Extraterrestrials in fiction
An extraterrestrial or alien is any extraterrestrial lifeform. The word extraterrestrial means "outside Earth"; the first published use of extraterrestrial as a noun occurred in 1956, during the Golden Age of Science Fiction. Extraterrestrials are a common theme in modern science-fiction, appeared in much earlier works such as the second-century parody True History by Lucian of Samosata. Gary Westfahl writes: Science fiction aliens are both metaphors and real possibilities. One can probe the nature of humanity with aliens that by contrast illustrate and comment upon human nature. Still, as evidenced by widespread belief in alien visitors and efforts to detect extraterrestrial radio signals, humans crave companionship in a vast, cold universe and aliens may represent hopeful, compensatory images of the strange friends we have been unable to find. Thus, aliens will remain a central theme in science fiction until we encounter them. Cosmic pluralism, the assumption that there are many inhabited worlds beyond the human sphere predates modernity and the development of the heliocentric model and is common in mythologies worldwide.
The 2nd century writer of satires, Lucian, in his True History claims to have visited the moon when his ship was sent up by a fountain, peopled and at war with the people of the Sun over colonisation of the Morning Star. Other worlds are depicted in such early works as the 10th-century Japanese narrative, The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter, the medieval Arabic The Adventures of Bulukiya; the assumption of extraterrestrial life in the narrow sense becomes possible with the development of the heliocentric understanding of the solar system, the understanding of interstellar space, during the Early Modern period, the topic was popular in the literature of the 17th and 18th century. In Johannes Kepler's Somnium, published in 1634, the character Duracotus is transported to the moon by demons. If much of the story is fantasy, the scientific facts about the moon and how the lunar environment has shaped its non-human inhabitants are science fiction; the didactic poet Henry More took up the classical theme of Cosmic pluralism of the Greek Democritus in "Democritus Platonissans, or an Essay Upon the Infinity of Worlds".
With the new relative viewpoint that understood "our world's sunne / Becomes a starre elsewhere", More made the speculative leap to extrasolar planets, the frigid spheres that'bout them fare. The possibility of extraterrestrial life was a commonplace of educated discourse in the 17th century, though in Paradise Lost John Milton cautiously employed the conditional when the angel suggests to Adam the possibility of life on the Moon: Her spots thou seest As clouds, clouds may rain, rain produce Fruits in her softened soil, for some to eat Allotted there. In "The Excursion" David Mallet exclaimed, "Ten thousand worlds blaze forth. In 1752 Voltaire published "Micromegas" that told of a giant that visits earth to impart knowledge and Washington Irving in his novel, A History of New York from the Beginning of the World to the End of the Dutch Dynasty, spoke of earth being visited by Lunarians. Camille Flammarion who lived in a time where biological science had made further progress, made speculation about how life could have evolved on other planets in works such as La pluralité des mondes habités and Recits de L'Infini, translated as Stories of Infinity in 1873.
Stories written before the genre of science fiction had found its form. Closer to the modern age is J.-H. Rosny, who wrote the short story Les Xipéhuz, about a human encounter with extraterrestrials who turns out to be a mineral life form impossible to communicate with. Authors such as H. G. Wells, Olaf Stapledon and Edgar Rice Burroughs wrote both monitory and celebratory stories of encounting aliens in their science fiction and fantasies. Westfahl sums up: "To survey science fiction aliens, one can classify them by their physiology and eventual relationships with humanity": Early works posited that aliens would be identical or similar to humans, as is true of Edgar Rice Burroughs's Martians, with variations in skin color and number of arms.... Writers realized that such humanoid aliens would not arise through parallel evolution and hence either avoided them or introduced the explanation of ancient races that populated the cosmos with similar beings; the notion surfaces in Ursula K. Le Guin's Hainish novels and was introduced to justify the humanoid aliens of Star Trek in the Star Trek: The Next Generation episode "The Chase".
Another common idea is aliens who resemble animals. Among the many fictional aliens who resemble Earth's animals, Westfahl lists: Francis Flagg's The Lizard-Men of Buh-Lo the winged Hawk-Men of the serial Flash Gordon and its sequels the insect-like alien enemies of Robert A. Hein
Stephen Edwin King is an American author of horror, supernatural fiction, science fiction, fantasy. His books have sold more than 350 million copies, many of which have been adapted into feature films, television series, comic books. King has published six non-fiction books, he has written 200 short stories, most of which have been published in book collections. King has received Bram Stoker Awards, World Fantasy Awards, British Fantasy Society Awards. In 2003, the National Book Foundation awarded him the Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters, he has received awards for his contribution to literature for his entire oeuvre, such as the World Fantasy Award for Life Achievement, the Grand Master Award from the Mystery Writers of America. In 2015, King was awarded with a National Medal of Arts from the United States National Endowment for the Arts for his contributions to literature, he has been described as the "King of Horror". King was born September 1947, in Portland, Maine, his father, Donald Edwin King, was a merchant seaman.
Donald was born under the surname Pollock, but as an adult, used the surname King. King's mother was Nellie Ruth; when Stephen King was two years old, his father left the family. King's mother raised Stephen and his older brother, David, by herself, sometimes under great financial strain; the family moved to De Pere, Fort Wayne and Stratford, Connecticut. When King was 11, his family returned to Durham, where his mother cared for her parents until their deaths, she became a caregiver in a local residential facility for the mentally challenged. King lost his belief in organized religion while in high school. While no longer religious, King chooses to believe in the existence of God; as a child, King witnessed one of his friends being struck and killed by a train, though he has no memory of the event. His family told him that after leaving home to play with the boy, King returned, speechless and in shock. Only did the family learn of the friend's death; some commentators have suggested that this event may have psychologically inspired some of King's darker works, but King makes no mention of it in his memoir On Writing.
King related in detail his primary inspiration for writing horror fiction in his non-fiction Danse Macabre, in a chapter titled "An Annoying Autobiographical Pause." King compares his uncle's dowsing for water using the bough of an apple branch with the sudden realization of what he wanted to do for a living. That inspiration occurred while browsing through an attic with his elder brother, when King uncovered a paperback version of an H. P. Lovecraft collection of short stories he remembers as The Lurker in the Shadows, that had belonged to his father. King told Barnes & Noble Studios during a 2009 interview, "I knew that I'd found home when I read that book."King attended Durham Elementary School and graduated from Lisbon Falls High School, in Lisbon Falls, Maine. He displayed an early interest in horror as an avid reader of EC's horror comics, including Tales from the Crypt, he began writing for fun while still in school, contributing articles to Dave's Rag, the newspaper his brother published with a mimeograph machine, began selling to his friends stories based on movies he had seen.
The first of his stories to be independently published was "I Was a Teenage Grave Robber". That story was published the following year in a revised form as "In a Half-World of Terror" in another fanzine, Stories of Suspense, edited by Marv Wolfman; as a teen, King won a Scholastic Art and Writing Award. From 1966, King studied at the University of Maine, graduating in 1970 with a Bachelor of Arts in English; that year, his daughter Naomi Rachel was born. He wrote a column, Steve King's Garbage Truck, for the student newspaper, The Maine Campus, participated in a writing workshop organized by Burton Hatlen. King held a variety of jobs to pay for his studies, including janitor, gas pump attendant, worker at an industrial laundry. King met his future wife, fellow student Tabitha Spruce, at the University's Fogler Library after one of Professor Hatlen's workshops. King sold his first professional short story, "The Glass Floor," to Startling Mystery Stories in 1967. After graduating from the University of Maine, King earned a certificate to teach high school but, unable to find a teaching post initially supplemented his laboring wage by selling short stories to men's magazines such as Cavalier.
Many of these early stories have been republished in the collection Night Shift. The short story The Raft was published in a men's magazine. After being arrested for driving over a traffic cone, he was fined $250 and had no money to pay the petty larceny fine. However, payment arrived for the short story The Raft, King was able to pay the fine. In 1971, King was hired as a teacher at Hampden Academy in Maine, he worked on ideas for novels. In 1973, King's novel Carrie was accepted by publishing house Doubleday. Carrie was King's fourth novel, it was written on a portable typewriter. The novel began as a short story intended for Cavalier magazine, but King tossed the first three pages of his work in the garbage can. Tabith
The Galaxy Being
"The Galaxy Being" is the first episode of the original The Outer Limits television series broadcast on September 16, 1963. In it, Allan Maxwell, an engineer for a small radio station, somehow makes contact with a peaceful alien creature – the "Galaxy Being" –, transported to Earth by accident; the Galaxy Being inadvertently kills several people with its natural radiation, is met with violence and hysteria from the people of Earth. Allan Maxwell is an engineer who has dedicated himself to researching microwave background noise using a device powered from his radio station, he inadvertently gets an extraterrestrial from Andromeda on his three-dimensional television screen. Using his computer, Allan is able to translate the extraterrestrial's thought patterns into English. Both are conducting illicit experiments. "Reason we are not allowed to contact you, you are danger to other galaxies." Allan and the extraterrestrial have further enlightening, philosophical conversations, in which no epistemological basis is given for the Andromedan's opinion that Maxwell's own "brain waves" will "go on" subsequent to the death of his carbon-based body.
Maxwell hears the opinion that "Infinity is God. God, all the same" after the being explains "electromagnetic forces underlying all... electromagnetic force intelligent", in response to Maxwell's query regarding whether the alien believes in God as an intelligent force. Much of this interaction, along with Maxwell's earlier discussion of Faraday with his wife, is a play on James Clerk Maxwell the father of electromagnetic theory and his predecessor Michael Faraday, as is the alien's reference to quaternions when stating that its species uses "4 dimension numbers" to identify themselves rather than names. In the evening, Allan reluctantly leaves the radio station to be feted at a banquet, while leaving the channel to the extraterrestrial open. DJ Eddie Phillips, substituting for Allan's brother Gene "Buddy" Maxwell, after being told not to, turns up the power to full, causing the extraterrestrial to be transmitted to Earth as a three-dimensional electromagnetic being. The'Galaxy Being', as it is dubbed, wreaks inadvertent havoc, killing Eddie and injuring several other people by burning them with natural radiation.
The extraterrestrial encounters Allan in person, who convinces it to turn down the heat, guides it back to the transmitter shed. They are soon cornered by local authorities, who accidentally shoot Carol; the Galaxy Being uses beneficial radiation to heal the wound. When the Galaxy Being emerges, the authorities attempt to kill it; as a warning demonstration, the Galaxy Being destroys the transmitter tower. The mob is told. ... There is much. … Go to your homes. Go and give thought to the mysteries of the universe. I will leave you now, in peace." At this, the crowd disperses. The Galaxy Being chooses not to return home inasmuch as it has violated a law forbidding contact with Earth. So, after first reassuring Allan that "There is no death for me," answering his concerns that it would disintegrate, the Galaxy Being reduces its microwave intensity which causes it to fade out from the Terran realm, its last words as it vanishes into another putative dimension are "End of transmission". Note: The Outer Limits now-famous introduction and epilogue narration heard from "The Control Voice" was performed by veteran radio, screen and TV actor, Vic Perrin.
Booker observes that the engineer and the Galaxy Being are variations of the television and science fiction tropes of the mad scientist and the invading alien, albeit with a reversal typical of The Outer Limits that both the scientist and the alien are benevolent, it is the ordinary human beings of Earth who are the villains in the story. The story itself dramatized the coverage in popular media of the time of speculation as to whether other planets could be contacted via radio, most the "Project Ozma" search for radio signals from extraterrestrial intelligence, it developed these themes further into a story about electronic existentialism, tapped into themes prevalent in U. S. culture at the time, including the televisation of the space race and the fascination with television transmission in general. The Galaxy Being itself echoed the contemporary words of NASA with lines such as "You must explore. You must reach out."The story had elements of horror. As did another Outer Limits story, "The Borderland", it addressed the idea of an electronic limbo that exists when television signals cease transmission or are broadcast out into space, raising questions such as where the Galaxy Being goes when he turns off the transmitter.
This horror of oblivion was to occur in several other Outer Limits episodes. Cliff Robertson – as Allan Maxwell Jacqueline Scott – as Carol Maxwell Lee Philips – as Gene "Buddy" Maxwell William O. Douglas Jr and Charles McQuarry – as The Galaxy Being Leslie Stevens – as The Voice of The Galaxy Being Burt Metcalfe – as Eddie Phillips Allyson Ames – as Loreen James Frawley – as State Trooper Bill Catching – as National Guard Major Allan Pinson – as Policeman Roy Sickner – as Collins, the Caretaker Filming took nine days to complete, at radio station KCBR in Coldwater Canyon, MGM Backlot #4 Andy Hardy Street, Soundstage #3 at KTTV Channel 11; the Budget for the production was $213,000. "The Galaxy Being" on IMDb "The Galaxy
The Tommyknockers is a 1987 science fiction novel by Stephen King. While maintaining a horror style, the novel is an excursion into the realm of science fiction for King, as the residents of the Maine town of Haven fall under the influence of a mysterious object buried in the woods. King would look back on the novel unfavorably, describing it as "an awful book." While walking in the woods near the small town of Haven, Roberta Anderson, a writer of Wild West-themed fiction, stumbles upon a metal object that turns out to be a protrusion of a long-buried alien spacecraft. Once exposed, the spacecraft begins to release an invisible gas into the atmosphere that transforms people into beings similar to the aliens who populated the ship; the transformation, or "becoming," provides them with a limited form of genius which makes them inventive but does not provide any philosophical or ethical insight into their inventions. The spacecraft prevents those affected by it from leaving town, provokes psychotic violence in some people, causes the disappearance of a young boy, David Brown, whose older brother Hilly teleports him to the planet referred to as Altair 4 by the Havenites.
The book's central character is James Eric Gardener, a poet and friend of Bobbi Anderson, who goes by the nickname "Gard". He is somewhat immune to the ship's effects because of the steel plate in his head, a souvenir of a teenage skiing accident. Gard is an alcoholic and is prone to binges that result in violent outbursts followed by lengthy blackouts; as Bobbi is totally overcome by the euphoria of "becoming" one with the spacecraft, Gard sees her health worsen and her sanity disappear. Seeing the transformation of the townspeople worsen, the torture and manipulation of Bobbi's dog Peter, people being killed or worse when they pry too into the strange events, Gard manipulates Bobbi into allowing him into the ship. After he sees that Bobbi is not his old friend and lover, he shoots and kills her. Ev Hillman and Hilly's grandfather, helps Gardener escape into the woods in exchange for saving David Brown from Altair-4. Gard enters the ship near death after his struggle with the townspeople. With his last ounce of strength, he telepathically launches it into space.
This results in the eventual deaths of nearly all of the changed townspeople but prevents the disastrous consequences of the ship's influence spreading to the outside world. Shortly afterward, agents from the FBI, CIA, "The Shop" invade Haven and take as many of the Havenites as possible, along with a few of the devices created by the altered people of Haven. In the last pages, David Brown is discovered sound in Hilly Brown's hospital room. In his autobiography On Writing, King attributes the basic premise to the short story "The Colour Out of Space" by H. P. Lovecraft, he used a poem from his childhood for the book's preamble: The writer and critic Kim Newman said of the novel that King had "more or less rewritten Quatermass and the Pit", a television serial from the late 1950s, in which an alien spacecraft excavated in London evokes latent psychic abilities in some of the people who come near it. King wrote The Tommyknockers at a time. Metaphors for the stranglehold of addiction can be found throughout the book.
In an interview with Rolling Stone, King acknowledged that the quality of his writing suffered during his period of drug use, saying, "The Tommyknockers is an awful book. That was the last one I wrote before I cleaned up my act."Other themes in the book include the dangers of unchecked technological advancement and the corrupting influence of power. The physical transformation of the townspeople resembles the toxic effects of ionizing radiation. A two-part television miniseries based on the novel was shown in 1993 on ABC, starring Jimmy Smits as Jim Gardner and Marg Helgenberger as Bobbi Anderson. NBC announced in July 2013. THR reported on March 29, 2018 that The Conjuring filmmaker James Wan and the 2017 It producer Roy Lee will join up with producer Larry Sanitsky to create a feature film version of The Tommyknockers. Stephen King bibliography
Brad Wright is a Canadian television producer and actor. He is best known as the co-creator of the television series Stargate SG-1, Stargate Atlantis and Stargate Universe and as the creator of Travelers, he was born in Toronto, Canada. Before the inception of the Stargate franchise, he served as the co-executive producer and a writer of The Outer Limits, he has written scripts for several other television series including Neon Rider, Adventures of the Black Stallion, The Odyssey, Highlander: The Series and Poltergeist: The Legacy. He has appeared twice in Stargate SG-1, as a studio executive in the 100th episode, "Wormhole X-Treme!", as a parody of Star Trek's Scotty in a fantasy sequence in the 200th episode, "200". In April 2007, in recognition of his efforts to promote Canadian writing talent, to recognize his efforts as the primary creative writing force on the Stargate shows, Wright was presented with the inaugural "Showrunner Award" at the Canadian Screenwriting Awards in Toronto. In July of the same year, he won the 2007 Constellation Award in the category Best Overall 2006 Science Fiction Film or Television Script for the episode of Stargate SG-1 entitled "200".
In late March 2009, Wright was nominated for a Nebula Award for "Best Script." The nomination was for the season 5 Stargate Atlantis episode "The Shrine." Brad Wright at the official Stargate website Brad Wright on IMDb
Steven Robert Weber is an American actor. He is best known for his role as Brian Hackett on the television show Wings which aired from April 1990 to May 1997 on NBC and as Sam Blue in Once and Again, he had a recurring role on iZombie as Vaughn du Clark. He plays Mayor Douglas Hamilton on NCIS: New Orleans in a recurring role. Weber was born in Briarwood, New York, his mother, was a nightclub singer, his father, Stuart Weber, was a nightclub performer and manager of Borscht Belt comedians. Weber embraces his Jewish heritage despite not having received a formal religious education. Weber graduated from Manhattan's High School of Performing Arts and the State University of New York at Purchase. Weber started appearing in TV commercials in the third grade. After leaving college, he became a member of the Mirror Repertory Company and appeared opposite legendary actress Geraldine Page in several productions before winning a role as Julianne Moore's ill-tempered and ill-fated boyfriend on the CBS daytime drama As the World Turns in 1985-86.
He appeared in several motion pictures and TV mini-series, such as The Flamingo Kid, Hamburger Hill, the acclaimed The Kennedys of Massachusetts. His best-known role is as a skirt-chasing airplane pilot on the sitcom Wings. Several years Weber starred in his own short-lived half-hour comedy Cursed, joined the cast of ABC's Once and Again as the tortured artist Sam Blue, starred the next year in the acclaimed show The D. A. for ABC. Weber had lead roles in the 1990s hit movies Single White Female and Jeffrey. Weber first appeared on Broadway in Tom Stoppard's The Real Thing and in 2001-2002 took over for Matthew Broderick as Leo Bloom in the Broadway production of The Producers. In 2005, he appeared alongside Kevin Spacey in London at the Old Vic's production of National Anthems. Weber wrote and produced 2003's Clubland, a Showtime movie in which he and Alan Alda played father and son talent agents in 1950s New York City, he appeared in three Stephen King adaptations: Desperation, "You Know They Got a Hell of a Band" from the Nightmares & Dreamscapes mini-series, in the television mini-series version of Stephen King's The Shining, playing the murderous writer Jack Torrance.
He narrated the audiobook version of King's novel It. In 1998, he played the voice of wisecracking Alsatian Charlie B. Barkin in An All Dogs Christmas Carol, a role he earlier played in 1996 in All Dogs Go to Heaven: The Series. In 2007, he rejoined former Wings co-star Tony Shalhoub in a guest role on Monk; the same year, Weber played the role of network boss Jack Rudolph in the NBC series Studio 60 on the Sunset Strip. In 2008, Weber starred in Alliance Group Entertainment's feature film Farm House, where he played Samael, a mysterious vineyard owner. Weber guest starred on the drama series Brothers and Sisters as Graham Finch, a business specialist, he guest-starred on Psych as Jack Spencer, Shawn Spencer's uncle and Henry Spencer's brother. He starred on Desperate Housewives in 2008. Weber appeared as a recurring guest on the 2008-09 season of the CBS crime drama Without a Trace, he was part of the cast of the now cancelled ABC show Happy Town and had a major role in the TV movie A Fairly Odd Movie: Grow Up, Timmy Turner! in which he played the villain "Hugh J. Magnate Jr."
He stars in the live action comic Puddin', alongside actor Eddie Pepitone. He narrated. Between 2012 and 2017, Weber provided the voices of several characters on the Disney XD animated series Ultimate Spider-Man. In 2014, Weber rejoined former Wings co-star Rebecca Schull in Chasing Life in recurring character roles. In 2017, Weber made a guest appearance in the Curb Your Enthusiasm. Weber was married to actress Finn Carter from 1985 to 1992. In 1995, he became engaged to Juliette Hohnen the Los Angeles bureau chief for MTV News, they married on July 29 that year at Highclere Castle in Berkshire, England, she filed for divorce on February 2013, after 17 years of marriage. The couple has two sons. Steven Weber on IMDb Steven Weber at the Internet Broadway Database Steven Weber at Internet Off-Broadway Database Steven Weber's Huffington Post Blog
The Outer Limits (1995 TV series)
The Outer Limits is a Canadian-American television series that aired on Showtime, Syfy and in syndication between 1995 and 2002. The series is a revival of the original The Outer Limits series that aired from 1963–65; the Outer Limits is an anthology of distinct story episodes, sometimes with a plot twist at the end. The revival series maintained an anthology format, but featured recurring story elements that were tied together during season-finale clip shows. Over the course of the series, 154 episodes were aired, its stories are described as more science fiction-based and less dark fantasy than those of The Twilight Zone. After an attempt to bring back The Outer Limits during the early 1980s, it was relaunched in 1995; the success of television speculative fiction such as Star Trek: The Next Generation, The X-Files, anthology shows such as Tales from the Crypt convinced rights holder Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to revive The Outer Limits. A deal was made with Trilogy Productions, the company behind such cinema hits as Backdraft and Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves.
The show would run on the pay-TV channel Showtime. The episodes appeared in syndication the following season, it continued on Showtime until 2001, when Sci-Fi took over production for the seventh and final season. As a result, that season, unlike the previous ones, was free of any swearing or nudity, it was canceled in 2002, after a total of 154 episodes—far more than the original incarnation of the show. In the revived show, the Control Voice was supplied by Kevin Conway; the new series distanced itself from the "monster of the week" mandate that had characterized the original series from its inception. Examples of this include "Dark Rain", "Final Exam", "A Stitch in Time", as well as two episodes revolving around a human mutation known as Genetic Rejection Syndrome as a result of an outlawed eugenics attempt to create superior children; the series was filmed in Vancouver, British Columbia. Stories by Harlan Ellison, A. E. van Vogt, Eando Binder, Larry Niven, Richard Matheson, George R. R. Martin, Stephen King, James Patrick Kelly were adapted.
Leslie Stevens was a program consultant for the first four seasons, while Joseph Stefano served as an executive consultant and senior advisor throughout the whole series. Stefano remade his episode "A Feasibility Study", retitling it "Feasibility Study" for the third season. Mark Mancina and John Van Tongeren composed new music different from that of Dominic Frontiere and Harry Lubin, they scored ten episodes for the first season. The musical theme for the modern Outer Limits series is credited to Mark Mancina and John VanTongeren. However, the same music is used in The Ambush, a theme in the soundtrack of Dune 2000. In most seasons there was a clip show. At each commercial interval, the Control Voice can be heard saying "The Outer Limits...please stand by". The voice repeats this phrase upon return from the television ads; the surreal images from the opening are the work of Jerry Uelsmann. A number of episodes from seasons 1–6 feature nudity and other adult content. Though broadcast uncensored, those episodes have been edited for commercial syndication.
Between 1997 and 1999, a series of books based on the show but aimed towards younger readers was published by Tor Books, penned by genre fiction author John Peel. The first, The Zanti Misfits, was a loose adaptation of the eponymous 1963 series episode, while others were based on episodes from the new series; the Zanti Misfits The Choice The Time Shifter The Lost The Invaders The Innocent The Vanished The Nightmare Beware the Metal Children Alien Invasion from Hollyweird The Payback The Change Between 2002–2006, six themed DVD anthologies of The Outer Limits, with six episodes each, were released by MGM in the US: Aliens Among Us, Death & Beyond, Fantastic Androids & Robots, Mutation & Transformation, Sex & Science Fiction and Time Travel & Infinity. These DVDs all contain the original uncut episodes, as aired, were collected in a box set, The Outer Limits: The New Series; the Aliens and Sex titles were released by MGM in the UK and Benelux. Season 1 was with extra features on DVD in the US, UK and Germany.
Because sales of the set did not meet expectations no further seasons were released. In 2010, Canada's Alliance Home Entertainment released all seven seasons on DVD. Season 1 mirrored the content of the earlier MGM set, while season 2 was uncensored, with the exception of one episode, "Paradise". Seasons 3–6 all contain numerous censored episodes and are of noticeably poorer visual quality than the first two. Season 7 contains the original unedited episodes, as unlike the previous seasons, it was produced with no nudity or swearing. In 2013, TGG Direct released the seventh season in the US, again unedited but of marginally inferior visual quality than the Alliance season 7 DVDs; the 5-disc set is titled The Outer Limits: The Complete Final Season, in 2014 it was split and re-released as 3-disc Volume One and 2-disc Volume Two sets. All seven seasons of the series are available uncut on Amazon Video; the Outer Limits revival has a ratin