Telepathy is the purported vicarious transmission of information from one person to another without using any known human sensory channels or physical interaction. The term was coined in 1882 by the classical scholar Frederic W. H. Myers, a founder of the Society for Psychical Research, has remained more popular than the earlier expression thought-transference. Telepathy experiments have been criticized for lack of proper controls and repeatability. There is no convincing evidence that telepathy exists, the topic is considered by the scientific community to be pseudoscience. According to historians such as Roger Luckhurst and Janet Oppenheim the origin of the concept of telepathy in Western civilization can be tracked to the late 19th century and the formation of the Society for Psychical Research; as the physical sciences made significant advances, scientific concepts were applied to mental phenomena, with the hope that this would help to understand paranormal phenomena. The modern concept of telepathy emerged in this context.
Psychical researcher Eric Dingwall criticized SPR founding members Frederic W. H. Myers and William F. Barrett for trying to "prove" telepathy rather than objectively analyze whether or not it existed. In the late 19th century, the magician and mentalist, Washington Irving Bishop would perform "thought reading" demonstrations. Bishop ascribed his powers to muscular sensitivity. Bishop was investigated by a group of scientists including the editor of the British Medical Journal and the psychologist Francis Galton. Bishop performed several feats such as identifying a selected spot on a table and locating a hidden object. During the experiment Bishop required physical contact with a subject, he would hold the wrist of the helper. The scientists concluded that Bishop was not a genuine telepath but using a trained skill to detect ideomotor movements. Another famous thought reader was the magician Stuart Cumberland, he was famous for performing blindfolded feats such as identifying a hidden object in a room that a person had picked out or asking someone to imagine a murder scene and attempt to read the subject's thoughts and identify the victim and reenact the crime.
Cumberland claimed to possess no genuine psychic ability and his thought reading performances could only be demonstrated by holding the hand of his subject to read their muscular movements. He came into dispute with psychical researchers associated with the Society for Psychical Research who were searching for genuine cases of telepathy. Cumberland argued that both telepathy and communication with the dead were impossible and that the mind of man cannot be read through telepathy, but only by muscle reading. In the late 19th century the Creery Sisters were tested by the Society for Psychical Research and believed to have genuine psychic ability. However, during a experiment they were caught utilizing signal codes and they confessed to fraud. George Albert Smith and Douglas Blackburn were claimed to be genuine psychics by the Society for Psychical Research but Blackburn confessed to fraud: For nearly thirty years the telepathic experiments conducted by Mr. G. A. Smith and myself have been accepted and cited as the basic evidence of the truth of thought transference......the whole of those alleged experiments were bogus, originated in the honest desire of two youths to show how men of scientific mind and training could be deceived when seeking for evidence in support of a theory they were wishful to establish.
Between 1916 and 1924, Gilbert Murray conducted 236 experiments into telepathy and reported 36% as successful, however, it was suggested that the results could be explained by hyperaesthesia as he could hear what was being said by the sender. Psychologist Leonard T. Troland had carried out experiments in telepathy at Harvard University which were reported in 1917; the subjects produced below chance expectations. Arthur Conan Doyle and W. T. Stead were duped into believing Julius and Agnes Zancig had genuine psychic powers. Both Doyle and Stead wrote. In 1924, Julius and Agnes Zancig confessed that their mind reading act was a trick and published the secret code and all the details of the trick method they had used under the title of Our Secrets!! in a London newspaper. In 1924, Robert H. Gault of Northwestern University with Gardner Murphy conducted the first American radio test for telepathy; the results were negative. One of their experiments involved the attempted thought transmission of a chosen number, out of 2010 replies none were correct.
In February 1927, with the co-operation of the British Broadcasting Corporation, V. J. Woolley, at the time the Research Officer for the SPR, arranged a telepathy experiment in which radio listeners were asked to take part; the experiment involved'agents' thinking about five selected objects in an office at Tavistock Square, whilst listeners on the radio were asked to identify the objects from the BBC studio at Savoy Hill. 24, 659 answers were received. The results revealed no evidence for telepathy. A famous experiment in telepathy was recorded by the American author Upton Sinclair in his book Mental Radio which documents Sinclair's test of psychic abilities of Mary Craig Sinclair, his second wife, she attempted to duplicate 290 pictures. Sinclair claimed Mary duplicated 65 of them, with 155 "partial successes" and 70 failures. However, these experiments were not condu
The Death of Superman
"The Death of Superman" is a crossover story event featured in DC Comics' Superman-related publications. The crossover, which originated from editor Mike Carlin and writers Dan Jurgens, Roger Stern, Louise Simonson, Jerry Ordway, Karl Kesel, began in December 1992 and lasted until October 1993, it was published in Superman, Action Comics, The Adventures of Superman, Superman: The Man of Steel, Justice League America, Green Lantern. Since its initial publication, "The Death of Superman" has been reprinted in various formats and editions. Development began after a planned story, in which Clark Kent and Lois Lane would be married, was postponed to coincide with a similar storyline in the television series Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman. While pitching possible replacements, Ordway jokingly suggested; as Superman comic sales had declined in recent years, the writing teams felt the character had been taken for granted and decided to temporarily kill him to emphasize his importance. They show Superman is not invincible.
"The Death of Superman" is divided into three story arcs: "Doomsday!", "Funeral for a Friend", "Reign of the Supermen!". The first arc chronicles Superman's fight with the monster Doomsday and concludes with his apparent death; the second depicts Superman's fellow superheroes and the rest of the DC Universe mourning his death, ending with his adoptive father Jonathan Kent having a heart attack. The third sees the emergence of four Superman imposters before the original returns. A number of characters in "The Death of Superman", such as Doomsday, the Cyborg Superman, Steel, would recur in DC publications; when news broke that DC planned to kill Superman, a beloved cultural icon, "The Death of Superman" received unprecedented coverage from the mainstream media. Superman #75, which features Superman's death, sold over six million copies and became the top-selling comic of 1992. Retrospective reviewers are divided on the story, with some finding it ambitious and influential, while others dismiss it as a publicity stunt.
The story has been adapted into various forms of media, including two novelizations in 1993 and a beat'em up video game, The Death and Return of Superman, in 1994. A loose animated film adaptation, Superman: Doomsday, was released in 2007. A second animated adaptation was released as a two-part film, The Death of Superman and Reign of the Supermen, in 2018 and 2019, respectively. Superman is a superhero created by Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster who appears in American comic books published by DC Comics; the character debuted in Action Comics #1 on April 18, 1938, to immediate success, the following year became the first superhero to headline his own comic book, Superman. Since his debut, Superman has been a cultural icon in the United States. In 1985, DC launched the crossover event Crisis on Infinite Earths, which took place in a variety of comics, its conclusion resulted in the DC Universe—the shared universe that the publisher's comics, including those related to Superman, take place in—being rebooted.
Writer/artist John Byrne re-envisioned The Man of Steel. The following year, Byrne relaunched Superman with a new first issue and the original series was renamed The Adventures of Superman. In the reboot, Byrne removed various elements of the Superman mythos, like Supergirl, to streamline the character for modern audiences, which allowed him to reintroduce them in a new way on; the relaunch was a major success for DC and The Man of Steel #1 became the bestselling comic book issue of 1986. Byrne wrote and illustrated Action Comics, scripted The Adventures of Superman with artist Jerry Ordway. Under Byrne, a new Superman comic was released every week and each series maintained continuity with each other, he spent two years on the Superman comics before leaving in 1988, dissatisfied with DC's lack of "conscious support" for him and that the version of Superman licensed for merchandising did not reflect Byrne's stories. As a result of Byrne's departure, Superman group editor Mike Carlin had to assemble new creative teams to replace him.
Ordway began to write The Adventures of Superman, while Roger Stern, who had finished a 12-year stint at rival publisher Marvel Comics, took over Action Comics. Connecting stories became harder due to the new, more diverse creative teams, whereas Byrne had managed most of them on his own. To control consistency in stories, the teams attended a "Superman Summit", which started in 1988; the summit was a unique method of making the writers work together, focusing their attention to the next year's worth of stories. These meetings were dysfunctional, with Superman writer/penciler Dan Jurgens noting they disagreed when discussing story ideas and argued until one person was "left standing". Carlin recalled that he had to act like a "babysitter" for the 18 creators during summits, the teams compromised; when the writing teams were having trouble deciding stories, Ordway would jokingly suggest they kill Superman. DC editor Paul Levitz liked the success of the three interconnected Superman comics, so a fourth, Superman: The Man of Steel, started.
While the creative teams believed the quality of the comics increased because there were more people working on them, they experienced a decline in sales due to the popularity of violent antiheroes like the Punisher and Wolverine. A new Superman comic was released every week, each selling 150,000 copies an issue—"a fraction" of the numbers bestselling comics like those featuring Spider-Man enjoyed; the writing teams increased the romantic tension between Clark Kent (Superman's civilian identi
DC Comics, Inc. is an American comic book publisher. It is the publishing unit of DC Entertainment, a subsidiary of Warner Bros. since 1967. DC Comics is one of the largest and oldest American comic book companies, produces material featuring numerous culturally iconic heroic characters including: Superman, Wonder Woman, The Flash, Green Lantern,Aquaman,Martian Manhunter, Green Arrow, Hawkman and Supergirl. Most of their material takes place in the fictional DC Universe, which features teams such as the Justice League, the Justice Society of America, the Suicide Squad, the Teen Titans, well-known villains such as The Joker, Lex Luthor, Darkseid, Brainiac, Black Adam, Ra's al Ghul and Deathstroke; the company has published non-DC Universe-related material, including Watchmen, V for Vendetta, many titles under their alternative imprint Vertigo. The initials "DC" came from the company's popular series Detective Comics, which featured Batman's debut and subsequently became part of the company's name.
In Manhattan at 432 Fourth Avenue, the DC Comics offices have been located at 480 and 575 Lexington Avenue. DC had its headquarters at 1700 Broadway, Midtown Manhattan, New York City, but it was announced in October 2013 that DC Entertainment would relocate its headquarters from New York to Burbank, California in April 2015. Random House distributes DC Comics' books to the bookstore market, while Diamond Comic Distributors supplies the comics shop specialty market. DC Comics and its longtime major competitor Marvel Comics together shared 70% of the American comic book market in 2017. Entrepreneur Major Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson founded National Allied Publications in autumn 1934; the company debuted with the tabloid-sized New Fun: The Big Comic Magazine #1 with a cover date of February 1935. The company's second title, New Comics #1, appeared in a size close to what would become comic books' standard during the period fans and historians call the Golden Age of Comic Books, with larger dimensions than today's.
That title evolved into Adventure Comics, which continued through issue #503 in 1983, becoming one of the longest-running comic-book series. In 2009 DC revived Adventure Comics with its original numbering. In 1935, Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, the future creators of Superman, created Doctor Occult, the earliest DC Comics character to still be in the DC Universe. Wheeler-Nicholson's third and final title, Detective Comics, advertised with a cover illustration dated December 1936 premiered three months late with a March 1937 cover date; the themed anthology series would become a sensation with the introduction of Batman in issue #27. By however, Wheeler-Nicholson had gone. In 1937, in debt to printing-plant owner and magazine distributor Harry Donenfeld—who published pulp magazines and operated as a principal in the magazine distributorship Independent News—Wheeler-Nicholson had to take Donenfeld on as a partner in order to publish Detective Comics #1. Detective Comics, Inc. was formed, with Wheeler-Nicholson and Jack S. Liebowitz, Donenfeld's accountant, listed as owners.
Major Wheeler-Nicholson remained for a year, but cash-flow problems continued, he was forced out. Shortly afterwards, Detective Comics, Inc. purchased the remains of National Allied known as Nicholson Publishing, at a bankruptcy auction. Detective Comics, Inc. soon launched a fourth title, Action Comics, the premiere of which introduced Superman. Action Comics #1, the first comic book to feature the new character archetype—soon known as "superheroes"—proved a sales hit; the company introduced such other popular characters as the Sandman and Batman. On February 22, 2010, a copy of Action Comics #1 sold at an auction from an anonymous seller to an anonymous buyer for $1 million, besting the $317,000 record for a comic book set by a different copy, in lesser condition, the previous year. National Allied Publications soon merged with Detective Comics, Inc. forming National Comics Publications on September 30, 1946. National Comics Publications absorbed an affiliated concern, Max Gaines' and Liebowitz' All-American Publications.
In the same year Gaines let Liebowitz buy him out, kept only Picture Stories from the Bible as the foundation of his own new company, EC Comics. At that point, "Liebowitz promptly orchestrated the merger of All-American and Detective Comics into National Comics... Next he took charge of organizing National Comics, Independent News, their affiliated firms into a single corporate entity, National Periodical Publications". National Periodical Publications became publicly traded on the stock market in 1961. Despite the official names "National Comics" and "National Periodical Publications", the company began branding itself as "Superman-DC" as early as 1940, the company became known colloquially as DC Comics for years before the official adoption of that name in 1977; the company began to move aggressively against what it saw as copyright-violating imitations from other companies, such as Fox Comics' Wonder Man, which Fox started as a copy of Superman. This extended to DC suing Fawcett Comics over Captain Marvel, at the time comics' top-selling character.
Faced with declining sales and the prospect of bankruptcy if it lost, Fawcett capitulated in 1953 and ceased publishing comics. Years Fawcett sold the rights for Captain Marvel to DC—which in 1972 revived Captain Marvel in the new title Shazam
Joseph Shuster was a Canadian-American comic book artist best known for co-creating the DC Comics character Superman, with writer Jerry Siegel, in Action Comics #1. Shuster was involved in a number of legal battles over ownership of the Superman character, his comic book career after Superman was unsuccessful, by the mid-1970s Shuster had left the field due to partial blindness. He and Siegel were inducted into both the comic book industry's Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame in 1992 and the Jack Kirby Hall of Fame in 1993. In 2005, the Canadian Comic Book Creator Awards Association instituted the Joe Shuster Awards, named to honor the Canada-born artist. Joseph Shuster was born in Toronto to a Jewish family, his father, Julius Shuster, an immigrant from Rotterdam, had a tailor shop in Toronto's garment district. His mother, had come from Kiev in Ukraine, his family, including his sister, lived on Bathurst and Borden Streets, Shuster attended Ryerson and Lansdowne Public Schools. One of his cousins was comedian Frank Shuster of the Canadian comedy team Shuster.
He had a brother named Frank. As a youngster, Shuster worked as a newspaper boy for the Toronto Daily Star; the family made ends meet, the budding young artist would scrounge for paper, which the family could not afford. He recalled in 1992, I would go from store to pick up whatever they threw out. One day, I was lucky enough to find a bunch of wallpaper rolls that were unused and left over from some job; the backs were blank, naturally. So it was a goldmine for me, I went home with every roll I could carry. I kept using that wallpaper for a long time. Sometime in 1924, when Shuster was 9 or 10, his family moved to Ohio. There Shuster attended Glenville High School and befriended his collaborator, writer Jerry Siegel, with whom he began publishing a science fiction fanzine called Science Fiction. Siegel described his friendship with the shy and bespectacled Shuster: "When Joe and I first met, it was like the right chemicals coming together."The duo broke into comics at Major Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson's National Allied Publications, the future DC Comics, working on the landmark New Fun—the first comic-book series to consist of original material rather than using any reprinted newspaper comic strips—debuting with the musketeer swashbuckler "Henri Duval" and the supernatural crime-fighter strip Doctor Occult, both in New Fun #6.
In a 1992 interview, in which he used the fledgling publisher's future name, he said the two sample strips were not the ones published: One was drawn on brown wrapping paper and the other was drawn on the back of wallpaper from Toronto. And DC approved them, just like that! It's incredible! But DC did say,'We like your ideas, we like your scripts and we like your drawings, but please, copy over the stories in pen and ink on good paper.' So I got my mother and father to lend me the money to go out and buy some decent paper, the first drawing paper I had, in order to submit these stories properly to DC Comics. Siegel and Shuster created a bald telepathic villain, bent on dominating the world, as the title character in the short story "The Reign of the Superman", published in Siegel's 1933 fanzine Science Fiction #3; the character was not successful, Siegel devised the more familiar version of the character. Shuster modeled the hero on Douglas Fairbanks Sr. and his bespectacled alter ego, Clark Kent, on a combination of Harold Lloyd and Shuster himself, with the name "Clark Kent" derived from movie stars Clark Gable and Kent Taylor.
Lois Lane was modelled on Joanne Carter, Joe's girlfriend before she became Siegel's wife. Siegel and Shuster began a 6-year quest to find a publisher. Titling it The Superman and Shuster offered it to Consolidated Book Publishing, who had published a 48-page black-and-white comic book entitled Detective Dan: Secret Operative #48. Although the duo received an encouraging letter, Consolidated never again published comic books. Shuster took this to heart and, by varying accounts, either burned every page of the story, with the cover surviving only because Siegel saved it from the fire, or he tore the story to shreds, with only two cover sketches remaining. Siegel and Shuster each compared this character to Slam Bradley, an adventurer the pair had created for Detective Comics #1. In 1938, after that proposal had languished among others at More Fun Comics — published by National Allied Publications, the primary precursor of DC Comics — editor Vin Sullivan chose it as the cover feature for National's Action Comics #1.
The following year, Shuster initiated the syndicated Superman comic strip. As part of the deal which saw Superman published in Action Comics and Shuster sold the rights to the company in return for $130 and a contract to supply the publisher with material. Siegel and Shuster's status as children of Jewish immigrants is thought to have influenced their work. Timothy Aaron Pevey has argued that they crafted "an immigrant figure whose desire was to fit into American culture as an American", something which Pevey feels taps into an important aspect of American identity; when Superman first appeared, Superman's alter ego Clark Kent worked for the Daily Star newspaper, named by Shuster after the Toronto Daily Star, his old employer in Toronto. Shuster said he modeled the cityscape of Superman's home city, Metropolis, on that of his old hometown; when the comic strip received international distribution, the company permanently changed the name to the Daily Planet. In 1946, near the end of their 10-year contract to produce Superman stories, Siegel
Detective Comics is an American comic book series published by DC Comics. The first volume, published from 1937 to 2011, is best known for introducing the superhero Batman in Detective Comics #27. A second series of the same title was launched in the fall of 2011 but in 2016 reverted to the original volume numbering; the series is the source of its publishing company's name, and—along with Action Comics, the series that launched with the debut of Superman—one of the medium's signature series. The series published 881 issues between 1937 and 2011 and is the longest continuously published comic book in the United States. Detective Comics was the final publication of the entrepreneur Major Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson, whose comics company, National Allied Publications, would evolve into DC Comics, one of the world's two largest comic book publishers, though long after its founder had left it. Wheeler-Nicholson's first two titles were the landmark New Fun: The Big Comic Magazine #1, colloquially called New Fun Comics #1 and the first such early comic book to contain all-original content, rather than a mix of newspaper comic strips and comic-strip-style new material.
His second effort, New Comics #1, would be retitled twice to become Adventure Comics, another seminal series that ran for decades until issue #503 in 1983, was revived in 2009. The third and final title published under his aegis would be Detective Comics, advertised with a cover illustration dated December 1936, but premiering three months with a March 1937 cover date. Wheeler-Nicholson was in debt to printing-plant owner and magazine distributor Harry Donenfeld, as well a pulp-magazine publisher and a principal in the magazine distributorship Independent News. Wheeler-Nicholson took Donenfeld on as a partner in order to publish Detective Comics #1 through the newly formed Detective Comics, Inc. with Wheeler-Nicholson and Jack S. Liebowitz, Donenfeld's accountant, listed as owners. Wheeler-Nicholson was forced out a year later. An anthology comic, in the manner of the times, Detective Comics #1 featured stories in the "hard-boiled detective" genre, with such stars as Ching Lung, its first editor, Vin Sullivan drew the debut issue's cover.
The Crimson Avenger debuted in issue #20. In years, the start of this series has been marred by its racism and xenophobia. Detective Comics #27 featured the first appearance of Batman; that superhero would become the star of the title, the cover logo of, written as "Detective Comics featuring Batman". Because of its significance, issue #27 is considered one of the most valuable comic books in existence, with one copy selling for $1,075,000 in a February 2010 auction. Batman's origin is first revealed in a two-page story in issue #33. Batman became the main cover feature of the title beginning with issue #35. Issue #38 introduced Batman's sidekick Robin, billed as "The Sensational Character Find of 1940" on the cover and the first of several characters that would make up the "Batman Family". Robin's appearance and the subsequent increase in sales of the book soon led to the trend of superheroes and young sidekicks that characterize the era fans and historians call the Golden Age of Comic Books.
Several of Batman's best known villains debuted in the pages of Detective Comics during this era including the Penguin in issue #58, Two-Face in issue #66, the Riddler in issue #140. Batwoman first appeared in Detective Comics #233 Since the family formula had proven successful for the Superman franchise, editor Jack Schiff suggested to Batman co-creator Bob Kane that he create one for the Batman. A female was chosen first, to offset the charges made by Fredric Wertham that Batman and Robin were homosexual. Writer Bill Finger and artist Sheldon Moldoff introduced Bat-Mite in issue #267 and Clayface in #298. In 1964, Julius Schwartz was made responsible for reviving the faded Batman titles. Writer John Broome and artist Carmine Infantino jettisoned the sillier aspects that had crept into the franchise such as Ace the Bathound and Bat-Mite and gave the character a "New Look" that premiered in Detective Comics #327. Schwartz, Gardner Fox, Infantino introduced, from the William Dozier produced tv series, Barbara Gordon as a new version of Batgirl in a story titled "The Million Dollar Debut of Batgirl!" in issue #359.
Mike Friedrich wrote the 30th anniversary Batman story in Detective Comics #387, drawn by Bob Brown. Writer Dennis O'Neil and artist Neal Adams had their first collaboration on Batman on the story "The Secret of the Waiting Graves" in issue #395; the duo, under the direction of Schwartz, would revitalize the character with a series of noteworthy stories reestablishing Batman's dark, brooding nature and taking the books away from the campy look and feel of the 1966–68 ABC TV series. Comics historian Les Daniels observed that "O'Neil's interpretation of Batman as a vengeful obsessive-compulsive, which he modestly describes as a return to the roots, was an act of creative imagination that has influenced every subsequent version of the Dark Knight." Adams introduced Man-Bat with writer Frank Robbins in Detective Comics #400. O'Neil and artist Bob Brown crafted Batman's first encounter with the League of Assassins in Detective Comics #405 and created Talia al Ghul in issue #411. After publishing on
Hegemony is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others. In ancient Greece, hegemony denoted the politico-military dominance of a city-state over other city-states; the dominant state is known as the hegemon. In the 19th century, hegemony came to denote the "Social or cultural ascendancy, it could be used to mean "a group or regime which exerts undue influence within a society". It could be used for the geopolitical and the cultural predominance of one country over others, from, derived hegemonism, as in the idea that the Great Powers meant to establish European hegemony over Asia and Africa. In international relations theory, hegemony denotes a situation of great material asymmetry in favour of one state, who has enough military power to systematically defeat any potential contester in the system, controls the access to raw materials, natural resources and markets, has competitive advantages in the production of value added goods, generates an accepted ideology reflecting this status quo.
The Marxist theory of cultural hegemony, associated with Antonio Gramsci, is the idea that the ruling class can manipulate the value system and mores of a society, so that their view becomes the world view: in Terry Eagleton's words, "Gramsci uses the word hegemony to mean the ways in which a governing power wins consent to its rule from those it subjugates". In contrast to authoritarian rule, cultural hegemony "is hegemonic only if those affected by it consent to and struggle over its common sense". In cultural imperialism, the leader state dictates the internal politics and the societal character of the subordinate states that constitute the hegemonic sphere of influence, either by an internal, sponsored government or by an external, installed government. From the post-classical Latin word hegemonia from the Greek word ἡγεμονία hēgemonía, meaning "authority, political supremacy", related to the word ἡγεμών hēgemōn "leader". In the Greco–Roman world of 5th century BC European classical antiquity, the city-state of Sparta was the hegemon of the Peloponnesian League and King Philip II of Macedon was the hegemon of the League of Corinth in 337 BC.
The role of Athens within the short-lived Delian League was that of a "hegemon". Ancient historians such as Xenophon and Ephorus were the first who used the term in its modern sense. In Ancient East Asia, Chinese hegemony existed during the Spring and Autumn period, when the weakened rule of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty led to the relative autonomy of the Five Hegemons, they were appointed by feudal lord conferences, thus were nominally obliged to uphold the imperium of the Zhou Dynasty over the subordinate states. 1st and 2nd century Europe was dominated by the hegemonic peace of the Pax Romana. It was instituted by the emperor Augustus, was accompanied by a series of brutal military campaigns. From the 7th century to the 12th century, the Umayyad Caliphate and Abbasid Caliphate dominated the vast territories they governed, with other states like the Byzantine Empire paying tribute. In 7th century India, ruler of a large empire in northern India from AD 606 to 647, brought most of the north under his hegemony.
He preferred not to rule as a central government, but left "conquered kings on their thrones and contenting himself with tribute and homage."From the late 9th to the early 11th century, the empire developed by Charlemagne achieved hegemony in Europe, with dominance over France and Burgundy. During the 14th century, the Crown of Aragon became the hegemon in the Mediterranean Sea. In The Politics of International Political Economy, Jayantha Jayman writes "If we consider the Western dominated global system from as early as the 15th century, there have been several hegemonic powers and contenders that have attempted to create the world order in their own images." He lists several contenders for historical hegemony. Portugal 1494 to 1580. Based on Portugal's dominance in navigation. Spain 1516 to 1659. Based on the Spanish dominance of the European battlefields and the global exploration and colonization of the New World; the Netherlands 1580 to 1688. Based on Dutch control of credit and money. Britain 1688 to 1792.
Based on British textiles and command of the high seas. Britain 1815 to 1914. Based on British industrial supremacy and railroads. Phillip IV tried to restore the Habsburg dominance but, by the middle of the 17th century "Spain's pretensions to hegemony had and irremediably failed."In late 16th and 17th-century Holland, the Dutch Republic's mercantilist dominion was an early instance of commercial hegemony, made feasible with the development of wind power for the efficient production and delivery of goods and services. This, in turn, made possible the Amsterdam stock concomitant dominance of world trade. In France, King Louis XIV and Napoleon I attempted French true hegemony via economic and military domin
Edgar Rice Burroughs
Edgar Rice Burroughs was an American fiction writer best known for his celebrated and prolific output in the adventure and science-fiction genres. Among the most notable of his creations are the jungle hero Tarzan, the heroic Mars adventurer John Carter and the fictional landmass within Earth known as Pellucidar. Burroughs' California ranch is now the center of the Tarzana neighborhood in Los Angeles. Burroughs was born on September 1, 1875, in Chicago, the fourth son of Major George Tyler Burroughs, a businessman and Civil War veteran, his wife, Mary Evaline Burroughs, his middle name is from Mary Coleman Rice Burroughs. He was of entirely English ancestry, with a family line, in North America since the Colonial era. Through his Rice grandmother, Burroughs was descended from settler Edmund Rice, one of the English Puritans who moved to Massachusetts Bay Colony in the early 17th Century, he once remarked, "I can trace my ancestry back to Deacon Edmund Rice." The Burroughs side of the family was of English origin and emigrated to Massachusetts around the same time.
Many of his ancestors fought in the American Revolution. Some of his ancestors settled in Virginia during the colonial period, Burroughs emphasized his connection with that side of his family, seeing it as romantic and warlike, and, in fact, could have counted among his close cousins no less than seven signers of the U. S. Declaration of Independence, including his third cousin, four times removed, 2nd President of the United States John Adams. Burroughs was educated at a number of local schools, he attended Phillips Academy, in Andover and the Michigan Military Academy. Graduating in 1895, failing the entrance exam for the United States Military Academy at West Point, he became an enlisted soldier with the 7th U. S. Cavalry in Fort Grant, Arizona Territory. After being diagnosed with a heart problem and thus ineligible to serve, he was discharged in 1897. After his discharge Burroughs worked a number of different jobs. During the Chicago influenza epidemic of 1891, he spent half a year at his brother's ranch on the Raft River in Idaho, as a cowboy, drifted somewhat afterward worked at his father's Chicago battery factory in 1899, marrying his childhood sweetheart, Emma Hulbert, in January 1900.
In 1903, Burroughs joined his brothers, Yale graduates George and Harry, who were, by prominent Pocatello area ranchers in southern Idaho, partners in the Sweetser-Burroughs Mining Company, where he took on managing their ill-fated Snake River gold dredge, a classic bucket-line dredge. The Burroughs brothers were the sixth cousins, once removed, of famed miner Kate Rice, a brilliant and statuesque Maths professor who, in 1914, became the first female prospector in the Canadian North. Journalist and publisher C. Allen Thorndike Rice was his third cousin; when the new mine proved unsuccessful, the brothers secured for Burroughs a position with the Oregon Short Line Railroad in Salt Lake City. Burroughs resigned from the railroad in October 1904. By 1911, after seven years of low wages as a pencil-sharpener wholesaler. By this time, Emma and he had two children and Hulbert. During this period, he began reading pulp-fiction magazines. In 1929, he recalled thinking that...if people were paid for writing rot such as I read in some of those magazines, that I could write stories just as rotten.
As a matter of fact, although I had never written a story, I knew that I could write stories just as entertaining and a whole lot more so than any I chanced to read in those magazines. In 1913, Burroughs and Emma had their third and last child, John Coleman Burroughs known for his illustrations of his father's books. In the 1920s, Burroughs became a pilot, purchased a Security Airster S-1, encouraged his family to learn to fly. Daughter Joan married Tarzan film actor, James Pierce, starring with her husband, as the voice of Jane, during 1932-34 for the Tarzan radio series; the pair were wed for more than forty years, until her death, in 1972. Burroughs divorced Emma in 1934 and, in 1935, married the former actress Florence Gilbert Dearholt, the former wife of his friend, Ashton Dearholt, with whom he had co-founded Burroughs-Tarzan Enterprises while filming The New Adventures of Tarzan. Burroughs adopted the Dearholts' two children, he and Florence divorced in 1942. Burroughs was in his late 60s and was in Honolulu at the time of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
Despite his age, he applied for and received permission to become a war correspondent, becoming one of the oldest U. S. war correspondents during World War II. This period of his life is mentioned in William Brinkley's bestselling novel Don't Go Near the Water. After the war ended, Burroughs moved back to Encino, where after many health problems, he died of a heart attack on March 19, 1950, having written 80 novels, he is buried at Tarzana, California, US. When he died, he was believed to have been the writer who had made the most from films, earning over $2 million in royalties from 27 Tarzan pictures; the Science Fiction Hall of Fame inducted Burroughs in 2003. Aiming his work at the pulps, Burroughs had his first story, Under the Moons of Mars, serialized by Frank Munsey in the February to July 1912 issues of The All-Story – under the name "Norman Bean" to protect his reputation. Under the Moons of Mars inaugurated the Barsoom series and earned Burroughs US$400, it was first published as a book by A.