Old Man with a Gold Chain
Old Man with a Gold Chain is a portrait by Rembrandt, painted around 1631 and now in the Art Institute of Chicago. This painting was documented by Hofstede de Groot in 1915. HARMEN GERRITSZ VAN RIJN. Half-length, without hands, he is inclined to the left. He wears a dark purple cloak, over. Round his neck is a small close-fitting steel gorget. In his right ear is a pearl, he has a short greyish beard, curly hair covered by a broad-brimmed black hat with two dark ostrich feathers. Painted about 1631. Signed on the left at foot with the monogram "R H L". There are copies: Bode 217. 29. Mentioned by Moes, No. 6687, ii. Sale. Beresford Hope, May 1886. In the possession of C. Sedelmeyer, Paris, "Catalogue of 300 Paintings," 1898, No. 111. In the collection of W. H. Beers, New York. In the collection of S. Neumann, London. Sale. Martineau and others, March 10, 1902. Panel, 23 1/2 inches by 19 inches. Sale. Causid-Brück of Cassel, Frankfort-on-Main, February 10, 1914, No. 25. Exhibited at Düsseldorf, 1912, No. 43. Sale.
M. P. W. Boulton, December 9, 1911, No. 14. In the possession of P. and D. Colnaghi and Obach, London. In the possession of Julius Böhler, Munich. Sale. Marczell von Nemes of Budapest, June 17, 1913, No. 60. In the possession of Julius Böhler, Munich. In the possession of Reinhardt, New York. In a private collection, Chicago." Halffiguur van een man met halsberg en gevederde baret, ca. 1631 in the RKD Artic.edu: Old Man with a Gold Chain Artic.edu: Renaissance exhibitions
The Flight into Egypt (Rembrandt)
The Flight into Egypt is a 1627 oil painting on panel by Rembrandt, now in the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Tours, which depicts the Flight into Egypt by Joseph and Jesus. Museum page
The Abduction of Europa (Rembrandt)
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn's The Abduction of Europa is one of his rare mythological subject paintings. The piece is oil on canvas and now located in the J. Paul Getty Museum; the inspiration for the painting is Ovid's Metamorphoses, part of which tells the tale of Zeus's seduction and capture of Europa. The painting shows a coastal scene with Europa being carried away in rough waters by a bull while her friends remain on shore with expressions of horror. Rembrandt combined his knowledge of classical literature with the interests of the patron in order to create this allegorical work; the use of an ancient myth to impart a contemporary thought and his portrayal of the scene using the High Baroque style are two strong aspects of the work. The Abduction of Europa is Rembrandt's reinterpretation of the story, placed in a more contemporary setting. Rembrandtdeveloped an interest in the classical world early in his life while in Amsterdam, a growing business-oriented center, where he found work with great success.
During this time, the international High Baroque style was popular. Rembrandt did not complete many mythological subject paintings. Out of three hundred sixty completed works, five displayed tales from the Metamorphoses, five depicted goddesses, a Carthaginian queen, all of which only five represented myth subjects. Rembrandt used these mythological paintings as allegory, applying the tale to some Christian theme or a moral tradition. Jacques Specx, of the Dutch East India Company, commissioned Rembrandt to complete The Abduction of Europa. Specx had established a trading center in Japan in 1609, served as the Governor of Batavia, returned to Holland in 1633; the painting was in Specx's possession, along with five other portrait pieces, which Rembrandt was popularly known for completing. The subject and its allegorical meaning can be attributed to the patron, the artist, a Belgian art biographer, Karel van Mander, whose theories entertained Rembdrant. Van Mander's book Het schilder-boeck released a second edition in 1618.
The book included details about many Netherlands painters. Rembrandt would have read this book, both because of its importance and its location, familiarized himself with van Mander's theories and interpretations of Ovid's myths. Van Mander commented with a European spin to it. Ovid's account of the abduction of Europa is found in Book II 833-75 of Metamorphoses. Europa is a princess of Tyre, playing with her court on the coast when a beautiful bull appears. Europa mounts the bull, which whisks her away into the ocean; when Europa and her friends notice the bull retreating further into the sea without coming back, the bull transforms into Zeus and carries her to Mount Olympus on the island of Crete. Rembrandt's painting is set just as Europa is whisked away, as seen by the bull and young lady in the ocean in the painting. Art historians, like Mariët Westermann and Gary Schwartz interpret the painting as a reference to Specx' career; the painting includes details from Ovid's story that strengthen the location of the tale as well as tie it to Specx' life.
The African driver and non-European coach in the shadows to the right allude to the exotic Phoenician coast. There is a port in a reference to the busy port of the Tyre. Karel van Mander looked for an applicable meaning to the work that constructed a moral concept to the classical literature, he quoted an unnamed ancient source that stated that the abducted princess was representative of "the human soul, borne by the body through the troubled sea of this world". Van Mander theorized that the bull, Zeus in the classical tale, is the name of a ship that bore Europa from her eastern home of Tyre to the western continent that adopts her name; the literary comments of van Mander are essential to deconstructing the allegorical subject of Europa. In the story, Zeus whisks Europa away to Crete. In van Mander's interpretation, she is moved by ship to Crete. Just as Specx's career was to move treasures of Asia to Europe by ship, so too is Europa moved from her Eastern home to Europe. Rembrandt's familiarity with the literary and classical nature of the story is evident by the bull as both god and ship, the harbor installation in the background.
The harbor is representative of the busy trading ports in both Europe. The portrayal of Tyre, seems modern with the inclusion of a crane, a tool which did not exist in the first century when Ovid was alive; this detail strengthens the parallel between Tyre and the Dutch ports, as Rembrandt attempts to connect the story to Specx's livelihood. The relationship alludes to Europa's impending new destination, where she will give Europe her name. Most scholars agree that this narrative was chosen by Rembrandt to reinterpret and mirror Specx's career. Artistically, The Abduction of Europa reflects the attitudes and interests of Rembrandt and other Dutch painters during the early to mid seventeenth century; the work embodies the international High Baroque with dramatic lighting coming from the left and the high drama in the moment of abduction. This style was popular in Leiden, his birth town; the High Baroque was present in the Ruben's work that Rembrandt studied. The idyllic shore and the detailed reflections in the water show the growing interest in naturalism in art.
Naturalism plays a strong part in other aspects of the piece. Rembrandt contrasts the dark trees against the light pinks skies. Rembrandt uses light to further dramatize the piece, as seen by the glittering of gold on the dresses and carriages; the depiction of Europa on the bull combines the
Pieter Lastman was a Dutch painter. Lastman is considered important because of his work as a painter of history pieces and because his pupils included Rembrandt and Jan Lievens. In his paintings Lastman paid careful attention to the faces and feet. Pieter Lastman was born in Amsterdam, the son of a town-beadle, dismissed in 1578 for being a Catholic, his mother was an appraiser of goods. His apprenticeship was with the brother of Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck. Between 1604 and 1607 Lastman was in Italy, where he was influenced by Caravaggio and by Adam Elsheimer. Back in Amsterdam he moved in with his mother in the Sint Antoniesbreestraat, living next to mayor Geurt van Beuningen. Lastman never married; because of his health Lastman moved in with his brother in 1632. He died the next year and was buried in the Oude Kerk on 4 April 1633; because Rembrandt never visited Italy, it is that he was influenced by Caravaggio or via Lastman. His pupils besides Rembrandt and Lievens were Bartholomeus Breenbergh, Nicolaes Lastman, Pieter Pieterz Nedek and Jan Albertsz Rotius.
^ Murray, P. & L.. Penguin Dictionary of Art and Artists, p. 287, 436–438. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-051300-0. Artcyclopedia on Pieter Lastman The Rijksmuseum on Pieter Lastman Works and literature on Pieter Lastman at PubHist Works at WGA Dutch and Flemish paintings from the Hermitage, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Lastman
Portrait of a Man, probably a Member of the Van Beresteyn Family
Portrait of a Man a member of the Beresteyn family is a 1632 portrait painting by Rembrandt. It shows a man with a lace collar au confusion, a new fashion in the 1630s replacing older-styled millstone collars, it is pendant to Portrait of a Woman a Member of the Van Beresteyn Family, both are in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Rembrandt created this painting as a pendant to the MET's portrait of a man as a wedding pendant. Only a few pairs of pendant portraits by Rembrandt have survived; this pair came into the collection via the Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer bequest in 1929; this painting was documented by Hofstede de Groot in 1914. A MAN OF THE VAN BERESTEYN -VUCHT FAMILY. Dut. 248. 82. Three-quarter length. About fifty, he stands, inclined a little to the right, looks straight before him. He is bare-headed, he lays his right hand on his breast. He wears a silk coat, striped grey and black, under a black cloak, a close-fitting pleated collar trimmed with lace, narrow cuffs. Bright light falls from the left at top.
Dark grey background, illumined to the right. The picture has suffered from heavy pressure in its transference to a new canvas. Nothing is known as to the identity of the sitter, he may just as well have belonged to some family related through a female line as to the Beresteyn family proper. Signed on the right in a line with the elbow, "RH L van Ryn 1632 ". Mentioned by Dutuit, p. 53. In the collection of the Beresteyn family, Chateau Maurik, Vucht, 1884. In the collection of the late H. O. Havemeyer, New York."The painting was included in most Rembrandt catalogs of the 20th-century along with its pendant, Portrait of a Woman a Member of the Van Beresteyn Family, disputed as autograph. The pendant is, still connected with Rembrandt's workshop and time period and is still considered a pendant to this painting. Despite numerous attempts, the provenance does not reach further back than the Havemeyer purchase from Chateau Maurik, as Hofstede de Groot states, the pendants could just as have descended in the female line as the male line, therefore the portrayed couple might not be related to the Beresteyn family at all.
Cat. no. 143 in Dutch Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art Volume I, by Walter Liedtke, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2007 Portrait of a Man, 1632 gedateerd in the RKD Portrait of a Man, in the Rembrandt Research Project
Los Angeles County Museum of Art
The Los Angeles County Museum of Art is an art museum located on Wilshire Boulevard in the Miracle Mile vicinity of Los Angeles. LACMA is on Museum Row, adjacent to the La Brea Tar Pits. LACMA is the largest art museum in the western United States, it attracts nearly a million visitors annually. It holds more than 150,000 works spanning the history of art from ancient times to the present. In addition to art exhibits, the museum features concert series; the Los Angeles County Museum of Art was established as a museum in 1961. Prior to this, LACMA was part of the Los Angeles Museum of History and Art, founded in 1910 in Exposition Park near the University of Southern California. Howard F. Ahmanson, Sr. Anna Bing Arnold and Bart Lytton were the first principal patrons of the museum. Ahmanson made the lead donation of $2 million, convincing the museum board that sufficient funds could be raised to establish the new museum. In 1965 the museum moved to a new Wilshire Boulevard complex as an independent, art-focused institution, the largest new museum to be built in the United States after the National Gallery of Art.
The museum, built in a style similar to Lincoln Center and the Los Angeles Music Center, consisted of three buildings: the Ahmanson Building, the Bing Center, the Lytton Gallery. The board selected LA architect William Pereira over the directors' recommendation of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe for the buildings. According to a 1965 Los Angeles Times story, the total cost of the three buildings was $11.5 million. Construction began in 1963, was undertaken by the Del E. Webb Corporation. Construction was completed in early 1965. At the time, the Los Angeles Music Center and LACMA were concurrent large civic projects which vied for attention and donors in Los Angeles; when the museum opened, the buildings were surrounded by reflecting pools, but they were filled in and covered over when tar from the adjacent La Brea Tar Pits began seeping in. Money poured into LACMA during the boom years of the 1980s, a $209 million in private donations during director Earl Powell's tenure. To house its growing collections of modern and contemporary art and to provide more space for exhibitions, the museum hired the architectural firm of Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer Associates to design its $35.3-million, 115,000-square-foot Robert O. Anderson Building for 20th-century art, which opened in 1986.
In the far-reaching expansion, museum-goers henceforth entered through the new roofed central court, nearly an acre of space bounded by the museum's four buildings. The museum's Pavilion for Japanese Art, designed by maverick architect Bruce Goff, opened in 1988, as did the B. Gerald Cantor Sculpture Garden of Rodin bronzes. In 1999, the Hancock Park Improvement Project was complete, the LACMA-adjacent park was inaugurated with a free public celebration; the $10-million renovation replaced dead trees and bare earth with picnic facilities, viewing sites for the La Brea tar pits and a 150-seat red granite amphitheater designed by artist Jackie Ferrara. In 1994, LACMA purchased the adjacent former May Company department store building, an impressive example of streamline moderne architecture designed by Albert C. Martin Sr. LACMA West increased the museum's size by 30 percent when the building opened in 1998. In 2004 LACMA's Board of Trustees unanimously approved a plan for LACMA's transformation by architect Rem Koolhaas, who had proposed razing all the current buildings and constructing an new single, tent-topped structure, estimated to cost $200 million to $300 million.
Kohlhaas edged out French architect Jean Nouvel, who would have added a major building while renovating the older facilities. The list of candidates had narrowed to five in May 2001: Koolhaas, Steven Holl, Daniel Libeskind and Thom Mayne. However, the project soon stalled. In 2004 LACMA's Board of Trustees unanimously approved plans to transform the museum, led by architect Renzo Piano; the planned transformation consisted of three phases. Phase I started in 2004 and was completed in February 2008; the renovations required demolishing the parking structure on Ogden Avenue and with it LACMA-commissioned graffiti art by street artists Margaret Kilgallen and Barry McGee. The entry pavilion is a key point in architect Renzo Piano's plan to unify LACMA's sprawling confusing layout of buildings; the BP Grand Entrance and the adjacent Broad Contemporary Art Museum comprise the $191 million first phase of the three-part expansion and renovation campaign. BCAM is named for Edy Broad, who gave $60 million to LACMA's campaign.
BCAM opened on February 2008, adding 58,000 square feet of exhibition space to the museum. In 2010 the Lynda and Stewart Resnick Exhibition Pavilion opened to the public, providing the largest purpose-built lit, open-plan museum space in the world; the second phase was intended to turn the May building into new offices and galleries, designed by SPF Architects. As proposed, it would have had flexible gallery space, education space, administrative offices, a new restaurant, a gift shop and a bookstore, as well as study centers for the museum's departments of costume and textiles and prints and drawings, a roof sculpture garden with two works by James Turrell. However, construction of this phase was halted in November 2010. Phase two and three were never completed. In October 2011, LACMA entered into an agreement with the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences under which the Academ
Suffer little children to come unto me
Suffer little children to come unto me or Let the Little Children Come to Me, is a painting attributed to the Dutch painter Rembrandt. The subject of the portrait is the teaching of Jesus about little children and it is estimated that Rembrandt painted it in Leiden in the 1620s; the painting was discovered by Dutch art dealer Jan Six. He is a direct descendant of Jan Six, a 17th-century burgher who sat for one of Rembrandt’s most important paintings, Portrait of Jan Six, he asked an invester to buy it at Lempertz auction for €1,525,000. Six reattributed another painting to Rembrandt, Portrait of a Young Gentleman. Let the Little Children Come to Me, which Six discovered in 2016, is dated to the 1620s and grouped under the growing list of paintings in Rembrandt's oeuvre known as his "juvenalia", it was kept secret pending investigation and restoration and was meant to be announced and introduced to the public at the opening of a Rembrandt exhibition at the Museum De Lakenhal in Leiden, scheduled to open 1 November 2019, but rumors prevented insiders from keeping it secret.
The painting had been known and rejected by experts, though all were in agreement as to the large amount of overpainting and it was during removal of this overpaint that convincing details were revealed such as the color purple used for clothing. The subject and arrangement of figures was inspired by a 1619 work by Pieter Lastman and formed the inspiration for another work attributed to Rembrandt and now listed as circa 1652 by his pupil Nicolaes Maes: The painting includes a selfportrait of the young Rembrandt, a portrait of his mother, other motifs known through his history paintings: Other history paintings by Rembrandt from the 1620s show a man in shadow wearing a turban in profile: Lot 1174, 17 May 2014, Lempertz