Centrist Democrat International
The Centrist Democrat International is a Christian democratic political international. Until 2001, it was known as the Christian Democrat International and before 1999 as the Christian Democrat and People's Parties International, it was formed in 1961 in Santiago, Chile as the Christian Democrat World Union, building on the legacy of other Christian Democrat internationals who tried to create a Christian-inspired third way alternative to the socialist internationals. In 1982, it was renamed for the first time to Christian Democrat International; the name was changed due to the participation of groups of various faiths. It is the global international political group dedicated to the promotion of Christian democracy. Although it gathers parties from around the globe, its members are drawn principally from Europe and Latin America; some of them are members of the International Democrat Union, although the CDI is closer to the political centre and more communitarian than the IDU. The CDI's European division is the European People's Party the largest European political party.
Its Latin American equivalent is the Christian Democrat Organization of America. The Democratic Party of the United States of America maintains links with CDI through the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs. A youth organization of the CDI is being established under the name of Youth of the Centrist Democrat International. Dec 1925: The first international gathering of Catholic-Christian democratic parties takes place in Paris and they establish the Secrétariat International des Partis Démocratiques d'Inspiration Chrétienne. Member parties were from Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Spain and Lithuania. 1939-1945: World War II suspends the operations of the SIPDIC. 23 Apr 1947: Political leaders from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay meet in Montevideo, in order to create an international organization of Christian democratic parties. Representatives from Bolivia and Peru participate via diplomatic correspondence; the Declaration of Montevideo established the Organización Demócrata Cristiana de América, although the name was not formalized until their second meeting in July 1949.
03 Jun 1947: European Christian Democrats formed the Nouvelles Équipes Internationales in Chaudfontaine, prompted by the suggestion of the Swiss a year prior to restart the SIPDIC. The NEI was open to non-Catholic parties as long as they ascribed to the principles of social democracy, they saw European integration as the best way to prevent the spread of communism into western Europe and thus encouraged exile groups from Bulgaria, Lithuania, Poland and Yugoslavia to attend. The NEI played a significant role in preparations for the Hague Congress and the eventual establishment of the European Coal and Steel Community. 26 Jul 1950: The Christian Democratic Union of Central Europe is formed in New York City to assist Christian democratic parties in exile by organising forces in opposition to communism according to a constitutional charter. By 1955, it had begun working with underground operatives in the Soviet bloc while trying to coordinate efforts between European and Latin American Christian democratic parties.
May, Jul 1956: The ODCA, NEI, CDUCE meet for the first time in Paris at a gathering consisting of 33 delegations from 28 countries to discuss the creation of a global Christian democratic organisation. 1960: The three regional Christian democratic organisations establish the Christian Democratic International Information and Documentation Centre in Rome in order to provide political analyses for Christian democratic parties around the world. 1961: The World Union of Christian Democrats is established in Santiago. 1982: The WUCD changes its name to the Christian Democrat International. 1999: The CDI changes its name to the Centrist Democrat International due to an increasing membership of non-Christian political parties. Since October 2000, some have informally referred to the CDI as the Christian Democrat and People's Parties International. Member-parties of the CDI today tend to be members of either the ODCA or the European People's Party, although it is not required. Conversely, there may be member-parties of either the ODCA and the EPP that are not member-parties of the CDI.
The CDI maintains a relationship with the United States through the National Democratic Institute. The CDI Executive Committee is the highest body of the organization, formed by the president, the executive secretary and the vice-presidents; the current president of the CDI is Andrés Pastrana Arango of Colombia, while its Executive Secretary is Spanish MEP Antonio López-Istúriz, Secretary-General of the EPP. The members of the Executive Committee are: Andrés Pastrana Arango – President Antonio López-Istúriz – Executive Secretary Mário David – Deputy Executive Secretary César Maia – Vice-President Lourdes Flores – Vice-President Michael Eman – Vice-President Mariano Rajoy – Vice-President Juan Luis Seliman – Vice-President Gonzalo Arenas – Vice-President Naha Mouknas – Vice-President Abbas El Fassi – Vice-President Edcel Lagman – Vice-President Mikulas Dzurinda – Vice-President Viktor Orbán – Vice-President Peter Hintze – Vice-President Jadranka Kosor – Vice-President Andrés Pastrana – Vice-President Luís Marques Mendes – Vice-President Wilfried Martens – Ex officio
2017 French legislative election
Legislative elections were held on 11 and 18 June 2017 to elect the 577 members of the 15th National Assembly of the French Fifth Republic. They followed; the centrist party he founded in 2016, La République En Marche!, led an alliance with the centrist Democratic Movement. The Socialist Party was reduced to 30 seats and the Republicans reduced to 112 seats, both parties' allies suffered from a marked drop in support; the movement founded by Jean-Luc Mélenchon, la France Insoumise, secured 17 seats, enough for a group in the National Assembly. Among other major parties, the French Communist Party secured ten and the National Front obtained eight seats. Both rounds of the legislative election were marked by record low turnout.Édouard Philippe, appointed as Prime Minister by Macron following his victory in the presidential election, was reappointed following the second round of the legislative elections and presented his second government by 21 June. The 15th legislature of the French Fifth Republic commenced on 27 June.
In France, the legislative election takes place about a month after the second round of the presidential election, held on 7 May. Prior to 2002, the presidential and legislative elections were not always held in the same year. In the first round of the presidential election, on 23 April, Emmanuel Macron of En Marche! and Marine Le Pen of the National Front advanced to the runoff after placing first and second and were followed by François Fillon of the Republicans and Jean-Luc Mélenchon of la France Insoumise. In the first round, Macron led in 240 constituencies, against 216 for Le Pen, 67 for Mélenchon, 54 for Fillon. Macron won the second round on 7 May against Le Pen, securing 66.1% of valid votes. Upon the close of nominations for the legislative election, the Ministry of the Interior published a final list on 23 May containing a total of 7,882 candidates, with an average of 14 candidates within each constituency; the 2017 legislative election was the first held after the legal abolition of the dual mandate in France in 2014.
The 577 members of the National Assembly are elected using a two-round system with single-member constituencies. Candidates for the legislative elections had five days, from Monday 15 May to 18:00 on Friday 19 May, to declare and register their candidacy; the official campaign ran from 22 May to 10 June at midnight, while the campaign for the second round runs from 12 June at midnight to 17 June at midnight, with eligible candidates required to declare their presence by 18:00 CEST on 13 June. To be elected in the first round, a candidate was required to secure an absolute majority of votes cast, to secure votes equal to at least 25% of eligible voters in their constituency. Should none of the candidates satisfy these conditions, a second round of voting ensues. Only first-round candidates with the support of at least 12.5% of eligible voters are allowed to participate, but if only 1 candidate meets that standard the two candidates with the highest number of votes in the first round may continue to the second round.
In the second round, the candidate with a plurality is elected. Of the 577 constituencies, 539 are in metropolitan France, 27 are in overseas departments and territories and 11 are for French citizens living abroad. Voting in the first round took place from 08:00 to 18:00 on Saturday 3 June in French Polynesia and at French diplomatic missions in the Americas, on Sunday 4 June at French diplomatic missions outside the Americas. Voting in the French overseas departments and territories in the Americas took place from 08:00 to 18:00 on Saturday 10 June. Voting in metropolitan France took place from 08:00 to 20:00 on Sunday 11 June. Voting in the second round took place on Saturday 17 June from 08:00 to 18:00 in the French overseas departments and territories situated east of the International Date Line and west of metropolitan France, as well as at French diplomatic missions in the Americas. Voting in metropolitan France takes place from 08:00 to 20:00 on Sunday 18 June; the 15th National Assembly convened on 27 June at 15:00 CEST.
En Marche!, the movement founded by Emmanuel Macron, who won the presidential election under its banner, planned to run candidates in all 577 constituencies under the banner of "La République En Marche!", of which at least half were planned to be from civil society – the other half having held political office – and half women. No "double investiture" was permitted, though the original requirement of prospective candidates to leave their previous political party was waived by Macron on 5 May
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
The Senate is the upper house of the French Parliament. Indirectly elected by elected officials, it represents territorial collectivities of the Republic and French citizens living abroad; the Senate enjoys less prominence than the directly elected National Assembly. The Senate is housed inside the Luxembourg Palace in the 6th arrondissement of Paris, it is guarded by Republican Guards. In front of the building lies the Senate's gardens, the Jardin du Luxembourg, open to the public. France's first experience with an upper house was under the Directory from 1795 to 1799, when the Council of Ancients was the upper chamber. There were Senates in both the First and Second Empires, but these were only nominally legislative bodies – technically they were not legislative, but rather advisory bodies on the model of the Roman Senate. With the Restoration in 1814, a new Chamber of Peers was created, on the model of the British House of Lords. At first it contained hereditary peers, but following the July Revolution of 1830, it became a body to which one was appointed for life.
The Second Republic returned to a unicameral system after 1848, but soon after the establishment of the Second French Empire in 1852, a Senate was established as the upper chamber. In the Fourth Republic, the Senate was replaced by the Council of the Republic, but its function was the same. With the new Constitution of the Fifth Republic enforced on 4 October 1958, the older name of Senate was restored. In 2011, the Socialist Party won control of the Senate for the first time since the foundation of the Fifth Republic. In 2014, the centre-right Gaullists and its allies won back the control of the Senate. Under the Constitution of France, the Senate has nearly the same powers as the National Assembly. Bills may be submitted by either house of Parliament; because both houses may amend the bill, it may take several readings to reach an agreement between the National Assembly and the Senate. When the Senate and the National Assembly cannot agree on a bill, the administration can decide, after a procedure called commission mixte paritaire, to give the final decision to the National Assembly, whose majority is on the government's side, but as regarding the constitutionnal laws the administration must have the Senate's agreement.
This does not happen frequently. This power however gives the National Assembly a prominent role in the law-making process since the administration is of the same side as the Assembly, for the Assembly can dismiss the administration through a motion of censure; the power to pass a vote of censure, or vote of no confidence, is limited. As was the case in the Fourth Republic's constitution, new cabinets do not have to receive a vote of confidence. A vote of censure can occur only after 10 percent of the members sign a petition. If the petition gets the required support, a vote of censure must gain an absolute majority of all members, not just those voting. If the Assembly and the Senate have politically distinct majorities, the Assembly will in most cases prevail, open conflict between the two houses is uncommon; the Senate is the representative of the territories and defends the regions and mayors, see the article 24 of the Constitution. The Senate serves to monitor the administration's actions by publishing many reports each year on various topics.
Until September 2004, the Senate had 321 members, each elected to a nine-year term. That month, the term was reduced to six years, while the number of senators progressively increased to 348 in 2011, in order to reflect the country's population growth. Senators were elected in thirds every three years; the President of the Senate is elected by Senators from among their members. The current incumbent is Gérard Larcher; the President of the Senate is, under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic, first in the line of succession—in case of death, resignation or removal from office —to the presidency of the French Republic, becoming Acting President of the Republic until a new election can be held. This happened twice for Alain Poher—once at the resignation of Charles de Gaulle and once at the death of Georges Pompidou; the President of the Senate has the right to designate three of the nine members of the Constitutional Council, serving for nine years. Senators are elected indirectly by 150,000 officials, including regional councillors, department councillors, municipal councillors in large communes, as well as members of the National Assembly.
However, 90 % of the electors are delegates appointed by councillors. This system introduces a bias in the composition of the Senate favoring rural areas; as a consequence, while the political majority changes in the National Assembly, the Senate has remained politically right, with one brief exception, since the foundation of the Fifth Republic, much to the displeasure of the Socialists. This has spurred controversy after the 2008 election in which the Socialist Party, despite controlling all but two of France's regions, a majority of departments, as well as communes representing more than 50 % of the population, still failed to achieve a majority in the Senate. The
Guillaume Peltier, is a French politician and business leader. He is the former leader of its youth section. Peltier leads The Strong Right, a right-wing populist faction of the UMP, similar to The Popular Right faction. Since February 2013, he has been vice-president of the Union for a Popular Movement, he was a founder of the pro-life student group Young Christian Action
The European Parliament is the only parliamentary institution of the European Union, directly elected by EU citizens aged 18 or older. Together with the Council of the European Union, which should not be confused with the European Council and the Council of Europe, it exercises the legislative function of the EU; the Parliament is composed of 751 members, that will become 705 starting from the 2019–2024 legislature, who represent the second-largest democratic electorate in the world and the largest trans-national democratic electorate in the world. It has been directly elected by the European citizens every five years and by universal suffrage since 1979. However, voter turnout at European Parliament elections has fallen consecutively at each election since that date, has been under 50% since 1999. Voter turnout in 2014 stood at 42.54% of all European voters. Although the European Parliament has legislative power, as does the Council, it does not formally possess legislative initiative, as most national parliaments of European Union member states do.
The Parliament is the "first institution" of the EU, shares equal legislative and budgetary powers with the Council. It has equal control over the EU budget; the European Commission, the executive body of the EU, is accountable to Parliament. In particular, Parliament elects the President of the Commission, approves the appointment of the Commission as a whole, it can subsequently force the Commission as a body to resign by adopting a motion of censure. The President of the European Parliament is Antonio Tajani, elected in January 2017, he presides over a multi-party chamber, the two largest groups being the Group of the European People's Party and the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats. The last union-wide elections were the 2014 elections; the European Parliament has three places of work -- Luxembourg City and Strasbourg. Luxembourg City is home to the administrative offices. Meetings of the whole Parliament take place in Brussels. Committee meetings are held in Brussels; the Parliament, like the other institutions, was not designed in its current form when it first met on 10 September 1952.
One of the oldest common institutions, it began as the Common Assembly of the European Coal and Steel Community. It was a consultative assembly of 78 appointed parliamentarians drawn from the national parliaments of member states, having no legislative powers; the change since its foundation was highlighted by Professor David Farrell of the University of Manchester: "For much of its life, the European Parliament could have been justly labelled a'multi-lingual talking shop'."Its development since its foundation shows how the European Union's structures have evolved without a clear "master plan". Some, such as Tom Reid of the Washington Post, said of the union: "nobody would have deliberately designed a government as complex and as redundant as the EU"; the Parliament's two seats, which have switched several times, are a result of various agreements or lack of agreements. Although most MEPs would prefer to be based just in Brussels, at John Major's 1992 Edinburgh summit, France engineered a treaty amendment to maintain Parliament's plenary seat permanently at Strasbourg.
The body was not mentioned in the original Schuman Declaration. It was assumed or hoped that difficulties with the British would be resolved to allow the Council of Europe's Assembly to perform the task. A separate Assembly was introduced during negotiations on the Treaty as an institution which would counterbalance and monitor the executive while providing democratic legitimacy; the wording of the ECSC Treaty demonstrated the leaders' desire for more than a normal consultative assembly by using the term "representatives of the people" and allowed for direct election. Its early importance was highlighted when the Assembly was given the task of drawing up the draft treaty to establish a European Political Community. By this document, the Ad Hoc Assembly was established on 13 September 1952 with extra members, but after the failure of the proposed European Defence Community the project was dropped. Despite this, the European Economic Community and Euratom were established in 1958 by the Treaties of Rome.
The Common Assembly was shared by all three communities and it renamed itself the European Parliamentary Assembly. The first meeting was held on 19 March 1958 having been set up in Luxembourg City, it elected Schuman as its president and on 13 May it rearranged itself to sit according to political ideology rather than nationality; this is seen as the birth of the modern European Parliament, with Parliament's 50 years celebrations being held in March 2008 rather than 2002. The three communities merged their remaining organs as the European Communities in 1967, the body's name was changed to the current "European Parliament" in 1962. In 1970 the Parliament was granted power over areas of the Communities' budget, which were expanded to the whole budget in 1975. Under the Rome Treaties, the Parliament should have become elected. However, the Council was required to agree a uni