The Return of the King is the third and final volume of J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings, following The Fellowship of the Ring and The Two Towers; the story begins in the kingdom of Gondor, soon to be attacked by the Dark Lord Sauron. Tolkien conceived of The Lord of the Rings as a single volume comprising six "books" plus extensive appendices; the original publisher split the work into three volumes, publishing the fifth and sixth books with the appendices into the final volume with the title The Return of the King. Tolkien felt the chosen title revealed too much of the story, indicated he preferred The War of the Ring as a title; the proposed title for Book V was The War of the Ring. Book VI was to be The End of the Third Age; these titles were used in the Millennium edition. The Return of the King was in the end published as the third and final volume of The Lord of the Rings, on 20 October 1955 in the UK. Gandalf and Pippin arrive at Minas Tirith in the kingdom of Gondor, there Pippin gets to view for the first time the mighty city built on seven levels and with the Tower of Ecthelion high above the Pelennor Fields.
They meet Denethor, the Lord and Steward of Gondor, deliver the news to him of Boromir's death, as well as the fact that a devastating attack on his city by Sauron, the Dark Lord of Mordor, is imminent. Stung by the scorn of Denethor, Pippin enters the service of the Steward as repayment of a debt he owes to Boromir, Denethor's dead son and preferred heir. Pippin meets Beregond, a guard of the Citadel, who tutors him in his duties, his young son Bergil, who guides him around Minas Tirith. In the middle of the night, Gandalf returns to their room, frustrated that Faramir has not yet returned. Meanwhile, in Rohan, King Théoden and his Rohirrim are recovering from the Battle of the Hornburg, in which they defended Rohan against the forces of Saruman at great cost. On their way back from Isengard, the king, his company are met by the Company of Rangers from Arnor in the north, led by Elladan and Elrohir, the sons of Elrond, Halbarad, a leader of Rangers from the North, they had answered the summons of Galadriel to join Aragorn in his cause.
When they return to Hornburg, Aragorn informs the king that he shall not ride with the Rohirrim, having confronted Sauron through the palantír of Isengard. Instead, able to see a new threat to Gondor, he decides to travel the Paths of the Dead and find the lost army of the undead oathbreakers who dwell under the Dwimorberg, the Haunted Mountain; these spirits were cursed. Helped by his companions Legolas and Gimli as well as the Grey Company, they ride to Dunharrow; when they arrive, Éowyn, tries to dissuade Aragorn from going and then—desperate to stay with him—tries to go as well. Aragorn cannot release Éowyn from her duties and cannot return the love she has for him and reluctantly sets out the next morning to recruit the Army of the Dead to his cause; the company passes under the Haunted Mountain where they come across the bones of a missing prince of Rohan, who had foolishly ventured on the Paths of the Dead. The company comes out on the other side of the mountain into the valley of the Morthond River in Gondor and proceed to the Stone of Erech.
There, the Oathbreakers gather around the Grey Company in the middle of the night and resolve to fulfil their oath. They all ride east to the great port of Pelargir and vanish into the storm of Mordor. After Aragorn departs on his impossible task, King Théoden, Éomer, Merry arrive in Dunharrow to muster the Rohirrim and come to the aid of Gondor, they enter the upper hold of Dunharrow via a narrow switchback path where they see old "Pukel-Men" sculptures guarding the turns. Merry is so moved by the kindness of Théoden that he enters his service and is made a Knight of the Mark. Seeing Éowyn grieved by Aragorn's departure, Merry asks about the Paths of Dead and is told the story by Théoden of how King Brego and his son Baldor discovered the entrance to the chambers under the Haunted Mountain and how Baldor rashly spoke an oath to travel the Paths of the Dead; the next morning was dominated by the darkness of Mordor and two riders from Gondor showing Théoden the Red Arrow, Gondor's official call for aid from Rohan.
The King and Éomer gather the riders and set out from Dunharrow and Edoras. Eager to go to war with his allies, Merry is refused by Théoden several times. Dernhelm, one of the Rohirrim, secretly takes Merry up on his horse so that he can accompany the rest of the Rohirrim. Back in Minas Tirith, Pippin is now clad in the uniform of the tower guard and watches the fortunes of war unfold. Faramir, Boromir's younger brother, returns from his campaign with the shattered remnants of his company from Ithilien where he reveals that he has met Frodo and Sam and allowed them to continue on their mission; when Gandalf hears that they are heading for Cirith Ungol, he becomes afraid, Denethor becomes angry at Faramir for what he thinks was a foolish decision. The next day, Denethor orders Faramir to ride out and continue the hopeless defence of Osgiliath against a horde of orcs. Osgiliath is soon overrun and a gravely wounded Faramir is carried back to Denethor. Denethor descends into madness as the hosts of Mordor press closer to Gondor's capital city of Minas Tirith, burning the Pelennor Fields and the first circle of the city.
His people lost and his only remaining son all but dead, Denethor orders a funeral pyre built, to claim both him and his dying son. A fearful Pippin witnesses all this and runs down to the first
Vöggr, Wigg or Wigge was a young 6th century man in Scandinavian legend notable for giving Hrólfr Kraki his cognomen kraki, for avenging his death. In the Skáldskaparmál by Snorri Sturluson, Snorri relates that Hrólfr was the most renowned king in Denmark for valour and graciousness. One day a poor boy called Vöggr arrived at the king's court at Lejre and expressed his surprise that such a great king would look like a little pole. Hrólfr gave Vöggr a golden ring in recompense. In gratitude Vöggr swore to Hrólfr to avenge him. Hrólfr Kraki's saga tells that when Hrólfr Kraki went to the Swedish king Aðils, queen Yrsa presented them a man named Vöggr to entertain them; this Vöggr remarked that Hrólfr had the thin face of a Kraki. Happy with his new cognomen Hrólfr gave Vöggr a golden ring, Vöggr swore to avenge Hrólfr if anyone should kill him. Hrólfr lived in peace for some time. However, his half-elven half-sister Skuld was married to Hjörvarðr one of Hrólfr's subkings, she began to turn her husband against Hrólfr.
Under the pretext that they would wait three years before paying the accumulated tribute at one time, Skuld assembled a large army which included strong warriors, criminals and norns. She used seiðr to hide the great muster from his champions, they arrived at Lejre one Yule for the midwinter blóts, with all the weapons hidden in wagons. A fight started and like in the account found in Gesta Danorum, Bödvar Bjarki fought in the shape of a spirit bear until he was awakened by Hjalti. Skuld used her witchcraft to resuscitate her fallen warriors and after a long fight Hrólfr and all his berserkers fell. Skuld did not rule well. Bödvar Bjarki's brothers Elk-Froði and Þorir Houndsfoot went to Denmark to avenge their brother; the Swedish queen Yrsa gave them a large Swedish army headed by Vöggr. They captured Skuld before she could tortured her to death, they raised a mound for Hrólfr Kraki where he was buried together with his sword Skofnung. The Chronicon Lethrense tell that Rolf Krage was a big man in body and soul and was so generous that no one asked him for anything twice.
His sister Skulda was married against Rolf's will to Hartwar/Hiarwarth, a German earl of Skåne, but reputedly Rolf had given Skulda to him together with Sweden. This Hartwar arrived in Zealand with a large army and said that he wanted to give his tribute to Rolf, but killed Rolf together with all his men. Only one survived, who played along until he was to do homage to Hartwar, he pierced Hartwar with a sword, so Hartwar was only king one morning. However, according to a reputation, it was instead an Ake who so became king; the Gesta Danorum, by Saxo Grammaticus, tells that a young man named Wigg was impressed with Roluo's bodily size and gave him the cognomen Krage, which meant a tall tree trunk used as a ladder. Roluo liked rewarded Wigg with a heavy bracelet. Wigg swore to Roluo to avenge him, if he was killed. Roluo defeated the king of Sweden and gave Sweden to young man named Hiartuar, who married Roluo's sister Skulde. Skulde, did not like the fact that her husband had to pay taxes to Roluo and so incited Hiartuar to rebel against him.
They so went to Lejre with arms hidden in the ships, under the pretense that they wanted to pay tribute. They were well-received, but after the banquet, when most people were drunk asleep, the Swedes and the Goths proceeded to kill everyone at Roluo's residence. After a long battle, involving Roluo's champion Bjarki, who fought in the shape of a spirit bear until he was awakened by his comrade Hjalti, the Geats won and Roluo was killed. Hiartuar asked Wigg if he wanted to fight for him, Wigg said yes. Hiartuar wanted to give Wigg a sword. Having the hilt in his hand, Wigg so avenged Roluo. Swedes and Geats rushed forward and killed Wigg; the Swedish king Høtherus, the brother of Athislus, succeeded Roluo and became the king of a combined Sweden and Denmark. Another character by the same name appears in Ásmundar saga kappabana. English translations of the Old Norse Hrólfs saga kraka ok kappa hans: The Saga of Hrolf Kraki and his Champions. Trans. Peter Tunstall. Available at The Saga of Hrolf Kraki.
The Saga of King Hrolf Kraki. Trans. Jesse L. Byock. London: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-043593-X. Selections from this translation are available at The Viking Site: Excerpts from The Saga of King Hrolf Kraki. "King Hrolf and his champions" included in Eirik the Red: And Other Icelandic Sagas. Trans. Gwyn Jones. Oxford: Oxford World's Classics, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-283530-0. Original texts: Hrólfs saga kraka ok kappa hans in Old Norse from heimskringla.no University of Oregon: Norse: Fornaldarsögur norðurlanda: Hrólfs saga kraka ok kappa hans Sagnanet: Hrólfs saga kraka Anderson, Poul. Hrolf Kraki's Saga. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-23562-2. New York: Del Rey Books. ISBN 0-345-25846-0. Reprinted 1988 by Baen Books, ISBN 0-671-65426-8. Birger Nerman, 1925, Det svenska rikets uppkomst Chronicon Lethrense and Annales Lundense: Chronicon Lethrense and Annales Lundense in translation by Peter Tunstall Book 2 of Gesta Danorum at the Online and Medieval & Classical library The Relation of the Hrolfs Saga Kraka and the Bjarkarimur to Beowulf by Olson, 1916, at Project Gutenberg the Ynglinga saga i
The Kaitangata Line known as the Kaitangata Branch in its first years of operation, was a railway line in Otago, New Zealand. It was built by a private company and was acquired by the government's Mines Department, operated from 1876 until 1970, it provided a link from coal mines to the Main South Line, was never integrated into the network managed by the New Zealand Railways Department, thus although it could be seen as a branch line of the Main South Line, it never was. In 1873 local residents petitioned the Provincial Government to construct a Branch Line from the South Island Main Trunk to Ropers Creek near Kaitangata to enable coal to be transported from the mines. In 1874 the Provincial Government applied for consent to raise a £27,750 loan to construct the Branch line with an extension as far as Coal Point; this was unsuccessful and as a result the Kaitangata Rail Company began to investigate constructing its own line. Legislation was required to allow the construction of the railway by the Company.
This took the form of an ordinance by the Provincial Government, but this was disallowed by the Governor. Wishing to pursue this, the company pressed the General Assembly for consent; the ordinance was redrafted into a Bill and passed as the Kaitangata Railway and Coal Company Empowering Act 1875. The legislation was passed some months. On Friday, 26 February 1875 the Kaitangata Rail Company merged with the Kaitangata Coal Company to form the Kaitangata Railway and Coal Company. With the route of the railway from its mine in Kaitangata and to the Main South Line at Stirling, having been agreed to, fencing contracts were agreed to be called. A sod turning ceremony was carried out near the Kaitangata Creek bridge by Sir J L C Richardson on 19 June 1875. Construction of the line began under a contract let in May 1875, using about 40 Chinese labourers and some Europeans under A Jerusalem Smyth. By September they had completed some 4.5 miles of the rail bed. The sleepers for the line were locally produced, while the rails came from the Darlington Iron Company and the spikes and nuts came from Bayliss and Bayliss of Wolverhampton.
The New Zealand Government Inspector, Mr G B Bruce of Westminster, checked the quality of these products prior to them being shipped on the Mataura. A locomotive and 25 coal trucks were ordered in September or early October from James Davidson and Co of Dunedin. By the end of February 1876 the lines had been laid and ballasting commenced; the intention was to open the line for freight and a few weeks passenger traffic. Ballasting was completed on 31 March and although the line was considered ready for traffic, its formal opening was announced to be held on 1 May. By June a goods shed and engine shed were under construction at Kaitangata; the platform had been built. The first informal journey on the line was on 8 April when a group of local dignitaries were bought from Balclutha to Kaitangata on the line by the Company. Formal inspection of the new line was carried out by District Engineer, on 22 April. By 20 May passenger and goods trains were running daily on the line; these early trains were Government owned ones as the Company was still waiting for delivery of its own engine and rolling stock.
The formal opening ceremony was on 16 June 1876. About 300 people journeyed by train from Dunedin to attend the opening performed by the Mayor of Dunedin, H J Walker. Andrew Davidson was the conductor on the train. At the ceremony, the company announced its intention to acquire a second engine and run three trains a day on the line. Shares in the Company were selling for £10. A timetable had been introduced by December 1876 with two trains each day at 10:10 a.m. and 4:55 p.m. On Mondays and Saturdays the trains were at 7:30 p.m.. By March 1877 there were three trains per day at 10:10 a.m. 2:10 p.m. and 4:45 p.m. as had been mooted in when the line was opened. In April the Company announced; this met with considerable outcry and a call for the Government to take over ownership on running of the line. The rates being charged by the Company were one shilling 6 pence for passengers from Kaitangata to Stirling, 2/6 per ton for grain, 10/- per truck for firewood. At the meeting Coal was said to be charged at £2 per ton.
Shares in the Company had dropped to £7 in value by July. A severe flood in late September 1878 undermined the railway bridge piles at Kaitangata, putting the line out of action. By the end of December the line was back in use. On 21 February 1879 trains used the line to bring rescue workers and officials to the Kaitangata Mine disaster. An engine shed. Goods shed, a station building were located at Kaitangata, 5.95 km from the Main South Line. Although the station bore much resemblance to buildings on the national network operated by the Railways Department, the line was never part of its network. Trains were operated by the Railways Department on behalf of the private owners and the line appeared in working timetables as the Kaitangata Branch, but by the 1880s, this practice had ceased and private operation took over. Passenger services were provided until 1937; until 1963, an extension ran down a road to the Castle Hill Mine, for much of its life the line was operated by both a tank engine built to the design of a D class engine and an "Improved F" 0-6-0 tank locomotive, constructed in 1896 by Sharp, Stewart & Co.
The first engines on the line were Government owned. These were followed in July 1876 by the Company's engine Jerusalem constructed by Davidson and Co of Dunedin. By September 1877 the Company still only owned one engine. In 1956, the
Grow It Yourself Ireland in Ireland that aims to give its members the skills and confidence needed to grow vegetables and fruit successfully. GIY was founded by journalist and author Michael Kelly in 2008. Having grown his own fruits and vegetables for several years, he discovered there was no local food growers group in Waterford, so he set one up himself. Early in 2009, Kelly with the aid of some of his fellow growers in the Waterford area decided to set up GIY Ireland, with the aim of opening a GIY group in every town in Ireland. There are now over 80 active local GIY groups in Ireland, five groups based in Australia; each local group will hold a monthly meeting where there will be a variety of activities, including guest speakers and seedling swaps, garden/farm visits and demonstrations. Members are encouraged to form meitheals with their fellow GIYers to complete any gardening related tasks that would be to big for one person to do alone e.g. making raised beds or pruning an orchard. In 2010 GIY Ireland took part in the Bloom Festival.
With the help of Award winning designer Fiann ó Nualláin, volunteers from many different GIY groups around Ireland grew the vegetables and helped to assemble GIYs entry, called "The GIY Edible Garden", into that year's Festival. GIY ran a schools competition to get school children to design a scarecrow for the garden, with the winning entry being selected to stand in the garden; the entry won a silver medal in the "Show Gardens" category. On December 14th 2014 work began on the GIY National Food Education Centre on a three-acre site on the Outer Ring Road at Ardkeen, Waterford City, Ireland; the facility, due to open in September 2016 will feature a grow school, cookery school, 60-seat home-grown food café, farm shop and training gardens on which food for the cafe and school will be cultivated. GIY has attracted a number of high-profile celebrities as their patrons; the current patrons are: Darina Allen - Ballymaloe Cookery School Founder. Diarmuid Gavin - Garden Designer and TV Presenter. Ella McSweeney - Broadcaster and TV Presenter.
The Arthur Guinness Fund. Klaus Laitenberger - Organic Lecturer and Author. Duncan Stewart - Environmentalist and Broadcaster. Joy Larkcom - Author of'Grow your own Vegetable'. Clodagh McKenna - Chef and Broadcaster. Https://archive.is/20130102195708/http://www.giyireland.com/ http://www.rte.ie/tv/eartotheground/s2p8.html https://web.archive.org/web/20110216195230/http://www.rte.ie/radio1/countrywide/2010-09-11.html http://www.rte.ie/tv/programmes/ear_to_the_ground.html http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/magazine/2010/0529/1224271319001.html
EmelFM2 is an orthodox file manager which uses the GTK+ 2 widget toolkit for X11 on Unix-like operating systems. The default window layout is two filesystem directories in the left and right panes similar to that found in Norton Commander, a strip down the middle with used commands to operate on files in one or both of these browsing panes, a log which shows the output of commands at the bottom; this layout is configurable - for example, the panes can be reorganized so that the directory panes are stacked vertically or it can be set to have only one directory pane. The colors, included functions and file descriptor columns are all configurable. EmelFM2 ships with the function keys bound to the common commands which keybindings can be customized. EmelFM2 mounted filesystems; every feature, including user-created functions, can be used through the GUI or with keyboard shortcuts. Comparison of file managers Official website Project page at Gnomefiles "emelFM2". Freecode
Thirroul is a northern seaside suburb of the city of Wollongong, Australia. Situated between Austinmer and Bulli, it is 13 kilometres north of Wollongong, 69 km south of Sydney, it lies between the Pacific Ocean and a section of the Illawarra escarpment known as Lady Fuller Park, adjacent to Bulli Pass Scenic Reserve. Before European settlement, Wodi Wodi Aborigines inhabited the area known as Thurrural, meaning "The Valley of the Cabbage Tree Palms". Cabbage tree palms were once plentiful in the area. Early white settlers used cabbage tree palms to make strong fence posts; the trees are still present on either side of Bulli Pass. Early settlement began in the late 1860s in the hilly area of the village as the lower beachside area was swampy and susceptible to flooding with high tides sometimes combining with heavy rain. Occupations consisted of farming, cedar logging and fruit growing and mining when the Bulli Mine was opened in 1859 and the Bulli Jetty which shipped the coal from the mine opened in 1863.
The township was known as North Bulli until February 1880. The new name was decided upon at a meeting of ten men in George's Whitford's "big new House" in 1880. One suggestion for a name for the place was "Mudmire" but somehow Robbins convinced the others to call the town after himself, it only had a total population of 490 in 1891. The town was known as Robbinsville until 1892, when the name "Thirroul" was adopted by the Railways Department - most due to the influence of the politician Archibald Campbell, then owner and editor of the Illawarra Mercury who included both the names "Thirroul and "Throon" in a still-extant list of Aboriginal words he compiled in the early 1890s; the name "Thirroul", appears to be a misnomer. William Saddler contacted the Illawarra Mercury newspaper and complained about the "meaningless" name, he said the area was called "Throon" which meant "Bush leech". Saddler claims Aboriginal people warned their children about the large number of leeches found high on the escarpment near the site of what would become the Excelsior Colliery.
In 1888 the rail link with Sydney was finished. Early construction workers on the railway caused a population increase, the eastern side of the town progressed rapidly; the Thirroul Locomotive Depot opened in 1917. It closed in 1965 and only the barracks for the accommodation of the railway crews remain; the Railway Institute Hall where workers once studied has been classified as a heritage building. The construction of the rail link created an increase in tourism for Thirroul, it became a popular family seaside holiday destination with boarding houses and holiday cottages in demand. Two known early residents include Frederick Robbins. McCauley was one of the oldest residents of the Illawarra district when he died in June 1899 in Thirroul. A street in Thirroul has been named McCauley street. Robbins was a prominent resident who gave his name to the township of North Bulli as it was called, he was made the first postmaster of Robbinsville in 1888 after, along with other residents, lobbying the government to supply a post office and railway platform.
In 1898 the Amy was shipwrecked on the rocks at the southern end of Thirroul beach. All of its crew died. A memorial plaque to the Amy and her crew is located in the Thirroul Beach Park. Coal mining operations began at the start of the 20th century and miners needed residences, though logging had been occurring before for some time; the world-famous English author, D. H. Lawrence visited Thirroul in 1922 and wrote the novel Kangaroo about Australian fringe politics after the First World War whilst there. Overlooking the Pacific Ocean, his house Wyewurk is the earliest Australian bungalow to show the influence of the Californian Bungalow style of architecture, he gave this description of the town: "... The town trailed down from the foot of the mountain towards the railway, a huddle of grey and red painted iron roofs. Over the rail line towards the sea, it began again in a spasmodic fashion... There were wide unmade roads running straight as to go nowhere, with little bungalow homes... Quite near the inland, rose a great black wall of mountain or cliff...".
A park and a monument commemorate D H Lawrence's time at Thirroul in 1922 when he wrote the novel "Kangaroo". The book D. H. Lawrence at Thirroul by lifelong Thirroul resident Joseph Davis was published by Collins in 1989 and questioned many of the assumptions made by Robert Darroch in his 1981 work entitled "D. H. Lawrence in Australia" published by Macmillan; the Cambridge edition of Kangaroo tended to accept the views of Davis rather than those of Darroch. Davis has gone on to write numerous articles and a number of books about art and the environment in Thirroul and the local area, including "Greetings from Thirroul", "Greetings from Wollongong", "The Illawarra Society of Artists", "Lake Illawarra: an ongoing history", "John Brown of Brownsville", "Gooseberry & Hooka","One Hundred Seasons", "Wobbly Wollongong", "The Real Alexander Harris" and "Rachel Henning and Deighton Taylor in Illawarra 1853-1896". Michael Bialoguski to become a prominent player in the Petrov Affair and still an orchestral conductor in the UK and Europe, had a medical practice in Thirroul in the late 1940s.