so as to allow the spines of the books to be read, especially valuable rare books may be kept in locked cases with wooden or glazed doors. A small bookshelf may stand on some other piece of such as a desk or chest. Larger books are more likely to be kept in horizontal piles, in Latin and Greek the idea of bookcase is represented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothēkē, derivatives of which mean library in many modern languages. A bookcase is known as a bookshelf, a bookstand, a cupboard, in a library, large bookshelves are called stacks.
Revolving bookcases, known as zhuanluntang, have been documented in imperial China, descriptions of revolving bookcases have been found in 8th- and 9th-century Chinese texts. Revolving bookcases were popularized in Buddhist monasteries during the Song Dynasty under the reign of Emperor Taizu, an illustration of a revolving bookcase is depicted in Li Jies architectural treatise the Yingzao Fashi. When books were written by hand and were not produced in great quantities, as manuscript volumes accumulated in religious houses or in homes of the wealthy, they were stored on shelves or in cupboards. These cupboards are the predecessors of todays bookcases, the doors were removed, and the evolution of the bookcase proceeded. Even then, the volumes were not arranged in the modern fashion and they were either placed in piles upon their sides, or if upright, were ranged with their backs to the wall and their edges outwards. The band of leather, vellum or parchment which closed the book was used for the inscription of the title.
Titles were commonly written onto the fore-edge, early bookcases were usually of oak, which is still deemed by some to be the most appropriate wood for an elegant library. Long ranges of book-shelves are somewhat severe in appearance, and many attempts have been made by means of carved cornices and these attempts were most successful as in the hands of the English cabinetmakers of the second half of the eighteenth century. Both Chippendale and Sheraton made or designed many bookcases, mostly glazed with little lozenges encased in fretwork frames, often of great charm, in the eyes of some, the grace of some of Sheratons satinwood bookcases has rarely been equalled. The French cabinetmakers of the period were highly successful with small ornamental cases
A book is a set of written, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of paper, parchment, or other materials, fastened together to hinge at one side, with text and/or images printed in ink. A single sheet within a book is a leaf, and each side of a leaf is a page, a set of text-filled or illustrated pages produced in electronic format for reading on a computer screen, smartphone or e-reader device is known as an electronic book, or e-book. The term books may refer the body of works of literature. In library and information science, a book is called a monograph, to distinguish it from serial periodicals such as magazines, journals, in novels and sometimes other types of books, a book may be divided into several large sections, called books. An avid reader or collector of books or a lover is a bibliophile or colloquially. A shop where books are bought and sold is a bookshop or bookstore, Books are sold in some department stores and newspaper vendors. Books can be borrowed from libraries, google has estimated that as of 2010, approximately 130,000,000 distinct titles had been published.
In some wealthier nations, printed books are giving way to the usage of electronic or e-books, the word book comes from Old English bōc, which in turn comes from the Germanic root *bōk-, cognate to beech. Similarly, in Slavic languages буква is cognate with beech, in Russian and in Serbian and Macedonian, the word букварь or буквар refers specifically to a primary school textbook that helps young children master the techniques of reading and writing. It is thus conjectured that the earliest Indo-European writings may have been carved on beech wood, the Latin word codex, meaning a book in the modern sense, originally meant block of wood. When writing systems were created in ancient civilizations, a variety of objects, such as stone, tree bark, metal sheets, the study of such inscriptions forms a major part of history. The study of inscriptions is known as epigraphy, the Ancient Egyptians would often write on papyrus, a plant grown along the Nile River. At first the words were not separated from other and there was no punctuation.
Texts were written right to left, left to right. The technical term for that last type of writing is boustrophedon, a tablet might be defined as a physically robust writing medium, suitable for casual transport and writing. See stylus, the instrument used to write on a tablet, clay tablets were flattened and mostly dry pieces of clay that could be easily carried, and impressed with a stylus. They were used as a medium, especially for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age. Tablets were used by traders to record sales of such as bushels of grain
Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template. The earliest examples include Cylinder seals and other such as the Cyrus Cylinder. The earliest known form of printing came from China dating to before 220 A. D. Later developments in printing include the type, first developed by Bi Sheng in China around 1040 AD. Johannes Gutenberg introduced mechanical movable type printing to Europe in the 15th century, modern large-scale printing is typically done using a printing press, while small-scale printing is done free-form with a digital printer. Though paper is the most common material, it is frequently done on metals, cloth. On paper it is carried out as a large-scale industrial process and is an essential part of publishing. Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns that was used widely throughout East Asia and it originated in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and on paper. As a method of printing on cloth, the earliest surviving examples from China date to before 220 A.
D, the earliest surviving woodblock printed fragments are from China. They are of silk printed with flowers in three colours from the Han Dynasty and they are the earliest example of woodblock printing on paper appeared in the mid-seventh century in China. By the ninth century, printing on paper had taken off, by the tenth century,400,000 copies of some sutras and pictures were printed, and the Confucian classics were in print. A skilled printer could print up to 2,000 double-page sheets per day, Printing spread early to Korea and Japan, which used Chinese logograms, but the technique was used in Turpan and Vietnam using a number of other scripts. This technique spread to Persia and Russia and this technique was transmitted to Europe via the Islamic world, and by around 1400 was being used on paper for old master prints and playing cards. However, Arabs never used this to print the Quran because of the limits imposed by Islamic doctrine, block printing, called tarsh in Arabic developed in Arabic Egypt during the ninth-tenth centuries, mostly for prayers and amulets.
There is some evidence to suggest that these print blocks made from non-wood materials, possibly tin, the techniques employed are uncertain and they appear to have had very little influence outside of the Muslim world. Though Europe adopted woodblock printing from the Muslim world, initially for fabric, block printing went out of use in Islamic Central Asia after movable type printing was introduced from China. Block printing first came to Europe as a method for printing on cloth, images printed on cloth for religious purposes could be quite large and elaborate. When paper became relatively easily available, around 1400, the medium transferred very quickly to small religious images
The dust jacket of a book is the detachable outer cover, usually made of paper and printed with text and illustrations. This outer cover has folded flaps that hold it to the front, in addition to its promotional role, the dust jacket protects the book covers from damage. At this date, publishers did not have their books bound in uniform house bindings, at the end of the 18th century publishers began to issue books in plain paper-covered boards, sometimes with a printed spine-label, this form of binding was intended to be temporary. Some collections of prints were issued at this period in printed paper wrappings. These small boxes are sometimes loosely and erroneously referred to as the first dust jackets. True publishers bindings in cloth and leather, in all, or a substantial part of. After publishers cloth bindings started coming into use on all types of books in the 1820s. The earliest known examples were issued on English literary annuals which were popular from the 1820s to the 1850s and these books often had fancy bindings that needed protection.
The jackets that were used at this time completely enclosed the books like wrapping paper and were sealed shut with wax or glue, the oldest publishers dust jacket now on record was issued in 1829 on an English annual, Friendships Offering for 1830. It was discovered at the Bodleian Library in Oxford by Michael Turner and its existence was announced by Oxford in 2009. It is three years older than the previous oldest known jacket, which was discovered in 1934 by the English bookman John Carter on another English annual, both jackets are of the type that completely enclosed the books. This is the jacket that became standard in the industry and is still in use today. There are, enough surviving examples from the 1890s to state unequivocally that dust jackets were all and they were probably issued more often than not by the 1860s and 1870s in Europe, Great Britain, and the United States. Throughout the nineteenth century, nearly all dust jackets were discarded at or soon after purchase. Many were probably discarded in bookstores as the books were put out for display, or when they were sold, even late in the nineteenth century there were still some publishers who were not using dust jackets at all.
Some firms, such as subscription houses which sold millions of cheap books door-to-door, cloth dust jackets became popular late in the nineteenth century. These jackets, with the outer cloth usually reinforced with an underlayer of paper, were issued mostly on ornate gift editions, other types of publishers boxes were popular in the second half of the nineteenth century, including many made to hold multi-volume sets of books. The jackets on boxed volumes were often plain, sometimes with cutouts on the spine to allow the title or volume numbers of the books to be seen
An author is narrowly defined as the originator of any written work and can thus be described as a writer. More broadly defined, an author is the person who originated or gave existence to anything, in the copyright laws of various jurisdictions, there is a necessity for little flexibility regarding what constitutes authorship. The United States Copyright Office, for example, defines copyright as a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States to authors of works of authorship. After a fixed amount of time, the copyright expires on intellectual work and it enters the public domain, copyright is merely the legal reassurance that one owns his/her work. Technically, someone owns their work from the time its created, an interesting aspect of authorship emerges with copyright in that, in many jurisdictions, it can be passed down to another upon ones death. The person who inherits the copyright is not the author, questions arise as to the application of copyright law. How does it, for example, apply to the issue of fan fiction.
If the media responsible for the authorized production allows material from fans, what is the limit before legal constraints from actors, music. Additionally, how does copyright apply to fan-generated stories for books, what powers do the original authors, as well as the publishers, have in regulating or even stopping the fan fiction. In literary theory, critics find complications in the term author beyond what constitutes authorship in a legal setting, in the wake of postmodern literature, critics such as Roland Barthes and Michel Foucault have examined the role and relevance of authorship to the meaning or interpretation of a text. Barthes challenges the idea that a text can be attributed to any single author and he writes, in his essay Death of the Author, that it is language which speaks, not the author. The words and language of a text itself determine and expose meaning for Barthes, with this, the perspective of the author is removed from the text, and the limits formerly imposed by the idea of one authorial voice, one ultimate and universal meaning, are destroyed.
The psyche, fanaticism of an author can be disregarded when interpreting a text, because the words are rich enough themselves with all of the traditions of language. To expose meanings in a work without appealing to the celebrity of an author, their tastes, vices, is, to Barthes, to allow language to speak. Michel Foucault argues in his essay What is an author and that all authors are writers, but not all writers are authors. He states that a letter may have a signatory—it does not have an author. For a reader to assign the title of author upon any written work is to certain standards upon the text which. Foucaults author function is the idea that an author exists only as a function of a work, a part of its structure
Editing is the process of selecting and preparing written, visual and film media used to convey information. The editing process can involve correction, condensation and many other modifications performed with an intention of producing a correct, consistent and complete work. The editing process begins with the authors idea for the work itself. As such, editing can involve creative skills, human relations, there are various editorial positions in publishing. Typically, one finds editorial assistants reporting to the editorial staff. Senior executive editors are responsible for developing a product for its final release, the smaller the publication, the more these roles overlap. The top editor at many publications may be known as the chief editor, a frequent and highly regarded contributor to a magazine may acquire the title of editor-at-large or contributing editor. Mid-level newspaper editors often manage or help to manage sections, such as business, sports, in U. S. newspapers, the level below the top editor is usually the managing editor.
Obtaining manuscripts or recruiting authors is the role of an editor or a commissioning editor in a publishing house. Finding marketable ideas and presenting them to appropriate authors are the responsibilities of a sponsoring editor, copy editors correct spelling and align writings to house style. Changes to the industry since the 1980s have resulted in nearly all copy editing of book manuscripts being outsourced to freelance copy editors. At newspapers and wire services, copy editors write headlines and work on substantive issues, such as ensuring accuracy, fairness. In some positions, they design pages and select news stories for inclusion, at U. K. and Australian newspapers, the term is sub-editor. They may choose the layout of the publication and communicate with the printer and these editors may have the title of layout or design editor or makeup editor. However, another editor is sometimes involved in the creation of research articles. Called the authors editor, this works with authors to get a manuscript fit for purpose before it is submitted to a scholarly journal for publication.
The primary difference between copy editing scholarly books and journals and other sorts of copy editing lies in applying the standards of the publisher to the copy. K, technical editing involves reviewing text written on a technical topic, identifying usage errors and ensuring adherence to a style guide. Large companies dedicate experienced writers to the editing function
Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information—the activity of making information available to the general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning originators and developers of content provide media to deliver, the word publisher can refer to the individual who leads a publishing company or an imprint or to a person who owns/heads a magazine. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books, Publishing includes the following stages of development, copy editing, production and marketing and distribution. There are two categories of book publisher, Non-paid publishers, A non-paid publisher is a house that does not charge authors at all to publish their books. Paid publishers, The author has to meet with the expense to get the book published. This is known as vanity publishing, at a small press, it is possible to survive by relying entirely on commissioned material. But as activity increases, the need for works may outstrip the publishers established circle of writers, for works written independently of the publisher, writers often first submit a query letter or proposal directly to a literary agent or to a publisher.
Submissions sent directly to a publisher are referred to as unsolicited submissions, the acquisitions editors send their choices to the editorial staff. Unsolicited submissions have a low rate of acceptance, with some sources estimating that publishers ultimately choose about three out of every ten thousand unsolicited manuscripts they receive. Many book publishers around the world maintain a strict no unsolicited submissions policy and this policy shifts the burden of assessing and developing writers out of the publisher and onto the literary agents. At these publishers, unsolicited manuscripts are thrown out, or sometimes returned, established authors may be represented by a literary agent to market their work to publishers and negotiate contracts. Literary agents take a percentage of earnings to pay for their services. Some writers follow a route to publication. Such books often employ the services of a ghostwriter, for a submission to reach publication, it must be championed by an editor or publisher who must work to convince other staff of the need to publish a particular title.
An editor who discovers or champions a book that becomes a best-seller may find their reputation enhanced as a result of their success. Once a work is accepted, commissioning editors negotiate the purchase of property rights. The authors of traditional printed materials typically sell exclusive territorial intellectual property rights that match the list of countries in which distribution is proposed. In the case of books, the publisher and writer must agree on the formats of publication —mass-market paperback
Islington is a district in Greater London and part of the London Borough of Islington. Islington grew as a sprawling Middlesex village along the line of the Great North Road and this gave rise to some confusion, as neighbouring districts may be said to be in Islington. This district is bounded by Liverpool Road to the west and City Road and its northernmost point is in the area of Canonbury. The main north-south high street, Upper Street splits at Highbury Corner to Holloway Road to the west, Islington was originally named by the Saxons Giseldone, Gislandune. The name means Gīslas hill from the Old English personal name Gīsla, the name mutated to Isledon, which remained in use well into the 17th century when the modern form arose. In medieval times, Islington was just one of many small manors thereabouts, along with Bernersbury, some roads on the edge of the area, including Essex Road, were known as streets by the medieval period, possibly indicating a Roman origin, but little physical evidence remains.
What is known is that the Great North Road from Aldersgate came into use in the 14th century and this was along the line of modern Upper Street, with a toll gate at The Angel defining the extent of the village. The Back Road, the modern Liverpool Road, was primarily a road where cattle would be rested before the final leg of their journey to Smithfield. Pens and sheds were erected along this road to accommodate the animals, the first recorded church, St Marys, was erected in the twelfth century and was replaced in the fifteenth century. Islington lay on the estates of the Bishop of London and the Dean, there were substantial medieval moated manor houses in the area, principally at Canonbury and Highbury. In 1548, there were 440 communicants listed and the atmosphere, with access to the City and Westminster, made it a popular residence for the rich. The local inns, harboured many fugitives and recusants, the Royal Agricultural Hall was built in 1862 on the Liverpool Road site of William Dixons Cattle Layers.
The hall was 75 ft high and the glass roof spanned 125 ft. It was built for the annual Smithfield Show in December of that year but was popular for other purposes, including recitals and it was the primary exhibition site for London until the 20th century and the largest building of its kind, holding up to 50,000 people. It was requisitioned for use by the Mount Pleasant sorting office during World War II, the main hall has now been incorporated into the Business Design Centre. The hill on which Islington stands has long supplied the City of London with water and these included Sadlers Wells, London Spa and Clerkenwell. The river was opened on 29 September 1613 by Sir Hugh Myddelton and his statue still stands where Upper Street meets Essex Road. The course of the river ran to the east of Upper Street, the Regents Canal passes through Islington