Progressive rock is a broad genre of rock music that developed in the United Kingdom and United States throughout the mid to late 1960s. Termed "progressive pop", the style was an outgrowth of psychedelic bands who abandoned standard pop traditions in favour of instrumentation and compositional techniques more associated with jazz, folk, or classical music. Additional elements contributed to its "progressive" label: lyrics were more poetic, technology was harnessed for new sounds, music approached the condition of "art", the studio, rather than the stage, became the focus of musical activity, which involved creating music for listening, not dancing. Prog is based on fusions of styles and genres, involving a continuous move between formalism and eclecticism. Due to its historical reception, prog's scope is sometimes limited to a stereotype of long solos, overlong albums, fantasy lyrics, grandiose stage sets and costumes, an obsessive dedication to technical skill. While the genre is cited for its merging of high culture and low culture, few artists incorporated literal classical themes in their work to any great degree, only a handful of groups purposely emulated or referenced classical music.
The genre coincided with the mid 1960s economic boom that allowed record labels to allocate more creative control to their artists, as well as the new journalistic division between "pop" and "rock" that lent generic significance to both terms. Prog faded soon after. Conventional wisdom holds that the rise of punk rock caused this, but several more factors contributed to the decline. Music critics, who labelled the concepts as "pretentious" and the sounds as "pompous" and "overblown", tended to be hostile towards the genre or to ignore it. After the late 1970s, progressive rock fragmented in numerous forms; some bands achieved commercial success well into the 1980s or crossed into symphonic pop, arena rock, or new wave. Early groups who exhibited progressive features are retroactively described as "proto-prog"; the Canterbury scene, originating in the late 1960s, denoted a subset of prog bands who emphasised the use of wind instruments, complex chord changes and long improvisations. Rock in Opposition, from the late 1970s, was more avant-garde, when combined with the Canterbury style, created avant-prog.
In the 1980s, a new subgenre, neo-progressive rock, enjoyed some commercial success, although it was accused of being derivative and lacking in innovation. Post-progressive draws upon newer developments in popular music and the avant-garde since the mid 1970s; the term "progressive rock" is synonymous with "art rock", "classical rock" and "symphonic rock". "art rock" has been used to describe at least two related, but distinct, types of rock music. The first is progressive rock as it is understood, while the second usage refers to groups who rejected psychedelia and the hippie counterculture in favour of a modernist, avant-garde approach. Similarities between the two terms are that they both describe a British attempt to elevate rock music to new levels of artistic credibility. However, art rock is more to have experimental or avant-garde influences. "Prog" was devised in the 1990s as a shorthand term, but became a transferable adjective suggesting a wider palette than that drawn on by the most popular 1970s bands.
Progressive rock is varied and is based on fusions of styles and genres, tapping into broader cultural resonances that connect to avant-garde art, classical music and folk music and the moving image. Although a unidirectional English "progressive" style emerged in the late 1960s, by 1967, progressive rock had come to constitute a diversity of loosely associated style codes; when the "progressive" label arrived, the music was dubbed "progressive pop" before it was called "progressive rock", with the term "progressive" referring to the wide range of attempts to break with standard pop music formula. A number of additional factors contributed to the acquired "progressive" label: lyrics were more poetic. Critics of the genre limit its scope to a stereotype of long solos, overlong albums, fantasy lyrics, grandiose stage sets and costumes, an obsessive dedication to technical skill. While progressive rock is cited for its merging of high culture and low culture, few artists incorporated literal classical themes in their work to any great degree, only a handful of groups purposely emulated or referenced classical music.
Writer Emily Robinson says that the narrowed definition of "progressive rock" was a measure against the term's loose application in the late 1960s, when it was "applied to everyone from Bob Dylan to the Rolling Stones". Debate over the genre's criterion continued to the 2010s on Internet forums dedicated to prog. According to musicologists Paul Hegarty and Martin Halliwell, Bill Martin and Edward Macan authored major books about prog rock while "effectively accept the characterization of progressive rock offered by its critics.... They each do so unconsciously." Academic John S. Cotner contests Macan's view that progressive rock cannot exist without the continuous and overt assimilation of classical music into rock. Author Kevin Holm-Hudson ag
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro
Joanne Hogg is a Northern Irish singer and songwriter, best known for her work as the lead singer and songwriter with the Celtic Christian progressive rock and pop band Iona. Hogg was born in Northern Ireland, her father is her mother a nurse. With medicine strong in the family, it was natural for Hogg to become a doctor. Thus, she studied medicine at Queen's University Belfast. In her third year, Hogg was singing at the Christian Artists talent event and was convinced to sing in a school ministry at Youth for Christ in Denmark. After a year, Hogg returned to the University to complete her two remaining years of schooling. After graduating, Hogg interned as a junior doctor at Belfast City Hospital to complete her registration. Six months into working at the hospital, she was taken ill and stopped working for seven months to recover. After recovering, she completed her registration as a doctor, but was advised on medical grounds not to continue in full-time medical work. During her convalescence, she had been contacted by Dave Bainbridge and Dave Fitzgerald, who had considered forming a band.
In 1989, Hogg ceased practising medicine, Iona was born. Since Hogg has sung all over Europe and America. Iona's recordings have become successful worldwide, making them Europe's best-selling contemporary Christian band. Hogg recorded her first solo album in 1999, entitled Looking into Light; the tracks that feature on this album are a selection of re-arranged traditional hymns, with Iona providing the instrumental melodies. In 2001, Hogg collaborated with vocalists Máire Brennan and Margaret Becker for the release New Irish Hymns. There have been a further three volumes of the New Irish Hymns series of albums involving other vocals. Iona provided the instrumentals. In 2008, Hogg released Raphael's Journey and Personal. Raphael's Journey is available only as a download and features friend Moya Brennan of Clannad; the album is available only through Kingsway Music UK. Hogg, in her personal press release, says: Musically, this album is a collection of songs with a few instrumentals. Frank Van Essen has been working with me on this for several years not only as producer, but co-writing and playing.
There are beautiful performances from all my mates in Iona, gorgeous string arrangements from Frank, beautiful guest vocals from the amazing Moya Brennan and piano and vocals from myself......so, please download it and tell others about it." Her Personal album was released with a press release by Hogg, "to give fans the true story of the album". Her vocals were further featured in the 1998 PlayStation role-playing video game Xenogears. Composed by Yasunori Mitsuda, the ending-theme song "Small Two of Pieces", along with an extra track "Stars of Tears" were recorded. Mitsuda invited her to record the vocal themes for the spiritual prequel to Xenogears, Xenosaga: Episode One released four years in 2002. Two tracks were recorded for this game: the ending-theme "Kokoro", the song "Pain", which plays during the final cutscene of the game. Soundtracks were released for both of these videogames on the Digicube label; the song "Kokoro" was released as a CD single. Hogg's vocals were not featured in any of the Xenosaga releases, as Yasunori Mitsuda was replaced with Yuki Kajiura as the game's musical composer.
Looking into Light Celtic Hymns Raphael's Journey Personal Uncountable Stars MAP Project Road from Ruin New Irish Hymns New Irish Hymns 2 New Irish Hymns 3: Incarnation New Irish Hymns 4 Songs for Luca Veil of Gossamer Xenogears Original Soundtrack Xenosaga: Episode One Original Soundtrack Xenosaga: Episode One "Kokoro" Single The Unseen Stream The Pursuit of Illusion The Cave Sessions Vol.1 Official Iona Band biography Iona Band biography Joanne Hogg's page Profile at Square Enix Music Online
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
Open Sky is a progressive rock album by Iona, released in 2000. Recordings were made at various locations during 1999 and 2000, all engineered by Nigel Palmer: Chapel Studios, Lincolnshire Visions on Albion, Yorkshire The Snooker Roon, Northern Ireland Disc 1 – total time 73:30 "Woven Cord" – 9:28 "Wave After Wave" – 6:15 "Open Sky" – 5:40 "Castlerigg" – 9:27 "A Million Stars" – 3:20 "Light Reflected" – 5:11 "Hinba" – 4:58 "Songs of Ascent" – 7:58 "Songs of Ascent" – 9:06 "Songs of Ascent" – 4:53 "Friendship's Door" – 7:14 Joanne Hogg – vocals, keyboards Dave Bainbridge – guitars, keyboards, e-bow and Indian guitars, bouzouki, vocals Phil Barker – bass guitar Frank Van Essen – drums, violins, vocals Troy Donockley – Uilleann pipes, low whistles, tin whistle, acoustic guitar, e-bow guitar, Portuguese mandola, harmonium Billy Jackson – Celtic harp, clarsach 2000, UK, Alliance Records ALD 1901772, release date 8 May 2000, CD 2000, US, Forefront Records FFD-5285, release date 8 May 2000, CD 2005, UK, Open Sky Records OPENVP8CD, release date 27 June 2005, CD
Iona was a progressive Celtic rock band from the United Kingdom, formed in the late 1980s by lead vocalist Joanne Hogg and multi-instrumentalists David Fitzgerald and Dave Bainbridge. Troy Donockley joined playing the uilleann pipes, low whistles, other instruments. By the time Iona released their first self-titled album in 1990, drummer Terl Bryant, bassist Nick Beggs, Fiona Davidson on Celtic harp, Peter Whitfield on strings, Troy Donockley on Uilleann pipes and percussionist Frank van Essen had joined the band; the first album Iona concentrated on the history of the island of Iona, from which the band got its name. Iona returned in 1992 with The Book of Kells, a concept album with several tracks based on pages from the eponymous book. Terl Bryant took over on drums and percussion for this album after the departure of Frank van Essen. Fitzgerald left the band that year to pursue a degree in music. Beyond These Shores, the band's third album, was released in 1993 and included guest musician Robert Fripp.
The album was loosely based on the legendary voyage of St. Brendan to the Americas before Christopher Columbus, but the band did not intend for it to be viewed as a "concept album". Journey into the Morn followed in 1995, a more accessible and rock-oriented album loosely based on the hymn "Be Thou My Vision", performed in Gaelic at the beginning of the album and again near the end. Máire Brennan, lead singer of Celtic/new-age band Clannad, was brought in to help Hogg with the Gaelic pronunciation, she sang backup vocals. Two live albums followed in the late 1990s: the double-disc Heaven's Bright Sun and Woven Cord, performed with the All Souls Orchestra. Terl Bryant departed the band between these two albums, Frank van Essen returned to fill the vacant spot, playing drums as well as violin, which could be heard on the band's 2000 album, Open Sky. After being released from their U. S. contract with ForeFront Records and their UK contract with Alliance Records, Iona formed Open Sky Records to release material independently.
The first new release on this label was the 2002 box set The River Flows, which featured their then-out-of-print first three albums, as well as a fourth disc of unreleased tracks and rarities called Dunes. The first three albums have since been re-released individually, with new cover art; the group has been in semi-hiatus for the better part of the current decade. However, 2006 saw the April release of a 2-disc live DVD Iona: Live in London, featuring a 5.1 Dolby Digital Surround mix by LA's John Kellogg, a November release of a new studio CD entitled The Circling Hour. In June 2009 Troy Donockley announced. A message on his website stated: "I have had a wonderful time with my friends in Iona and am very proud of the albums we made together. But, as in all life, things change. After extended periods of no activity we have found ourselves with a different musical and philosophical direction. We have parted as great friends should, with a sad-happiness and I wish the band all the best wishes for the future".
Donockley is a member of punk/folk band The Bad Shepherds. He has played in Barbara Dickson's band for a number of years and is the band's Musical Director, he is on a world tour with Finnish symphonic metal band Nightwish, with whom he has made many guest appearances both live and on their albums over recent years, before joining them as a full-time member in October 2013. He has been replaced in Iona by woodwind player Martin Nolan. In June 2010, Iona went to the United States for their first tour there in nine years. On 19 June 2010, they played a well received concert at NEARfest, a progressive rock festival in Bethlehem and during this show they introduced new songs for a forthcoming album, Another Realm, released in 2011, their final album to date. After several concerts throughout the U. S. and one in Canada, they ended the tour at Cornerstone Festival, a Christian music festival in Illinois, on 30 June. On Dec. 11, 2016, the band announced on its Facebook page that it was suspending recording and touring as a group, citing other commitments.
"We do not know what will happen in future years, whether we will get together again as Iona," the band said. "The door will remain open, but for the foreseeable future, the next and exciting chapters of our journey will involve other avenues." Joanne Hogg – lead vocals, acoustic guitar Dave Bainbridge – lead guitar Martin Nolan – pipes, flutes Phil Barker – bass Frank van Essen – drums, violin Iona The Book of Kells Beyond These Shores Journey into the Morn Open Sky The Circling Hour Another Realm Heaven's Bright Sun Woven Cord Live in London Edge of the World: Live in Europe The River Flows: Anthology Various Artists - Songs for Luca Various Artists - Songs for Luca 2 Iona, DVD early live concert Live in London, DVD Official website Band biography
Dave Bainbridge is an English keyboard player and guitarist who with Dave Fitzgerald co-founded the Christian progressive and Celtic folk themed band Iona. Born in Darlington, England from a musical family. Dave learnt guitar from thirteen, he joining his first band'Exodus' at fourteen. Dave went to Leeds College of Music. Whilst at college Dave, met singer and songwriter Adrian Snell; the result was a working partnership that spanning eight years and through which he would first meet Joanne Hogg and David Fitzgerald. This partnership went on to be the founding force behind the group Iona. Dave and Iona toured the world with the band between 1989 and 2015, releasing 13 critically acclaimed albums. Dave’s multi-faceted career as a solo artist, guitarist, bouzouki player, improviser, arranger and sound mixer has led him into many musical genres and work with numerous artists including: Strawbs, Jack Bruce, Buddy Guy, Troy Donockley, Nick Beggs, Gloria Gaynor, Moya Brennan, Robert Fripp, Mae McKenna, Phil Keaggy, Paul Jones, Damian Wilson, Nick Fletcher, ‘Snake’ Davis, Adrian Snell, PP Arnold, Mollie Marriott, Norman Beaker, Fred T Baker, Dave Brons, Paul Bielatowicz and many others.
Winner of the BBC Radio 2 Best Jazz soloist award and the Sam Hood Rosebowl for Outstanding Performance during his time at Leeds Music College, Dave has composed soundtracks for numerous short films, TV and multimedia productions and has co-written a guitar concerto with Classic FM favourite Nick Fletcher, released on the album ‘Cathedral of Dreams’. Dave has released three solo albums, ‘Veil of Gossamer’, ‘Celestial Fire’ and his first solo piano album ‘The Remembering’; the ‘Celestial Fire’ album led to the formation of the band of the same name in 2015 and the Celestial Fire band ’Live in the UK’ DVD/2 cd album was released in April 2017. Dave has released two collaborative albums with Troy Donockley and two with Iona's David Fitzgerald. Current live projects include his new band Celestial Fire, The Strawbs, the Dave Bainbridge & Sally Minnear duo and occasional solo concerts. Dave was arranger & musical director for Adrian Snell’s sell out live performances in The Netherlands of his works ‘The Passion’, ‘Light of the World’ and'Alpha and Omega', all of which feature a full band of top Dutch session musicians, vocal soloists and a 60 piece choir.
"Dave Bainbridge is a genius of immeasurable proportions….working with artists as varied as Buddy Guy, Jack Bruce and IONA. If you are unfamiliar with him it's time to make amends. Trust me." Nick Beggs"I've been listening to'Celestial Fire' and I love it! Wow… That's some amazing stuff man! One of the best albums I've heard in a while." Neal Morse "Dave is a major driving force behind the band Iona. His fluid, emotional guitar playing, epic keyboard work and expansive compositions combine into one of this generation’s most powerful and original musical voices.” John Kellogg “Bainbridge's guitar playing is superb. Chris MacIntosh 88.1fm WCWP New York“Soaring guitar passages, stunning keyboard work, inspirational waves of orchestral prog.” Bert Saraco A multi-instrumentalist and songwriter, Bainbridge's solo material continues in the style established in Iona, fusing progressive rock, Celtic folk and improvisational elements in a unique way. A number of members of Iona have co-operated on each others.
Veil of Gossamer Celestial Fire The Remembering Live in the Studio Dave Bainbridge & Sally Minnear Celestial Fire - Live in the UK see Iona for a list of their recordings Eye of the Eagle Eye of the Eagle Life Journey When Worlds Collide From Silence From Silence The Ferryman's Curse Cardington Songs for Luca Songs for Luca 2 Breaking of the Dawn Cathedral of Dreams Official website Iona's Official Website