Western is a genre of various arts which tell stories set in the latter half of the 19th century in the American Old West centering on the life of a nomadic cowboy or gunfighter armed with a revolver and a rifle who rides a horse. Cowboys and gunslingers wear Stetson hats, neckerchief bandannas, spurs, cowboy boots and buckskins. Recurring characters include the aforementioned cowboys, Native Americans, lawmen, bounty hunters, gamblers and settlers; the ambience is punctuated with a Western music score, including American and Mexican folk music such as country, Native American music, New Mexico music, rancheras. Westerns stress the harshness of the wilderness and set the action in an arid, desolate landscape of deserts and mountains; the vast landscape plays an important role, presenting a "...mythic vision of the plains and deserts of the American West". Specific settings include ranches, small frontier towns, saloons and isolated military forts of the Wild West. Common plots include: The construction of a telegraph line on the wild frontier.
Ranchers protecting their family ranch from rustlers or large landowners or who build a ranch empire. Revenge stories, which hinge on the chase and pursuit by someone, wronged. Stories about cavalry fighting Native Americans. Outlaw gang plots. Stories about a lawman or bounty hunter tracking down his quarry. Many Westerns use a stock plot of depicting a crime showing the pursuit of the wrongdoer, ending in revenge and retribution, dispensed through a shootout or quick-draw duel; the Western was the most popular Hollywood genre from the early 20th century to the 1960s. Western films first became well-attended in the 1930s. John Ford's landmark Western adventure Stagecoach became one of the biggest hits in 1939 and it made John Wayne a mainstream screen star; the popularity of Westerns continued with the release of classics such as Red River. Westerns were popular throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Many of the most acclaimed Westerns were released during this time, including High Noon, The Searchers, Cat Ballou, The Wild Bunch and Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid.
Classic Westerns such as these have been the inspiration for various films about Western-type characters in contemporary settings, such as Junior Bonner, set in the 1970s, The Three Burials of Melquiades Estrada, set in the 21st century. The Western genre sometimes portrays the conquest of the wilderness and the subordination of nature in the name of civilization or the confiscation of the territorial rights of the original, Native American, inhabitants of the frontier; the Western depicts a society organized around codes of honor and personal, direct or private justice–"frontier justice"–dispensed by gunfights. These honor codes are played out through depictions of feuds or individuals seeking personal revenge or retribution against someone who has wronged them; this Western depiction of personal justice contrasts with justice systems organized around rationalistic, abstract law that exist in cities, in which social order is maintained predominately through impersonal institutions such as courtrooms.
The popular perception of the Western is a story that centers on the life of a semi-nomadic wanderer a cowboy or a gunfighter. A showdown or duel at high noon featuring two or more gunfighters is a stereotypical scene in the popular conception of Westerns. In some ways, such protagonists may be considered the literary descendants of the knight errant which stood at the center of earlier extensive genres such as the Arthurian Romances. Like the cowboy or gunfighter of the Western, the knight errant of the earlier European tales and poetry was wandering from place to place on his horse, fighting villains of various kinds and bound to no fixed social structures but only to their own innate code of honor, and like knights errant, the heroes of Westerns rescue damsels in distress. The wandering protagonists of Westerns share many characteristics with the ronin in modern Japanese culture; the Western takes these elements and uses them to tell simple morality tales, although some notable examples are more morally ambiguous.
Westerns stress the harshness and isolation of the wilderness and set the action in an arid, desolate landscape. Western films have specific settings such as isolated ranches, Native American villages, or small frontier towns with a saloon. Oftentimes, these settings appear deserted and without much structure. Apart from the wilderness, it is the saloon that emphasizes that this is the Wild West: it is the place to go for music, gambling, drinking and shooting. In some Westerns, where civilization has arrived, the town has a church, a general store, a bank and a school; the American Film Institute defines Western films as those "set in the American West that the spirit, the struggle and the demise of the new frontier." The term Western, used to describe a narrative film genre, appears to have originated with a July 1912 article in Motion Picture World magazine. Most of the characteristics of Western films were part of 19th-century popular Western
Nicholas King Nolte is an American actor, producer and former model. He won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama, was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor for the 1991 film The Prince of Tides, he went on to receive Academy Award nominations for Warrior. His other film appearances include The Deep, Who'll Stop North Dallas Forty, 48 Hrs. Teachers and Out in Beverly Hills, Another 48 Hrs. Everybody Wins, Cape Fear, Lorenzo's Oil, The Thin Red Line, The Good Thief, Hotel Rwanda, Tropic Thunder, A Walk in the Woods, he was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Television Series Musical or Comedy for his role in the TV series Graves. Nolte was born February 1941, in Omaha, Nebraska, his father, Franklin Arthur Nolte, was a farmer's son who ran away from home, nearly dropped out of high school and was a three-time letter winner in football at Iowa State University. His mother, was a department store buyer and became an expert antique dealer co-owning a prestigious and successful antique shop despite having no formal education in this area.
His ancestry includes German, Scots-Irish and Swiss-German. Nolte's maternal grandfather, Matthew Leander King, invented the hollow-tile silo and was prominent in early aviation, his maternal grandmother ran the student union at Iowa State University. He has an older sister, an executive for the Red Cross. Nolte attended Kingsley Elementary School in Iowa, he studied at Westside High School in Omaha. He attended Benson High School, but was expelled for hiding beer before practice and being caught drinking it during a practice session. Following his high school graduation in 1959, he attended Pasadena City College in Southern California, Arizona State University in Tempe, Eastern Arizona College in Thatcher and Phoenix College in Phoenix. At Eastern Arizona, Nolte lettered in football as a tight end and defensive end, in basketball as a forward, as a catcher on the baseball team. Poor grades ended his studies, at which point his career in theatre began in earnest. While in college, Nolte worked for the Falstaff Brewery in Omaha.
After stints at the Pasadena Playhouse and the Stella Adler Academy in Los Angeles, Nolte spent several years traveling the country and working in regional theaters, including the Old Log Theater in Minnesota for three years. Nolte was a model in early 1970s. In a national magazine advertisement in 1972, he appeared in jeans and an open jean shirt for Clairol's "Summer Blonde" hair lightener sitting on a log next to a blonde Chris O'Connor. In 1992, Nolte was named the Sexiest Man Alive by People magazine. Nolte first starred in the television miniseries Rich Man, Poor Man, based on Irwin Shaw's 1970 best-selling novel, he appeared in over forty films, playing a wide variety of characters. Diversity of character, trademark athleticism, gravelly voice are signatures of his career. In 1973, he guest-starred in the Griff episode, "Who Framed Billy the Kid?", as Billy Randolph, a football player accused of murder. He co-starred with Andy Griffith in Winter Kill, a television film made as the pilot of a possible television series, another one, Adams of Eagle Lake, but neither was picked up.
Nolte starred in The Deep, Who'll Stop the Rain, North Dallas Forty, based on Peter Gent's novel, starred in 48 Hrs. with Eddie Murphy. During the 1980s, he starred in Under Fire and Out in Beverly Hills, Extreme Prejudice and New York Stories. Nolte starred with Katharine Hepburn in her last leading film role in Grace Quigley. Nolte and Murphy starred again in the sequel Another 48 Hrs.. In 1991, Nolte starred in The Prince of Tides and was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor, he starred in Martin Scorsese's remake of Cape Fear with Robert De Niro and Jessica Lange. Nolte starred in Lorenzo's Oil, Jefferson in Paris, Mulholland Falls and Afterglow, he received his second Academy Award nomination the same year for Affliction. Nolte starred with Sean Penn in three films, including Terrence Malick's war epic The Thin Red Line, U Turn and Gangster Squad. Nolte continued to work in the 2000s, taking smaller parts in Clean and Hotel Rwanda, both performances receiving positive reviews, he played supporting roles in the 2006 drama Peaceful Warrior and the 2008 comedy Tropic Thunder.
In 2011, Nolte played recovering alcoholic Paddy Conlon in Warrior, was nominated for Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. Beginning in 2011, Nolte starred with Dustin Hoffman in the HBO series Luck. At the start of production of the second season, however, HBO ended the series after the death of three horses during filming. In 2015, Nolte starred in the biopic comedy-drama A Walk in the Woods and in the revenge thriller Return to Sender. Since 2016, Nolte has starred in Graves on Epix TV about a volatile, hard-drinking former U. S. President, retired for 25 years and who has a political epiphany to right the wrongs of his past administration in public and unpredictable ways. For Nolte, acting is not a career but something he needs to do, he says, "a need in the sense that I can't find anything as complex and interesting to do, but I need it in a story," and "I don't want to do reality because reality never runs smooth." (Cowan He likes t
Netflix, Inc. is an American media-services provider headquartered in Los Gatos, founded in 1997 by Reed Hastings and Marc Randolph in Scotts Valley, California. The company's primary business is its subscription-based streaming OTT service which offers online streaming of a library of films and television programs, including those produced in-house; as of January 2019, Netflix had over 139 million paid subscriptions worldwide, including 60.55 million in the United States, over 148 million subscriptions total including free trials. It is available worldwide except in mainland China as well as Syria, North Korea and Crimea; the company has offices in the Netherlands, India and South Korea. Netflix is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America. Netflix's initial business model included DVD sales and rental by mail, but Hastings abandoned the sales about a year after the company's founding to focus on the DVD rental business. Netflix expanded its business in 2007 with the introduction of streaming media while retaining the DVD and Blu-ray rental service.
The company expanded internationally in 2010 with streaming available in Canada, followed by Latin America and the Caribbean. Netflix entered the content-production industry in 2012. Since 2012, Netflix has taken more of an active role as producer and distributor for both film and television series, to that end, it offers a variety of "Netflix Original" content through its online library. By January 2016, Netflix services operated in more than 190 countries. Netflix released an estimated 126 original series and films in 2016, more than any other network or cable channel, their efforts to produce new content, secure the rights for additional content, diversity through 190 countries have resulted in the company racking up billions in debt: $21.9 billion as of September 2017, up from $16.8 billion from the previous year. $6.5 billion of this is long-term debt. In October 2018, Netflix announced it would raise another $2 billion in debt to help fund new content. Netflix was founded on August 29, 1997, in Scotts Valley, California, by Marc Randolph and Reed Hastings.
Randolph worked as a marketing director for Pure Atria. Randolph was a co-founder of MicroWarehouse, a computer mail order company, was employed by Borland International as vice president of marketing. Hastings, a computer scientist and mathematician, sold Pure Atria to Rational Software Corporation in 1997 for $700 million in what was the biggest acquisition in Silicon Valley history, they came up with the idea for Netflix while commuting between their homes in Santa Cruz and Pure Atria's headquarters in Sunnyvale while waiting for government regulators to approve the merger, although Hasting has given several different explanations for how the idea was created. Hastings invested $2.5 million in startup cash for Netflix. Randolph admired the fledgling e-commerce company Amazon and wanted to find a large category of portable items to sell over the Internet using a similar model, they rejected VHS tapes as too expensive to stock and too delicate to ship. When they heard about DVDs, which were first introduced in the United States on March 31, 1997, they tested the concept of selling or renting DVDs by mail, by mailing a compact disc to Hastings' house in Santa Cruz.
When the disc arrived intact, they decided to take on the $16 billion home video sales and rental industry. Hastings is quoted saying that he decided to start Netflix after being fined $40 at a Blockbuster store for being late to return a copy of Apollo 13, but this is an apocryphal story that he and Randolph designed to explain the company's business model and motivation. Netflix was launched on April 14, 1998, as the world's first online DVD rental store, with only 30 employees and 925 titles available, the entire catalogue of DVDs in print at the time, through the pay-per-rent model with rates and due dates that were similar to its bricks-and-mortar rival, Blockbuster. Netflix introduced the monthly subscription concept in September 1997, dropped the multiple-rental model in early 2000. Since that time, the company has built its reputation on the business model of flat-fee unlimited rentals without due dates, late fees and handling fees, or per-title rental fees. In 2000, when Netflix had just about 300,000 subscribers and relied on the U.
S. Postal Service for the delivery of their DVDs, they were losing money and offered to be acquired by Blockbuster for $50 million, they proposed that Netflix, which would be renamed as Blockbuster.com, would handle the online business, while Blockbuster would take care of the DVDs, making them less dependent on the U. S. Postal Service; the offer was declined. While they experienced fast growth in early 2001, both the dot-com bubble burst and the September 11 attacks would occur that year, affecting the company badly and forcing them to lay off a third of their employees. However, sales of Apple products took off as they became more affordable, selling for about $2,000 around Thanksgiving time, becoming one of that year's most popular Christmas gifts. By early 2002, Netflix saw a huge increase in business from rental to laptop DVD users. Netflix initiated an initial public offering on May 29, 2002, selling 5.5 million shares of common stock at the price of US$15.00 per share. On June 14, 2002, the company sold an additional 825,000 shares of common stock at the same price.
After incurring substantial losses during its first few years, Netflix posted its first profit during fiscal year 2003, earning US$6.5 million profit on revenues of
Luke Cunningham Wilson is an American actor known for his roles in films such as Idiocracy, Old School, Bottle Rocket, The Royal Tenenbaums, Blue Streak and Legally Blonde. He was a member of the cast of the HBO television series Enlightened, he is the younger brother of actors Andrew Owen Wilson. Wilson was born in Dallas, the youngest of three sons of Laura Wilson, a photographer, Robert Andrew Wilson, an advertising executive and an executive at KERA, a public television station, his family from Massachusetts, is of Irish Catholic descent. All three Wilson boys attended St. Mark's School of Texas. According to Owen, Luke was voted class president the first year. Wilson's acting career began with the lead role in the short film Bottle Rocket in 1994, co-written by his older brother Owen Wilson and director Wes Anderson, it was remade as a feature-length film in 1996. After moving to Hollywood with his two brothers, he was cast opposite Calista Flockhart in Telling Lies in America and made a cameo appearance in the film-within-the-film of Scream 2, both in 1997.
Wilson filmed back-to-back romantic films in 1998, opposite Drew Barrymore, Best Men, about a group of friends who pull off a heist on their way to a wedding, Home Fries, about two brothers interested in the same woman for different reasons. He played the physician beau of a schoolteacher in Rushmore directed by Anderson and co-written by brother Owen. In 1999, Blue Streak was released featuring Wilson as detective Carlson, he starred opposite Reese Witherspoon in the 2001 comedy Legally Blonde, followed by Old School and The Royal Tenenbaums. Wilson had a role on That'70s Show, as Michael Kelso's older brother Casey Kelso, appearing sporadically from 2002 through 2005. In 2006, Wilson starred in Mike Judge's first film since 1999's Office Space, he portrayed an ordinary serviceman chosen for a cryogenics project. He awakens after hundreds of years in an America, less intelligent. In early 2007, Wilson starred opposite Kate Beckinsale in the thriller Vacancy. In July 2007, he worked on Henry Poole is Here in La Mirada, released in 2008.
He starred in the film Tenure in 2009. In 2010, he appeared in films Death at a Middle Men. From 2011 to 2013 he starred in the HBO TV series Enlightened. Wilson and brother Owen have co-written a Wright Brothers biopic, in which they plan to star. In January 2019, it was announced that Wilson had been cast as former sidekick-turned-mechanic-turned superhero Pat Dugan / S. T. R. I. P. E. in the upcoming DC Universe series Stargirl. Notable alumni of St. Mark's School of Texas Luke Wilson on IMDb
Orville Willis Forte IV is an American actor, comedian and producer. His work includes being a cast member on Saturday Night Live, the creator and star of the sitcom The Last Man on Earth. After obtaining a history degree at the University of California, Los Angeles, becoming a financial broker like his father, Forte changed his career path to comedy and took classes with the improvisational comedy group The Groundlings, he soon found he favored writing best, he worked as a writer on That'70s Show, before he auditioned for Saturday Night Live. He joined SNL in 2002, spending eight years as a cast member on the show, where he performed offbeat sketches, his most famous role on the show led to a feature film adaptation, MacGruber, that preceded his departure from the program. Forte took various roles before starring in the drama film Nebraska. Forte created and starred in his own television sitcom, The Last Man on Earth, which aired on Fox from 2015 to 2018, he was nominated for acting and writing for the series.
Orville Willis Forte IV was born in California. His father, Orville Willis Forte III, is a financial broker, his mother, Patricia C. is an artist and former schoolteacher. He was raised before moving to Lafayette, he went by Billy in his early years until he was teased at school for it being a girl's name, at which point he decided he would from on be known as Will. Forte describes himself as a "really happy kid", whose parents were "wonderful" and created a "very loving environment", he was interested in comedy from a young age, growing up idolizing comedians, Peter Sellers, David Letterman, Steve Martin and the sketch-comedy television series Saturday Night Live. He pranked his parents, would record himself performing imaginary radio shows, he did not aim to be a comedian, he wanted to become a football player. Forte was "a laid-back teen with a lot of friends" and a member of the varsity football and swim teams at Acalanes High School, from which he graduated in 1988, he was served as class president.
He had no ambitions for a television or film career, though his mother noticed a "creative streak" in him. Following high school, he attended the University of Los Angeles, he completed a degree in history. Planning to follow his father, he became a financial broker at Smith Barney Shearson in Beverly Hills, but felt "miserable" during his time there, he started writing while he was at Shearson, he co-wrote a feature-length script. On the subject of writing, Forte remarked, "I discovered that I loved it more than anything I had done in my life." He had been encouraged to attempt comedy during his years at university, he decided to change his career to become a writer-performer. He began taking classes at the Groundlings in Los Angeles, an improvisational and sketch comedy troupe and school, while tutoring children to make ends meet. Forte's first successful foray into comedy was 101 Things to Definitely Not Do If You Want to Get a Chick, a comic book he produced that details incompetent men; the comics landed him his first professional job writing for The Jenny McCarthy Show, a short-lived variety show starring Jenny McCarthy.
Shortly thereafter, he was asked to submit a packet to the Late Show with David Letterman and was told Letterman responded favorably to animation. After only nine months at Letterman, he was "let go" from the job, he recalled his stint on the program as unpleasant, noting that he did not have enough experience in writing. "What an honor to work at that show but I don't think I was mentally prepared. I always wonder what it would be like if I’d had a couple more years of experience before going there."Forte returned to Los Angeles and began performing with the Groundlings' Main Company, with Cheryl Hines, Jim Rash and Maya Rudolph. He tried stand-up comedy three times at open mic nights, but quit after being voted into the Main Company, he joined the writing teams of two failed sitcoms, including Action. Forte got jobs writing for That'70s Show, two successful programs, he loved writing but had given up on acting, aside from acting with the Groundlings. While performing with the troupe in 2001, he was spotted by Lorne Michaels, the creator of Saturday Night Live.
Forte felt his confidence was higher than usual, as That'70s Show had been picked up for two more years. He was invited to audition for SNL. At his audition for SNL, he performed multiple original characters, including Tim Calhoun, a speed reader, a prison guard, in addition to impressions of singer Michael McDonald and actor Martin Sheen, his final character was an older piece from his days with the Groundlings, in which he portrays a gold-painted street performer who performs fellatio to pay for his face paint, which devolves into a song needlessly uttering the words "cock" and "face paint" dozens of times. He felt his time to shine as a performer was over, as he was in his thirties when he auditioned. To his surprise, he was offered a chance to be on the show, but declined, opting instead for the financial stability of his work at That'70s Show, he felt working for SNL could not live up to the idealized version he had dreamed of, but he realized he would be making a mistake. After Will Ferrell left Saturday Night Live the following spring, Forte joined the cast, premiering at the beginning of the show's twenty-eighth season in the fall.
He was promoted to repertory player after his first year. His early years on the program were characterized
Terry Alan Crews is an American actor, activist and former American football player. Crews played Julius Rock on the UPN/CW sitcom Everybody Hates Chris and Nick Kingston-Persons in the TBS sitcom Are We There Yet? He hosted the game show Who Wants to Be a Millionaire and starred in the BET reality series The Family Crews, he appeared in films such as Friday After Next, White Chicks and the Expendables series. Since 2013, he has played NYPD Sergeant Terry Jeffords in the sitcom Brooklyn Nine-Nine, he is set to host America's Got Talent in 2019, following his involvement in the same role for the program's spin-off series America's Got Talent: The Champions from January 2019. Crews played as a defensive end and linebacker in the National Football League for the Los Angeles Rams, San Diego Chargers, Washington Redskins, as well as in the World League of American Football with Rhein Fire, college football at Western Michigan University. Crews, a public advocate for women's rights and activist against sexism, has shared stories of the abuse his family endured at the hands of his violent father.
He was included among the group of people named as Time Magazine's Person of the Year in 2017 for going public with stories of sexual assault. Terry Alan Crews was born on July 30, 1968 in Flint, the son of Patricia and Terry Crews, he grew up in a strict Christian household in Flint and was raised by his mother. His father was an alcoholic, abusive to his mother. After earning his high school diploma from Flint Southwestern, he received a Chrysler-sponsored art scholarship at the Interlochen Center for the Arts in Interlochen, followed by an Art Excellence scholarship and a full athletic scholarship for football at Western Michigan University in Kalamazoo, Michigan; as a defensive end for the WMU Broncos, Crews earned All-Conference honors and won the 1988 Mid-American Conference Championship. Crews was drafted by the Los Angeles Rams in the 11th round of the 1991 NFL Draft, his career included stints with the Rams, the San Diego Chargers, the Washington Redskins, the Philadelphia Eagles. After retiring from the NFL in 1997, Crews moved to Los Angeles to pursue an acting career.
He had held a long-standing ambition to work in the film industry, but up until had no plans to pursue acting wanting to be involved in some way. A year earlier, he had co-written and co-produced the independent feature film Young Boys Incorporated. A self-funded production filmed in Detroit with an anti-drug message, the film drew on his own observations, as well as those of his friends and family. Despite describing it as a "horrible" film, he credits the experience with getting him interested in the industry. In 1999, Crews auditioned for a role as a character athlete in the syndicated game show Battle Dome, which became his first acting part, he played T-Money for two seasons until its cancellation in 2001. The audition process and the opportunity to perform in front of an audience made him realize that he wanted to pursue acting as a career. However, he failed to land another acting job for the following two years. Appearances in commercials and music videos soon followed, his breakout role came in Friday After Next starring Ice Cube, for whom Crews had worked as on-set security.
Having never taken acting classes, instead he asked himself what the audience wanted, he believes this brought him success. He now believes acting is what he was born to do and would not wish to have any other career, despite the physically demanding nature of the work. Based on his performance in White Chicks, Adam Sandler changed a role in The Longest Yard to give it to Crews, who had auditioned for another part in the film, his role as Julius Rock, the father on the UPN/CW sitcom on Everybody Hates Chris, brought Crews wider public recognition, the show aired for four seasons from 2005 until 2009. Since Everybody Hates Chris, Crews has had main roles as husband and father Nick Kingston-Persons in the TBS sitcom Are We There Yet?, which aired for three seasons from 2010 to 2013, as NYPD Sergeant Terry Jeffords in the ensemble cast of the Fox sitcom Brooklyn Nine-Nine, which premiered in 2013 and ran for five seasons before it was picked up for a sixth season by NBC in 2018. Crews has appeared in comedic roles, such as President Camacho in Idiocracy, but he found success in action roles beginning with his part as Hale Caesar in The Expendables series, which saw him make his first appearance in a film sequel.
Although he has managed to sustain an athletic physique in his career as an actor, Crews has avoided being type-cast as a muscle bound action hero, has attained critical success through exploiting the contrast of his elaborate character comedy with his physique, which extends to the point of mocking the stereotype of the gym obsessed body builder. This contrast has led to sustained work as part of various humorous Old Spice TV commercials. Crews has lent his voice to animations such as American Dad! and Cloudy With a Chance of Meatballs 2. Crews found he enjoyed the work and sought out more of it, finding satisfaction in how it carries his spirit into the animation. In 2010 to 2011, Crews starred in his own reality series on BET, The Family Crews, about his everyday life with his family, it ran for two seasons. From 2014 to 2015, he hosted the syndicated game show, he has been the American host of Netflix's Ultimate Beastmaster. Crews cites the many similarities between acting and professional football, including the structure and expectations, as helping his transition between the two careers.
He credits Reginald Hubbard with mentoring him in h