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The Restoration

The Restoration of the Stuart monarchy in the kingdoms of England and Ireland took place in 1660 when King Charles II returned from exile in Europe. The preceding period of the Protectorate and the civil wars, came to be known as the Interregnum; the term Restoration is used to describe the period of several years after, in which a new political settlement was established. It is often used to cover the whole reign of Charles II and the brief reign of his younger brother James II. In certain contexts it may be used to cover the whole period of the Stuart monarchs as far as the death of Queen Anne and the accession of the Hanoverian George I in 1714. After the Lord Protector from 1658-9 Richard Cromwell ceded power to the Rump Parliament, Charles Fleetwood and John Lambert dominated government for a year. On 20 October 1659 George Monck, the governor of Scotland under the Cromwells, marched south with his army from Scotland to oppose Fleetwood and Lambert. Lambert's army began to desert him, he returned to London alone whilst Monck marched to London unopposed.

The Presbyterian members, excluded in Pride's Purge of 1648, were recalled, on 24 December the army restored the Long Parliament. Fleetwood was deprived of his command and ordered to appear before Parliament to answer for his conduct. On 3 March 1660, Lambert was sent to the Tower of London, he tried to rekindle the civil war in favour of the Commonwealth by issuing a proclamation calling on all supporters of the "Good Old Cause" to rally on the battlefield of Edgehill, but he was recaptured by Colonel Richard Ingoldsby, a participant in the regicide of Charles I who hoped to win a pardon by handing Lambert over to the new regime. Lambert was incarcerated and died in custody on Guernsey in 1694. "The restoration was not what George Monck the apparent engineer of the Restoration had intended - if indeed he knew what he intended. On 4 April 1660, Charles II issued the Declaration of Breda, in which he made several promises in relation to the reclamation of the crown of England. Monck organised the Convention Parliament.

On 8 May it proclaimed that King Charles II had been the lawful monarch since the execution of Charles I on 30 January 1649. Historian Tim Harris describes it: "Constitutionally, it was as if the last nineteen years had never happened." Charles returned from exile, landing at Dover on 25 May. He entered London on his 30th birthday. To celebrate His Majesty's Return to his Parliament, 29 May was made a public holiday, popularly known as Oak Apple Day, he was crowned at Westminster Abbey on 23 April 1661. Some contemporaries described the Restoration as "a divinely ordained miracle"; the sudden and unexpected deliverance from political chaos was interpreted as a restoration of the natural and divine order. The Cavalier Parliament convened for the first time on 8 May 1661, it would endure for over 17 years being dissolved on 24 January 1679. Like its predecessor, it was overwhelmingly Royalist, it is known as the Pensionary Parliament for the many pensions it granted to adherents of the King. The leading political figure at the beginning of the Restoration was Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon.

It was the "skill and wisdom of Clarendon" which had "made the Restoration unconditional". Many Royalist exiles were rewarded. Prince Rupert of the Rhine returned to the service of England, became a member of the privy council, was provided with an annuity. George Goring, 1st Earl of Norwich, returned to be the Captain of the King's guard and received a pension. Marmaduke Langdale returned and was made "Baron Langdale". William Cavendish, Marquess of Newcastle and was able to regain the greater part of his estates, he was invested in 1666 with the Order of the Garter, was advanced to a dukedom on 16 March 1665. The Indemnity and Oblivion Act, which became law on 29 August 1660, pardoned all past treason against the crown, but excluded those involved in the trial and execution of Charles I. Thirty-one of the 59 commissioners who had signed the death warrant in 1649 were living; the regicides were hunted down. Three escaped to the American colonies. New Haven, secretly harbored Edward Whalley, William Goffe and John Dixwell, after American independence named streets after them to honour them as forefathers of the American Revolution.

In the ensuing trials, twelve were condemned to death. Fifth Monarchist Thomas Harrison, the first person found guilty of regicide, the seventeenth of the 59 commissioners to sign the death warrant, was the first regicide to be hanged and quartered because he was considered by the new government still to represent a real threat to the re-established order. In October 1660, at Charing Cross or Tyburn, ten were publicly hanged and quartered: Thomas Harrison, John Jones, Adrian Scrope, John Carew, Thomas Scot, Gregory Clement, who had signed the king's death warrant; the 10 judges who were on the panel but did not

Dag Arvas

Rear Admiral Dag Gustaf Christer Arvas was a Swedish Navy officer. Arvas senior commands include Vice Chief of the Defence Staff, Chief of the Coastal Fleet and Chief of the Military Office of the Minister of Defence. Arvas was born on 22 September 1913 in Arvidsjaur, the son of Birger Arvas and his wife Elsa, he passed studentexamen in Djursholm in 1932 and was commissioned as a naval officer in 1935 with the rank of fänrik. He was on leave one summer for traveling with the Swedish sailing school's Kaparen in western European waters and he was educated at the Physical Training School from 1937 to 1938. Arvas attended the Royal Swedish Naval Staff College from 1940 to 1942 and served aboard torpedo boats and destroyers, he served as flag lieutenant to the chief of the Coastal Fleet from 1945 to 1948. Arvas served as captain of the destroyer HSwMS Uppland from 1950 to 1951 and commander of a destroyer squadron in 1954, he was promoted to commander of the 2nd rank in 1953 and of the 1st rank in 1955.

During the years 1946-1953, Arvas was a teacher in parallel with other service at both the Royal Swedish Naval Staff College and the Royal Swedish Air Force Staff College. The land service was characterized by his involvement in the Supreme Commander investigation and in the defense committee in 1955-1958 where the foundation for the light fleet and Navy Plan 60 were laid. Arvas served as head of the Operation Department in the Naval Staff from 1955 and as head of the Planning Department from 1958 to 1960 when he was promoted to captain, he served as commanding officer of the 1st Destroyer Flotilla from 1960 to 1961 and as Vice Chief of the Defence Staff from 1961 to 1964. Arvas served as chief of Section 3 in the Naval Staff from 1964 to 1966 when he was promoted to rear admiral, he was chief of the Coastal Fleet from 1966 to 1970, chairman of the Royal Swedish Society of Naval Sciences from 1966 to 1969, chief of the Military Office of the Minister of Defence from 1970 to 1978. After his retirement in 1978 he was, among other things, a special investigator in the 1978 Civil Military Investigation.

In 1939, he married the daughter of Tage Milles and Thora. Children: Christer and Stig. Arvas died on 1 February 2004 and was buried in Djursholm's Cemetery on 16 April 2004. 1935 – Acting sub-lieutenant 1937 – Sub-lieutenant 19?? – Lieutenant 1953 – Commander of the 2nd rank 1955 – Commander of the 1st rank 1960 – Captain 1966 – Rear admiral Commander Grand Cross of the Order of the Sword Officer of the Order of the Aztec Eagle King Christian X's Liberty Medal Honorary member of the Royal Swedish Society of Naval Sciences Member of the Royal Swedish Academy of War Sciences


Epikoros is a Jewish term cited in the Mishnah, referring to one who does not have a share in the world to come: "All Israel have a share in the world to come as states: Your people are all righteous, they shall inherit the land for the branch of My planting, the work of My hands, wherein I glory. And these are the ones who do not have a portion in the world to come: He who maintains that there is no resurrection of the dead derived from the Torah, that the Torah is not from the Heavens, an Epikoros" The rabbinic literature uses the term Epikoros, without a specific reference to the Greek philosopher Epicurus, yet it is apparent that the term is derived from the Greek philosopher's name, a philosopher whose views contradicted Jewish scripture, the monotheistic conception of God in Judaism and the Jewish belief in the world to come; the Talmudic interpretation is that the Aramaic word is derived from the root-word פק"ר, hence disrespect, accordingly: "AN EPIKOROS. Rab and R. Hanina both taught.

R. Johanan and R. Joshua b. Levi maintained that it is one who disrespects his neighbour in the presence of a Talmid Chacham. " Maimonides combined the two commentaries, according to him, scorning a Talmid Chacham is a singular case of disrespecting the entire Torah or its rabbinic scholar-sages. In his work Mishneh Torah, Maimonides rules that an Epikoros is a person who denies that God communicates with humans through prophecy, or one who denies the prophecy of Moses, or one who denies God's knowledge of the affairs of humans. Maimonides encountered the name of Epicurus, the Greek philosopher, some time after composing his Commentary on the Mishnah and before composing the Guide of the Perplexed. In the first source he erroneously states that the rabbinic term, epikoros, is an Aramaic word, but in the Guide he has become of aware of the atheistic doctrine of the philosopher by that name, he cites the source of his information as Alexander of Aphrodisias' treatise On Providence. Following the Christian censorship of the Talmud, starting with the aftermath of the Disputation of Barcelona and during the Roman Inquisition and the Spanish Inquisition, the term spread within the Jewish classical texts.

Censors shunned expressions like Minim, which they viewed referring to the Christian faith, replaced them with the term Epikoros or Epicurus, hence an heretic, since the church would fight the heretics. Heresy in Judaism Heresy in Orthodox Judaism Tinok shenishba

Freyella elegans

Freyella elegans is a species of deep-water starfish in the family Freyellidae in the order Brisingida, living at abyssal depths in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean. All Freyella species occur in deep water, are gathered only from isolated locations exclusively by dredging or using a beam trawl. Targeted collection is impossible and the material, brought up is never intact; that makes the naming of species complicated. In 1986, Maureen Downey published the results of a study she had done on the deep sea starfish from the Atlantic, described at that time. One of her findings was that the species described by Verrill in 1884 and named by him as Brisinga elegans, had been redefined by several authors under different names, she reduced these names to synonyms of Freyella elegans; this starfish has a small disc and twelve long, rather rigid arms, about 210 mm long. The hexagonal plates on the aboral of the disc bear one to three spinelets and are covered by a membrane with no pedicellariae; the madreporite is near the margin of the disc and the anus is quite distinct and near the centre of the disc.

The spines on the lateral plates are robust. The arms are long and cylindrical at the proximal end near the disc and becoming cigar-shaped distally and tapering near the tips. Here, the membrane covering them is semi-transparent, there are saddle-like bands, many small pedicellariae. Underneath the arms, the ambulacral groove occupies more than half the width of each arm; the outer spines around the mouth on the oral of the disc form a bar across the ambulacral grooves. This starfish is a bathydemersal species living in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean, at depths of around 3,000 m, it has been detected between Cape Hatteras and the Georges Bank, as well as near Greenland and in the Gulf of Guinea. Little is known of the feeding habits of this species. Although some members of the Brisingida have been photographed with their arms raised filter feeding, those in the genus Freyella have only been observed lying flat on the sediment and are therefore not suspension feeders.

1897 Italian general election

General elections were held in Italy on 21 March 1897, with a second round of voting on 28 March. The "Ministerial" left-wing bloc, led by Giovanni Giolitti remained the largest in Parliament, winning 327 of the 508 seats; the humiliating defeat of the Italian army at Adwa in March 1896 in Ethiopia during First Italo-Ethiopian War, brought about Francesco Crispi's resignation after riots broke out in several Italian towns. The ensuing Antonio di Rudini cabinet lent itself to Cavallotti’s campaign, at the end of 1897 the judicial authorities applied to the Chamber of Deputies for permission to prosecute Crispi for embezzlement. A parliamentary commission of inquiry discovered only that Crispi, on assuming office in 1893, had found the secret service coffers empty, had borrowed money from a state bank to fund it, repaying it with the monthly installments granted in regular course by the treasury; the commission, considering this proceeding irregular and the Chamber adopted, a vote of censure, but refused to authorize a prosecution.

The crisis consequent upon the disaster of Adowa enabled Rudinì to return to power as premier and minister of the interior in a cabinet formed by the veteran Conservative, General Ricotti. He signed the Treaty of Addis Ababa that formally ended the First Italo–Ethiopian War recognizing Ethiopia as an independent country, he endangered relations with Great Britain by the unauthorized publication of confidential diplomatic correspondence in a Green-book on Abyssinian affairs. Di Rudinì recognized the excessive brutality of the repression of the Fasci Siciliani under his predecessor Crispi. Many Fasci members were released from jail. A new party participated to the Italian Republican Party, led by Carlo Sforza; the PRI traces its origins from the time of Italian unification and, more to the democratic-republican wing represented by figures such as Giuseppe Mazzini, Carlo Cattaneo and Carlo Pisacane

Tillamook Rock Light

Tillamook Rock Light is a deactivated lighthouse on the Oregon Coast of the United States. It is located 1.2 miles offshore from Tillamook Head, 20 miles south of the Columbia River, situated on less than an acre of basalt rock in the Pacific Ocean. The construction of the lighthouse was commissioned in 1878 by the United States Congress, began in 1880; the construction took more than 500 days to finish, with its completion in January 1881. In early January 1881, when the lighthouse was near completion, the barque Lupatia was wrecked near the rock during inclement weather and sank, killing all 16 crew members; the Light was lit on January 21, 1881. At the time, it was the most expensive West Coast lighthouse built. Due to the erratic weather conditions, the dangerous commute for both keepers and suppliers, the lighthouse was nicknamed "Terrible Tilly". Over the years, storms have damaged the lighthouse, shattered the lens, eroded the rock, it was decommissioned in 1957, has since been sold to private owners.

Until its license was revoked in 1999, it functioned as a columbarium, today remains owned. The light is listed in the National Register of Historic Places, is part of the Oregon Islands National Wildlife Refuge, it is visible from the coastal cities of Cannon Beach, as well as from Ecola State Park. In 1878, the United States Congress appropriated $50,000 for a lighthouse to be built on Tillamook Head. A survey of the rock was ordered in 1879, headed by H. S. Wheeler and his cutter Thomas Corwin. Wheeler's initial assessment determined that access to the rock was limited, if not impossible, but was ordered to continue. During his second assessment, he was able to land on the rock, but was unable to move his survey equipment without the use of a tape line, he relayed that the rock would need considerable blasting to create a level area in order lay down a foundation for the lighthouse, that more money was going to be needed to complete the project. In September 1879, a third survey was ordered, this time headed by John Trewavas, whose experience included the Wolf Rock lighthouse in England.

Trewavas was overtaken by large swells and was swept into the sea while attempting a landing, his body was never recovered. His replacement, Charles A. Ballantyne, had a difficult assignment recruiting workers due to the widespread negative reaction to Trewavas' death, a general desire by the public to end the project. Ballantyne was able to secure a group of quarrymen who knew nothing of the tragedy, was able to resume work on the rock. Transportation to and from the rock involved the use of a derrick line attached with a breeches buoy, in May 1880, they were able to blast the top of the rock to allow the construction of the lighthouse's foundation; the structure of lighthouse included an attached keeper's quarters and a 62-foot tower that housed a first-order Fresnel lens, with an incandescent oil vapor lamp, 133 feet above sea level. The light had a visibility range of 18 miles, was fixed with a steam foghorn, it is located on less than an acre of basalt in the Pacific Ocean, 20 miles south of the Columbia River 1.2 miles off Tillamook Head, is the northernmost lighthouse along the Oregon coast.

The construction lasted more than 500 days by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers under the leadership of George Lewis Gillespie, Jr; the cost of $125,000, at the time, was the most expensive West Coast lighthouse built surpassed by the St. George Reef Light off the northern California coast. In early January 1881, when the lighthouse was near completion, the barque Lupatia was sailing in thick fog and high winds when the ship's Captain noticed that they were too close to shore. Wheeler, the official in charge of the lighthouse's construction, heard the voices of the panicked crew and ordered his men to place lanterns in the tower, light a bonfire to signal the ship that they were 600 feet from the rock; the ship appeared to have been able to turn itself toward returning to sea, however disappeared into the fog, Wheeler was not able to hear the crew. The next day, the bodies of all 16 crew members were found washed up on shore of Tillamook Head; the only survivor of the wreck was the crew's dog.

The tower was first lit on January 21, 1881, was assigned with four keepers. Duty at the Tillamook Light was considered difficult due to the isolation from civilization, the severe weather conditions; the light was nicknamed "Terrible Tilly", for the stormy conditions of its location. Throughout its history, the area was hit by large, violent storms that damaged the lighthouse with large waves and debris, on several occasions, the tower was flooded after the lantern room windows were broken by large debris; the lighthouse had four head keepers during its first two years and in 1897, a telephone line was installed, though a storm cut it shortly afterwards. During a storm in 1912, 100 tons of rock were shorn off the western end of the rock, the windows were cemented over, replaced by small portholes. On October 21, 1934, the original lens was destroyed by a large storm that leveled parts of the tower railing and damaged the landing platform. Winds had reached 109 miles per hour, launching boulders and debri