Virgil Thomson was an American composer and critic. He was instrumental in the development of the "American Sound" in classical music, he has been described as a modernist, a neoromantic, a neoclassicist, a composer of "an Olympian blend of humanity and detachment" whose "expressive voice was always muted" until his late opera Lord Byron which, in contrast to all his previous work, exhibited an emotional content that rises to "moments of real passion". Thomson was born in Missouri; as a child, he befriended Alice Smith, great-granddaughter of Joseph Smith, founder of the Latter-day Saint movement. During his youth, he played the organ in Grace Church, as his piano teacher was the church's organist. After World War I, he entered Harvard University thanks to a loan from Dr. Fred M. Smith, the president of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, father of Alice Smith, his tours of Europe with the Harvard Glee Club helped nurture his desire to return there. At Harvard, Thomson focused his studies on the piano work of Erik Satie.
He studied in Paris on fellowship for a year, after graduating, lived in Paris from 1925 until 1940. While studying in Paris he was influenced by several French composers who were members of "Les Six" including: Darius Milhaud, Francis Poulenc, Arthur Honegger, George Auric, he studied with Nadia Boulanger and became a fixture of "Paris in the twenties." In 1925, in Paris, he cemented a relationship with painter Maurice Grosser, to become his life partner and frequent collaborator. He and Grosser lived at the Hotel Chelsea, where he presided over a gay salon that attracted many of the leading figures in music and art and theater, including Leonard Bernstein, Tennessee Williams, many others, he encouraged many younger composers and literary figures such as Ned Rorem, Lou Harrison, John Cage, Frank O'Hara, Paul Bowles. Grosser died three years before Thomson, his most important friend from this period was Gertrude Stein, an artistic collaborator and mentor to him. After meeting Stein in Paris in 1926, Thomson invited her to prepare a libretto for an opera which he hoped to compose.
Their collaboration resulted in the premier of the ground breaking composition Four Saints in Three Acts in 1934. At the time, the opera was noted for its form, musical content and the portrayal of European saints by an all-black cast. Years in 1947, he collaborated once again with Stein in his provocative opera The Mother of Us All which portrays the life of the social reformer Susan B. Anthony. Thomson incorporated musical elements from Baptist hymns, Gregorian chants and popular songs into both scores while demonstrating a restrained use of dissonance. Thompson's contributions to music were not limited to the operatic stage, however. In 1936 he established a collaboration with the film director Pare Lorentz and composed music for the documentary film The Plow That Broke the Plains for the United States government's Resettlement Administration. Thompson incorporated folk melodies and religious musical themes into the film score and subsequently composed an orchestral suite of the same name, recorded by Leopold Stokowski and the Hollywood Bowl Symphony Orchestra in 1946 for RCA Victor.
In 1938 he formed a collaboration with Lorentz and the operatic singer Thomas Hardie Chalmers on the documentary film The River for the United States government's Farm Security Administration. Subsequently, in 1948 he collaborated with the director Robert J. Flaherty on the docufiction film Louisiana Story, for which he received the Pulitzer Prize for music in 1949. At the time, the award was the only Pulitzer Prize in music granted for a musical composition written film Thomson composed an orchestra suite based upon the score, premiered by Eugene Ormandy and the Philadelphia Orchestra in 1949 to widespread critical acclaim. Following the publication of his book, The State of Music, Thompson established himself in New York City as a peer of Aaron Copland, was a music critic for the New York Herald-Tribune from 1940 to 1954, his definition of music was famously "that which musicians do," and his views on music are radical in their insistence on reducing the rarefied aesthetics of music to market activity.
He went so far as to claim that the style a piece was written in could be most understood as a consequence of its income source. In 1969, Thompson composed Metropolitan Museum Fanfare: Portrait Of An American Artist to accompany the Museum's Centennial exhibition "New York Painting And Sculpture: 1940–1970."Thomson became a sort of mentor and father figure to a new generation of American tonal composers such as Ned Rorem, Paul Bowles and Leonard Bernstein, a circle united as much by their shared homosexuality as by their similar compositional sensibilities. Women composers were not part of that circle, one writer has suggested that, as a critic, he selectively omitted mention of their works, or adopted a more passive tone when praising them. Thomson was a recipient of Yale University's Sanford Medal. In 1949 he was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Music for the score to the film Louisiana Story. In addition, the Kennedy Center Honors award was bestowed upon Thomson in 1983. In 1988, he was awarded the National Medal of Arts by President Ronald Reagan.
He was a National Patron of an international professional music fraternity. Thomson died on September 30, 1989, in his suite at the Hotel Chelsea in Manhattan, aged 92, he had lived at the Chelsea for close to 50 years. Included among Thompson's compositions are: Included among Virgil Thomson's publications are: Thomson, Virgil
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
Thomas Hardie Chalmers
Thomas Hardie Chalmers was an American opera singer and filmmaker. Thomas Chalmers was born on October 20, 1884 in New York City, the son of Thomas Hardie and Sophia Amanda Chalmers. In 1909, he went to Florence to study singing with Vincenzo Lombardi and made his operatic debut in May 1911 in Fossombrone as Marcello in La bohème, his first appearance in the United States was as Jack Rance in The Girl of the Golden West with Henry Wilson Savage's English Grand Opera Company. Chalmers toured the United States with the company from 1911 to 12, he sang as the leading baritone with the Boston National Opera Company and the Century Opera Company before making his Metropolitan Opera debut on November 17, 1917 as Valentin in Faust. He went on to appear at the Met until 1922 and sang in the world premiere of Shanewis, the US premiere of Mârouf, the first Met performances of La forza del destino and Crispino e la Comare, his recordings were all made for Edison and covered a wide range of repertoire from folk songs to opera.
Following a throat operation, Chalmers became a stage and film actor. His many stage roles included several Broadway premieres such as Landolfo in Pirandello's The Living Mask, 1924. One of Chalmers's earliest film roles was The Minister in the 1923 silent film Puritan Passions, based on Percy MacKaye's play The Scarecrow, in turn based on Feathertop, by Nathaniel Hawthorne, his last film role was The Judge in Martin Ritt's The Outrage, released in 1964. Chalmers produced and directed several short comedy films written by Robert Benchley, including The Sex Life of the Polyp and The Treasurer's Report, both released in 1928, his voice can be heard as the narrator in two documentary films by Pare Lorentz, The Plow That Broke the Plains and The River, both with scores by Virgil Thomson. In the 1950s and'60s, Chalmers appeared on television as an actor in several drama anthology series including Westinghouse Studio One, CBS Television Workshop, Kraft Television Theatre, The DuPont Show of the Month, Play of the Week.
He appeared in single episodes of The Further Adventures of Ellery Queen, The Defenders, Mister Peepers, several other weekly series. Chalmers' wife, Vilma Fiorelli, was from Florence, they were married in London on June 24, 1913. One of the couple's daughters, Vilma Fiora Chalmers, married the banker Alfred Hayes in 1937. Thomas Hardie Chalmers died on June 11, 1966 at the Laurelton Nursing Home in Greenwich, Connecticut, he was survived by his daughter, Vilma Hayes. Barnouw, Documentary: A History of the Non-fiction Film, Oxford University Press US, 1993, pp. 116–120. ISBN 0-19-507898-5 Metropolitan Opera, Thomas, MetOpera Database New York Times, "Carmen Sung at Century", December 24, 1913, p. 11. New York Times, "Vilma F. Chalmers Has Church Bridal", December 31, 1937. New York Times, "Thomas Chalmers, 82, Dead. 1918, p. 3. Thompson, The American Singer A Hundred Years Of Success In Opera, The Dial Press, Inc. 1937, p. 246. Thomas Chalmers audio recordings 1-10 and 11-20 on the Internet Archive Thomas Chalmers on IMDb
The Resettlement Administration was a New Deal U. S. federal agency created May 1, 1935. It relocated struggling rural families to communities planned by the federal government. On September 1, 1937, it was succeeded by the Farm Security Administration; the RA was the brainchild of Rexford G. Tugwell, an economics professor at Columbia University who became an advisor to Franklin D. Roosevelt during the latter's successful campaign for the presidency in 1932 and held positions in the United States Department of Agriculture. Roosevelt established the RA under Executive Order 7027, as one of the New Deal's "alphabet agencies", Tugwell became its first and only head; the new organization had four divisions: Rural Rehabilitation, Rural Resettlement, Land Utilization, Suburban Resettlement. However, Tugwell's goal of moving 650,000 people from 100,000,000 acres of agriculturally exhausted, worn-out land was unpopular among the majority in Congress; this goal seemed socialistic to some and threatened to deprive influential farm owners of their tenant workforce.
The RA was thus left with enough resources to relocate only a few thousand people from 9,000,000 acres and build several greenbelt cities, which planners admired as models for a cooperative future that never arrived. The main focus of the RA was to now build relief camps in California for migratory workers refugees from the drought-struck Dust Bowl of the Southwest; this move was resisted by a large share of Californians, who did not want destitute migrants to settle in their midst. The RA managed to construct 95 camps that gave migrants unaccustomed clean quarters with running water and other amenities, but the 75,000 people who had the benefit of the camps were a small share of those in need and they could stay only temporarily. After facing enormous criticism for his poor management of the RA, Tugwell resigned in 1936. On January 1, 1937, with hopes of making the RA more effective, the Resettlement Administration was transferred to the Department of Agriculture through executive order 7530.
The Weedpatch Camp now on the National Register of Historic Places, was built in 1936 south of Bakersfield, not by the RA but the Works Progress Administration. The camp inspired John Steinbeck's 1939 novel, The Grapes of Wrath, a 1940 film adaptation directed by John Ford, a Tony Award-winning play and an opera. In the face of Congressional criticism, in September 1937 it was folded into a new body, the Farm Security Administration, which operated until 1946; the RA worked with nearly 200 communities on its projects, notably including: Farmstead / Jasper, this development, began by the WPA, included 40 homes, churches, a civic center, a school. Arthurdale, West Virginia, Cahaba Village in Trussville, Alabama Palmerdale in Pinson, Alabama Jersey Homesteads Cumberland Homesteads near Crossville, Tennessee Christian-Trigg Farms near Hopkinsville, Kentucky Greenbelt, Maryland planned and constructed by the RA outside Washington, D. C. Greendale, another new town built by the RA, outside Milwaukee, Wisconsin Greenhills, the third of the RA's new towns, built outside Cincinnati, Ohio Hickory Ridge, Virginia Caney Lakes Recreation Area in Webster Parish, Louisiana Greenbrook, New Jersey The RA funded projects recording aspects of its work and context, including: The Photography Project, which documented the rural poverty of the Great Depression and produced thousands of images that are now stored and available at the Library of Congress, was headed up by Roy Stryker.
The Film Project, which produced two documentaries directed by Pare Lorentz and scored by Virgil Thomson, The Plow That Broke the Plains and The River. Farm Security Administration Dust Bowl Citations SourcesMeriam. Relief and Social Security The Brookings Institution. 1946 Wisconsin Folksong Collection, 1937-1946. Presented by the University of Wisconsin Digital Collections Center and Mills Music Library Special Collections. Ohio History Central on Resettlement Administration Oklahoma History on Resettlement Administration Complete List of New Deal Communities, of the Resettlement Administration, the Division of Subsistence Homesteads, the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, from the National New Deal Preservation Association Pine Mountain Valley Resettlement Project historical marker in Pine Mountain, Georgia
Venice Film Festival
The Venice Film Festival or Venice International Film Festival is the oldest film festival in the world and one of the "Big Three" film festivals, alongside the Cannes Film Festival and Berlin International Film Festival. The Big Three are internationally acclaimed for giving creators the artistic freedom to express themselves through film. Founded in Venice, Italy, in August 1932, the festival is part of the Venice Biennale, an exhibition of Italian art founded by the Venice City Council on 19 April 1893; the range of work at the Venice Biennale now covers Italian and international art, dance, music and cinema. These works are experienced at separate exhibitions: the International Art Exhibition, the International Festival of Contemporary Music, the International Theatre Festival, the International Architecture Exhibition, the International Festival of Contemporary Dance, the International Kids' Carnival, the annual Venice Film Festival, arguably the best-known of all the events; the festival is held in late August or early September on the island of the Lido in the Venice Lagoon.
Screenings take place in the historic Palazzo del Cinema on the Lungomare Marconi. The festival continues to be one of the world's most fastest-growing; the 76th Venice International Film Festival is scheduled for 28 August to 7 September 2019. During the 1930s, the government and Italian citizens were interested in film. Of the money Italians spent on cultural or sporting events, most of it went for movies; the majority of films screened in Italy were American, which led to government involvement in the film industry and the yearning to celebrate Italian culture in general. With this in mind, the Venice International Film Festival was created by Giuseppe Volpi, Luciano de Feo, Antonio Maraini in 1932. Volpi, a statesman, wealthy businessman, avid fascist, Benito Mussolini's minister of finance, was appointed president of the Venice Biennale the same year. Maraini served as the festival's secretary general, de Feo headed its executive committee. On the night of 6 August 1932, the festival opened with a screening of the American film Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde on the terrace of the Excelsior Palace Hotel.
A total of nine countries participated in the festival. No awards were given at the first festival, but an audience referendum was held to determine which films and performances were most praiseworthy; the French film À Nous la Liberté was voted the Film Più Divertente. The Sin of Madelon Claudet was chosen the Film Più Commovente and its star, Helen Hayes, the best actress. Most Original Film was given to Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, its leading man, Fredric March, was voted best actor. Despite the success of the first festival, it did not return in 1933. In 1934, the festival was declared to be an annual event, participation grew from nine countries to seventeen; that year the festival gave its first official awards, namely the Mussolini Cup for Best Italian Film, the Mussolini Cup for Best Foreign Film, the Corporations Ministry Cup. Seventeen awards were given: fourteen to films and three to individuals. Five films received; the third installment of the festival in 1935 was headed by its first artistic director, Ottavio Croze, who maintained this position until World War II.
The following year, a jury was added to the festival's governing body. The majority of funds for the festival came from the Ministry of Popular Culture, with other portions from the Biennale and the city of Venice; the year 1936 marked another important development in the festival. A law crafted by the Ministry of Popular Culture made the festival an autonomous entity, separate from the main Venice Biennale; this allowed additional fascist organizations, such as the Department of Cinema and the Fascist National Federation of Entertainment Industries, to take control of the festival. The fifth year of the festival saw the establishment of its permanent home. Designed and completed in 1937, the Palazzo del Cinema was built on the Lido; the Palazzo has since been the site for every Venice Film Festival, with the exception of the three years from 1940 to 1942, when the festival was moved away from Venice for fear of bombing. However, Venice received no damage during that time; the 1940s represent one of the most difficult moments for the festival itself.
Nazi propaganda movie Heimkehr was presented in 1941 winning an award from the Italian Ministry of Popular Culture. With the advent of the conflict the situation degenerated to such a point that the editions of 1940, 1941 and 1942, subsequently are considered as if they did not happen because they were carried out in places far away from Lido. Additionally, the festival was renamed the Italian-German Film Festival in 1940; the festival carried this title until 1942. The festival resumed full speed after the war. For the first time, the 1946 edition was held in the month of September, in accordance to an agreement with the newly-born Cannes Film Festival, which had just held its first review in the spring of that year. With the return of normalcy, Venice once again became a great icon of the film world. In 1947 the festival was held in the courtyard of the Doge's Palace, a most magnificent backdrop for hosting a record 90 thousand participants; the 1947 festival is considered one of the most successful editions in the history of the festival.
In 1963 the winds of change blow during Luigi C
Hank Stuever is an American journalist. Stuever writes about popular culture for the Style section of The Washington Post. In 2009, he became the paper's TV critic, he is a two-time finalist for the Pulitzer Prize for Feature Writing, in 1993 and 1996. His book of articles and essays, Off Ramp: Adventures and Heartache in the American Elsewhere, was published in 2004. Entertainment Weekly called Off Ramp "razor sharp... a master class in top-notch journalism."In 2009, Stuever released his second book, Tinsel: A Search for America's Christmas Present. It centers on the lives of three different families in Frisco, during three consecutive Christmas seasons and the impact the holiday has on modern culture and the consumer economy; the New Yorker called Stuever's book "cultural anthropology at its most exuberant". Earlier in his career, Stuever was a reporter for The Albuquerque Tribune and the Austin American-Statesman; the List: What's In and Out Stuever's webpage
A documentary film is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document some aspect of reality for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record. "Documentary" has been described as a "filmmaking practice, a cinematic tradition, mode of audience reception", continually evolving and is without clear boundaries. Documentary films were called'actuality' films and were only a minute or less in length. Over time documentaries have evolved to be longer in length and to include more categories, such as educational and even'docufiction'. Documentaries are educational and used in schools to teach various principles. Social media platforms such as YouTube, have allowed documentary films to improve the ways the films are distributed and able to educate and broaden the reach of people who receive the information. Polish writer and filmmaker Bolesław Matuszewski was among those who identified the mode of documentary film, he wrote two of the earliest texts on cinema Une nouvelle source de l'histoire and La photographie animée.
Both were published in 1898 in French and among the early written works to consider the historical and documentary value of the film. Matuszewski is among the first filmmakers to propose the creation of a Film Archive to collect and keep safe visual materials. In popular myth, the word documentary was coined by Scottish documentary filmmaker John Grierson in his review of Robert Flaherty's film Moana, published in the New York Sun on 8 February 1926, written by "The Moviegoer". Grierson's principles of documentary were that cinema's potential for observing life could be exploited in a new art form. In this regard, Grierson's definition of documentary as "creative treatment of actuality" has gained some acceptance, with this position at variance with Soviet film-maker Dziga Vertov's provocation to present "life as it is" and "life caught unawares"; the American film critic Pare Lorentz defines a documentary film as "a factual film, dramatic." Others further state that a documentary stands out from the other types of non-fiction films for providing an opinion, a specific message, along with the facts it presents.
Documentary practice is the complex process of creating documentary projects. It refers to what people do with media devices, content and production strategies in order to address the creative and conceptual problems and choices that arise as they make documentaries. Documentary filmmaking can be used as a form of advocacy, or personal expression. Early film was dominated by the novelty of showing an event, they were single-shot moments captured on film: a train entering a station, a boat docking, or factory workers leaving work. These short films were called "actuality" films. Many of the first films, such as those made by Auguste and Louis Lumière, were a minute or less in length, due to technological limitations. Films showing many people were made for commercial reasons: the people being filmed were eager to see, for payment, the film showing them. One notable film clocked in at over an hour and The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight. Using pioneering film-looping technology, Enoch J. Rector presented the entirety of a famous 1897 prize-fight on cinema screens across the United States.
In May 1896, Bolesław Matuszewski recorded on film few surigical operations in Warsaw and Saint Petersburg hospitals. In 1898, French surgeon Eugène-Louis Doyen invited Bolesław Matuszewski and Clément Maurice and proposed them to recorded his surigical operations, they started in Paris a series of surgical films sometime before July 1898. Until 1906, the year of his last film, Doyen recorded more than 60 operations. Doyen said that his first films taught him how to correct professional errors he had been unaware of. For scientific purposes, after 1906, Doyen combined 15 of his films into three compilations, two of which survive, the six-film series Extirpation des tumeurs encapsulées, the four-film Les Opérations sur la cavité crânienne; these and five other of Doyen's films survive. Between July 1898 and 1901, the Romanian professor Gheorghe Marinescu made several science films in his neurology clinic in Bucharest: Walking Troubles of Organic Hemiplegy, The Walking Troubles of Organic Paraplegies, A Case of Hysteric Hemiplegy Healed Through Hypnosis, The Walking Troubles of Progressive Locomotion Ataxy, Illnesses of the Muscles.
All these short films have been preserved. The professor called his works "studies with the help of the cinematograph," and published the results, along with several consecutive frames, in issues of "La Semaine Médicale" magazine from Paris, between 1899 and 1902. In 1924, Auguste Lumiere recognized the merits of Marinescu's science films: "I've seen your scientific reports about the usage of the cinematograph in studies of nervous illnesses, when I was still receiving "La Semaine Médicale," but back I had other concerns, which left me no spare time to begin biological studies. I must say I am thankful to you that you reminded them to me. Not many scientists have followed your way." Travelogue films were popular in the early part of the 20th century. They were referred to by distributors as "scenics." Scenics were among the most popu