Major is a military rank of commissioned officer status, with corresponding ranks existing in many military forces throughout the world. When used unhyphenated, in conjunction with no other indicators, major is one rank senior to that of an army captain and it is considered the most junior of the field officer ranks. Majors are typically assigned as specialised executive or operations officers for battalion-sized units of 300 to 1,200 soldiers, in some militaries, notably France and Ireland, the rank of major is referred to as commandant, while in others it is known as captain-major. The rank of major is used in some police forces and other paramilitary rank structures, such as the Pennsylvania State Police, New York State Police, New Jersey State Police. As a police rank, major roughly corresponds to the UK rank of superintendent, the term major can be used with a hyphen to denote the leader of a military band such as in pipe-major or drum-major. Historically, the rank designation develops in English in the 1640s, taken from French majeur, in turn a shortening of sergent-majeur, which at the time designated a higher rank than at present
The Victoria Cross is the highest award of the United Kingdom honours system. It is awarded for gallantry in the face of the enemy to members of the British armed forces and it was previously awarded to Commonwealth countries, most of which have established their own honours systems and no longer recommend British honours. It may be awarded to a person of any rank in any service. Since the first awards were presented by Queen Victoria in 1857 and these investitures are usually held at Buckingham Palace. The VC was introduced on 29 January 1856 by Queen Victoria to honour acts of valour during the Crimean War, since then, the medal has been awarded 1,358 times to 1,355 individual recipients. Only 15 medals,11 to members of the British Army, the traditional explanation of the source of the metal from which the medals are struck is that it derives from Russian cannon captured at the Siege of Sevastopol. Some research has suggested a variety of origins for the material, research has established that the metal for most of the medals made since December 1914 came from two Chinese cannons that were captured from the Russians in 1855.
Owing to its rarity, the VC is highly prized and the medal has fetched over £400,000 at auction, a number of public and private collections are devoted to the Victoria Cross. The private collection of Lord Ashcroft, amassed since 1986, contains over one-tenth of all VCs awarded, following a 2008 donation to the Imperial War Museum, the Ashcroft collection went on public display alongside the museums Victoria and George Cross collection in November 2010. These are unique awards of honours system, assessed and presented by each country. In 1854, after 39 years of peace, Britain found itself fighting a war against Russia. The Crimean War was one of the first wars with modern reporting, before the Crimean War, there was no official standardised system for recognition of gallantry within the British armed forces. This structure was limited, in practice awards of the Order of the Bath were confined to officers of field rank. Brevet promotions or Mentions in Despatches were largely confined to those who were under the notice of the commanders in the field.
Other European countries had awards that did not discriminate against class or rank, France awarded the Légion dhonneur and The Netherlands gave the Order of William. There was a feeling among the public and in the Royal Court that a new award was needed to recognise incidents of gallantry that were unconnected with a mans lengthy or meritorious service. Queen Victoria issued a Warrant under the Royal sign-manual on 29 January 1856 that officially constituted the VC, the order was backdated to 1854 to recognise acts of valour during the Crimean War. Queen Victoria had instructed the War Office to strike a new medal that would not recognise birth or class, the medal was meant to be a simple decoration that would be highly prized and eagerly sought after by those in the military services
Lena Headey is an English actress, voice actress and film producer. In 2017, Headey became one of the highest paid actors on television and she is known for playing the title character Sarah Connor on Foxs Terminator, The Sarah Connor Chronicles and the villainous drug lord Madeline Ma-Ma Madrigal in Dredd. Headey was born in Hamilton, the daughter of Sue and her father, a Yorkshire police officer, was stationed there at the time. She has one brother, Tim. The family moved to Somerset when she was five, and to Shelley, West Yorkshire, as a child, she took ballet lessons, before being told to stop. At the age of 17, Headey performed in a show and afterwards a casting agent took a photo. Later, she got a role in the drama Waterland. She landed a role in The Remains of the Day. She played Katherine in Disneys The Jungle Book, released in 1994, the film had positive reviews and earned nearly $44 million in the United States. Headey, alongside her co-stars received favourable reviews with James Berardinelli praising their solid performances, on the set of The Jungle Book, she met her boyfriend of nine years, actor Jason Flemyng.
After a number of roles, she appeared opposite Vanessa Redgrave in the 1997 romantic drama Mrs Dalloway. Headey landed a role in a higher-profile film titled Onegin. The following year, she had the role in the drama Aberdeen. Headey received several good reviews for her performance in the film and she had roles in 2000s Gossip and 2001s The Parole Officer. She received the Silver Iris Award for Best Actress at the 2001 Brussels European Film Festival for her role in Aberdeen, in 2002, she had a role in the mystery drama Possession alongside Gwyneth Paltrow and Aaron Eckhart. Headey co-starred with Matt Damon and Heath Ledger in Terry Gilliams The Brothers Grimm, in an interview Headey spoke about her character in the film, I loved the fact that she was a tomboy. That is what attracted me to her, that she wasnt this predictable female character in this big film and you meet her and she is masking who she is. I loved that her environment dictated who she is and she lives and grows up and survives in the forest
Lothar von Richthofen
Lothar-Siegfried Freiherr von Richthofen was a German First World War fighter ace credited with 40 victories. He was a brother of top-scoring ace Manfred von Richthofen. Following the war he worked for a while on a farm before taking an industrial position and he married in June 1919 and had two children. Yearning for aviation he accepted a position as a pilot, conveying passengers and he died on 4 July 1922 in a flying accident at Fuhlsbuettel, he was aged 27. Lothar von Richthofen was born on 27 September 1894 and he and his brothers and Bolko, hunted wild boar, elk and deer. Like his brother Manfred, Lothar began the war as an officer with the 4th Dragoon Regiment. He had remained in the public Gymnasium, he was enrolled in military training at the Kriegsschule in Danzig when war began. On his own initiative Lothar returned to his unit, Lothar was nearly cut down by sniper fire while on patrol. In mid-October 1914, while stationed at Attigny, he was awarded the Iron Cross 2nd Class for valour and it was the only consolation that Lothar received during his cavalry service.
The following month, his regiment was transferred to the Eastern Front, in February 1916 Manfred rescued his brother Lothar from the boredom of training new troops in Luben and encouraged him to transfer to the Fliegertruppe. Richthofen joined the German Army Air Service in late 1915 and he served from January 1916 as an observer with Jasta 23, sometimes observing for Otto Creutzmann and saw action during the Battle of Verdun. He won the Iron Cross 1st Class in December and training as a pilot. His first posting as a pilot was to his brothers Jasta 11 on 6 March 1917, an impulsive and aggressive pilot, unlike his coolly calculating brother Manfred, Lothars first victory claim followed on 28 March for an FE 2b of No.25 Squadron, Royal Flying Corps. The German high command appreciated the value of two Richthofens fighting together to defeat the enemy in the air. Taking part in the period of German dominance called Bloody April by the British, when his brother went on leave, Lothar von Richthofen assumed command of the squadron.
During the first week of May 1917, Lothar von Richthofen scored three more victories, in a running battle in deteriorating visibility in the middle of a thunderstorm over Bourlon Wood, both sides became scattered. Richthofen engaged in combat with the British Triplane. At about the time, Ball was seen by fellow 56 Squadron pilot Cyril Crowe chasing a red Albatros into a thundercloud
A biographical film, or biopic, is a film that dramatizes the life of a non-fictional or historically-based person or people. Such films show the life of a person and the central characters real name is used. Because the figures portrayed are actual people, whose actions and characteristics are known to the public, biopic roles are considered some of the most demanding of actors and actresses. Biopic scholars include George F. Custen of the College of Staten Island, Custen, in Bio/Pics, How Hollywood Constructed Public History, regards the genre as having died with the Hollywood studio era, and in particular, Darryl F. Zanuck. On the other hand, Binghams 2010 study Whose Lives Are They Anyway, ellen Cheshires Bio-Pics, a life in pictures examines UK/US films from the 1990s and 2000s. Each chapter reviews key films linked by profession and concludes with further viewing list, christopher Robé has written on the gender norms that underlie the biopic in his article, Taking Hollywood Back in the 2009 issue of Cinema Journal.
The Hurricane is not a documentary but a parable, some biopics purposely stretch the truth. Confessions of a Dangerous Mind was based on game show host Chuck Barris widely debunked yet popular memoir of the same name, Kafka incorporated both the life of author Franz Kafka and the surreal aspects of his fiction. The Errol Flynn film They Died with Their Boots On tells the story of Custer but is highly romanticized, casting can be controversial for biographical films. Casting is often a balance between similarity in looks and ability to portray the characteristics of the person, anthony Hopkins felt that he should not have played Richard Nixon in Nixon because of a lack of resemblance between the two. The casting of John Wayne as Genghis Khan in The Conqueror was objected to because of the American Wayne being cast as the Mongol warlord. Egyptian critics criticized the casting of Louis Gossett, Jr. an African American actor, some objected to the casting of Jennifer Lopez in Selena because she is a New York City native of Puerto Rican descent while Selena was Mexican-American.
Biographical novel Biography in literature List of biographical films
Tilman Valentin Til Schweiger is a German actor and producer. He runs his own company, Barefoot Films, in Berlin. Schweiger was born in Freiburg, West Germany, to two teachers and he grew up in Heuchelheim near Giessen in Hesse, where he went to school. Later he took acting lessons at Der Keller in Cologne and graduated in 1989, schweigers debut as a producer and director came in 1997 with Knockin on Heavens Door. He directed and produced Der Eisbär in 1998, Schweiger won a Bambi Award for Barfuss in 2005, which he wrote and starred in. He won a Bambi for his role in Traumschiff Surprise – Periode 1. In 2007, written and directed by Schweiger, the film won a Bambi, a Bavarian Film Award, the German Comedy Award, two DIVA Awards, a Jupiter Award and the Ernst Lubitsch Award. The sequel, Zweiohrküken, was released the year with over 4.2 million viewers. Schweiger went on to direct and star in 1½ Knights – In Search of the Ravishing Princess Herzelinde, the movie Kokowääh debuted in German cinemas in February 2011.
Schweigers daughter Emma stars beside him, and the movie is directed, co-written. Schweiger and Emma reprised their roles as Henry and Magdalena, respectively, in its sequel, the film was released on 7 February 2013. In 2012 Schweiger made a film alongside his daughter Luna named Schutzengel, Schweiger first appeared as an actor in 1989 in the TV series Lindenstraße. His first film came in 1991 with Manta, Manta. Additional TV and film followed, including Der bewegte Mann, Männerpension, Das Mädchen Rosemarie, Bang Boom Bang, Der große Bagarozy, Was tun, wenns brennt. Lucky Luke, The Red Baron, Wo ist Fred, Phantomschmerz, Männerherzen, Schweiger has appeared as supporting actor in American films, including Already Dead, King Arthur, In Enemy Hands, Tomb Raider, The Cradle of Life, Driven, SLC Punk. Investigating Sex and Max, The Replacement Killers and New Years Eve and his latest big screen appearance was as Hugo Stiglitz in Quentin Tarantinos Inglourious Basterds. He made an appearance in 2014s Muppets Most Wanted, Schweiger married American model Dana Carlsen on 19 June 1995.
They have four children, Valentin Florian Schweiger, Luna Marie Schweiger, Lilli Camille Schweiger and Carlson separated in 2005 and were divorced in 2014
Wilhelm II, German Emperor
Wilhelm II or William II was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. He was the eldest grandchild of the British Queen Victoria and related to many monarchs and his leading generals, Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff, dictated policy during the First World War with little regard for the civilian government. An ineffective war-time leader, he lost the support of the army, abdicated in November 1918, and fled to exile in the Netherlands. Wilhelm was born on 27 January 1859 at the Crown Princes Palace, Berlin to Prince Frederick William of Prussia and his wife, Princess Royal, the eldest daughter of Britains Queen Victoria. At the time of his birth, his great-uncle Frederick William IV was king of Prussia, a traumatic breech birth left him with a withered left arm due to Erbs palsy, which he tried with some success to conceal. His left arm was about 6 inches shorter than his right arm, historians have suggested that this disability affected his emotional development.
In 1863, Wilhelm was taken to England to be present at the wedding of his Uncle Bertie, William attended the ceremony in a Highland costume, complete with a small toy dirk. During the ceremony the four-year-old became restless and his eighteen-year-old uncle Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, charged with keeping an eye on him, told him to be quiet, but Wilhelm drew his dirk and threatened Alfred. When Alfred attempted to subdue him by force, Wilhelm bit him on the leg and his grandmother, Queen Victoria, missed seeing the fracas, to her Wilhelm remained a clever, good little child, the great favourite of my beloved Vicky. His mother, was obsessed with his damaged arm and she blamed herself for the childs handicap and insisted that he become a good rider. The thought that he, as heir to the throne, should not be able to ride was intolerable to her, riding lessons began when Wilhelm was eight and were a matter of endurance for Wilhelm. Over and over, the prince was set on his horse. He fell off time after time but despite his tears was set on its back again, after weeks of this he finally got it right and was able to maintain his balance.
Wilhelm, from six years of age, was tutored and heavily influenced by the 39-year-old teacher Georg Hinzpeter, Hinzpeter, he wrote, was really a good fellow. Whether he was the tutor for me, I dare not decide. The torments inflicted on me, in this riding, must be attributed to my mother. As a teenager he was educated at Kassel at the Friedrichsgymnasium, in January 1877, Wilhelm finished high school and on his eighteenth birthday received as a present from his grandmother, Queen Victoria, the Order of the Garter. After Kassel he spent four terms at the University of Bonn, studying law and he became a member of the exclusive Corps Borussia Bonn
Joseph Alberic Twisleton-Wykeham-Fiennes is an English film and stage actor. Fiennes was born in 1970 in Salisbury, the son of Mark Fiennes, a farmer and photographer, and Jennifer Lash and he has English and Scottish ancestry. His surname comes from the French village of Fiennes, Pas-de-Calais and his grandfathers were industrialist Sir Maurice Fiennes and Brigadier Henry Alleyne Lash. Fiennes is a cousin of Charles, Prince of Wales. His siblings are actor Ralph Fiennes, director Martha Fiennes, composer Magnus Fiennes, film director Sophie Fiennes and his foster brother, Michael Emery, is an archaeologist. His nephew Hero Fiennes-Tiffin played Tom Riddle, young Lord Voldemort in Harry Potter and he attended art school in Suffolk for a year, before joining the Young Vic Youth Theatre. Fiennes subsequently trained for three years at Londons Guildhall School of Music and Drama, graduating in 1993 and his first professional stage appearance was in the West End in The Woman in Black, followed by A Month in the Country opposite Helen Mirren.
Fiennes became a member of the Royal Shakespeare Company for two seasons and he made his television debut as Willy in The Vacillations of Poppy Carew. His first feature film was 1996s Stealing Beauty, co-starring Liv Tyler and he and Paltrow were reunited onscreen in Running with Scissors. In 2001 he appeared in the film Enemy at the Gates, in 2002 he starred in the independent film, Killing Me Softly. In 2003 he lent his voice as Proteus in the DreamWorks animated film Sinbad, the same year he starred in the limited-release film Luther, playing Martin Luther, and he appeared in The Merchant of Venice, in which he portrayed Bassanio. Fiennes returned to the theatre in 2006 to perform in the one-man play Unicorns, in 2006, he appeared in the films The Darwin Awards and Goodbye Bafana. Goodbye Bafana was filmed by director Bille August in South Africa, Fiennes portrayed James Gregory, author of the book Goodbye Bafana, Nelson Mandela, My Prisoner, My Friend. Fiennes starred in the ABC science fiction series FlashForward, which debuted on 24 September 2009 and ran through 27 May 2010, Fiennes stars in Starzs 10-part series, Camelot, as the wizard Merlin.
In the second season of American Horror Story, which premiered in October 2012, Fiennes married María Dolores Diéguez, a Swiss model, in a Roman Catholic ceremony in Tuscany in August 2009. Fiennes was one of the celebrities, including Tom Hiddleston, Jo Brand, E. L. James and Rachel Riley, the cards were auctioned off on eBay during May 2014
War film is a film genre concerned with warfare, typically about naval, air, or land battles, with combat scenes central to the drama. It has been associated with the 20th century. The fateful nature of battle scenes means that war films often end with them, themes explored include combat and escape, the futility and inhumanity of battle, the effects of war on society, and the moral and human issues raised by war. War films are categorized by their milieu, such as the Korean War. The stories told may be fiction, historical drama, or biographical, critics have noted similarities between the Western and the war film. Subgenres, not necessarily distinct, include anti-war, animated, the war film genre is not necessarily tightly defined, the American Film Institute, for example, speaks of films to grapple with the Great War without attempting to classify these. However, some directors and critics have offered at least tentative definitions, the director Sam Fuller defined the genre by saying that a war film’s objective, no matter how personal or emotional, is to make a viewer feel war.
However, Neale notes, films set in the American Civil War or the American Indian Wars of the 19th century were called war films in the time before the First World War, the film scholar Kathryn Kane points out some similarities between the war film genre and the Western. Both genres use opposing concepts like war and peace, james Clarke notes the similarity between a Western like Sam Peckinpahs The Wild Bunch and war-movie escapades like The Dirty Dozen. They take place in the combat zones of World War II, against the established enemies, on the ground. They contain many repeated events, such as mail call, all presented visually with appropriate uniforms and she argues that the combat film is not a subgenre but the only genuine kind of war film. This in turn pushes combat scenes to the ends of war films. Not all critics agree, that war films must be about 20th century wars, the costliest war in U. S. history in terms of American life, this war has been the subject of, or the backdrop to, numerous films and mini-series.
One of the earliest films using the Civil War as its subject was D. W. Griffiths 1910 silent picture, The Fugitive. Some films such as Gettysburg focused on a battle during the war, or even on a single incident, like the French short film. Others like the 1993 miniseries North and South spanned the entire breadth of the war, some films deal with the human aspects of the war, such as The Red Badge of Courage, or Shenandoah, on the tragedy that the war inflicted on the civilian population. Ken Burnss The Civil War is the most watched documentary in the history of PBS, the first war films come from the Spanish–American War of 1898. Short actualities – documentary film-clips – included Burial of the Maine Victims, Blanket-Tossing of a New Recruit and these non-combat films were accompanied by reenactments of fighting, such as of Theodore Roosevelts Rough Riders in action against the Spanish, staged in the United States
No man's land
No mans land is land that is unoccupied or is under dispute between parties who leave it unoccupied due to fear or uncertainty. The term was used to define a contested territory or a dumping ground for refuse between fiefdoms. The same term was used as the name for the piece of land outside the north wall of London that was assigned as the place of execution. The term was applied to an area on ships called the forecastle, a place where various ropes, block. The British Army did not widely employ the term when the Regular Army arrived in France in August 1914, the terms used most frequently at the start of the war to describe the area between the trench lines included between the trenches or between the lines. The term no mans land was first used in a military context by soldier, Swinton used the term in war correspondence on the Western Front, with specific mention of the terms with respect to the Race to the Sea in late 1914. In World War I, no land often ranged from several hundred yards to in some cases less than 10 yards.
The area was devastated by the warfare. It was open to fire from the trenches and hard going generally slowed down any attempted advance. No mans land remained a feature of the battlefield until near the end of World War I. During the Cold War, one example of no land was the territory close to the Iron Curtain. The US Naval Base at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba is separated from Cuba proper by a called the Cactus Curtain. This was dubbed the Cactus Curtain, an allusion to Europes Iron Curtain, US and Cuban troops placed some 55,000 land mines across the no mans land, creating the second-largest minefield in the world, and the largest in the Americas. On 16 May 1996, Bill Clinton, the President of the United States, the US land mines have since been replaced with motion and sound sensors to detect intruders. The Cuban government has not removed the corresponding minefield on its side of the border, the 1949 Armistice Agreements between Israel and Jordan were signed in Rhodes with the help of UN mediation on 3 April 1949.
Armistice lines were determined in November 1948, between the lines territory was left that was defined as no mans land. Such areas existed in Jerusalem, in the area between the western and southern parts of the Walls of Jerusalem and Musrara, a strip of land north and south of Latrun was known as no mans land because it was not controlled by either Israel or Jordan in 1948–1967. In 1885, the United States Interior Department ruled that what was called The Neutral Strip was public land, the Strip began to be called No Mans Land around 1886 after one official stated no man can own the land
Manfred von Richthofen
Manfred Albrecht Freiherr von Richthofen, widely known as the Red Baron, was a German fighter pilot with the Imperial German Army Air Service during the First World War. He is considered the ace-of-aces of the war, being credited with 80 air combat victories. Originally a cavalryman, Richthofen transferred to the Air Service in 1915 and he quickly distinguished himself as a fighter pilot, and during 1917 became leader of Jasta 11 and the larger unit Jagdgeschwader 1. By 1918, he was regarded as a hero in Germany. Richthofen was shot down and killed near Amiens on 21 April 1918, There has been considerable discussion and debate regarding aspects of his career, especially the circumstances of his death. He remains perhaps the most widely known fighter pilot of all time, Richthofen was a Freiherr, a title of nobility often translated as baron. This is not a name nor strictly a hereditary title—since all male members of the family were entitled to it. This title, combined with the fact that he had his aircraft painted red, led to Richthofen being called The Red Baron both inside and outside Germany, during his lifetime he was more often described in German as Der Rote Kampfflieger.
This name was used as the title of Richthofens 1917 autobiography, Manfred von Richthofen was born in Kleinburg, near Breslau, Lower Silesia, on 2 May 1892 into a prominent Prussian aristocratic family. His father was Major Albrecht Philipp Karl Julius Freiherr von Richthofen and he had an elder sister and two younger brothers. When he was four years old, Manfred moved with his family to nearby Schweidnitz and he enjoyed riding horses and hunting as well as gymnastics at school. He excelled at bars and won a number of awards at school. He and his brothers and Bolko, hunted wild boar, birds, after being educated at home he attended a school at Schweidnitz before beginning military training when he was 11. After completing cadet training in 1911, he joined an Uhlan cavalry unit and bored at not being able to directly participate in combat, the last straw for Richthofen was an order to transfer to the armys supply branch. He is supposed to have written in his application for transfer, I have not gone to war in order to collect cheese and eggs, in spite of this unmilitary attitude, and to his own surprise, his request was granted.
Manfred joined the service at the end of May 1915. From June to August 1915, Richthofen served as an observer on reconnaissance missions over the Eastern Front with Feldflieger Abteilung 69, after a chance meeting with the German ace fighter pilot Oswald Boelcke, Richthofen entered training as a pilot in October 1915. In February 1916 Manfred rescued his brother Lothar from the boredom of training new troops in Luben, the following month, Manfred joined Kampfgeschwader 2 flying a two-seater Albatros C. III