Pareidolia is the tendency to interpret a vague stimulus as something known to the observer, such as seeing shapes in clouds, seeing faces in inanimate objects or abstract patterns, or hearing hidden messages in music. Common examples are perceived images of animals, faces, or objects in cloud formations, the Man in the Moon, the Moon rabbit, hidden messages in recorded music played in reverse or at higher- or lower-than-normal speeds, hearing indistinct voices in random noise such as that produced by air conditioners or fans. A notable example of pareidolia occurred in 1877, when photos taken through a telescope of the surface of Mars that turned up what looked faintly like straight lines, which were interpreted by some as canals, it was theorized that the canals were created by sentient beings. This created a sensation. In the next few years better photographic techniques and stronger telescopes were developed and applied, which resulted in new images in which the faint lines disappeared, the canal theory was debunked as an example of pareidolia.
The word derives from the noun eidōlon. Pareidolia can cause people to interpret patterns of light and shadow, as faces. A 2009 magnetoencephalography study found that objects perceived as faces evoke an early activation of the fusiform face area at a time and location similar to that evoked by faces, whereas other common objects do not evoke such activation; this activation is similar to a faster time, seen for images of real faces. The authors suggest that face perception evoked by face-like objects is a early process, not a late cognitive reinterpretation phenomenon. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study in 2011 showed that repeated presentation of novel visual shapes that were interpreted as meaningful led to decreased fMRI responses for real objects; these results indicate that the interpretation of ambiguous stimuli depends upon processes similar to those elicited by known objects. These studies help to explain why people identify a few circles and a line as a "face" so and without hesitation.
Cognitive processes are activated by the "face-like" object, which alert the observer to both the emotional state and identity of the subject before the conscious mind begins to process or receive the information. A "stick figure face", despite its simplicity, can convey mood information, be drawn to indicate emotions such as happiness or anger; this robust and subtle capability is hypothesized to be the result of eons of natural selection favoring people most able to identify the mental state, for example, of threatening people, thus providing the individual an opportunity to flee or attack pre-emptively. In other words, processing this information subcortically — therefore subconsciously — before it is passed on to the rest of the brain for detailed processing accelerates judgment and decision making when a fast reaction is needed; this ability, though specialized for the processing and recognition of human emotions functions to determine the demeanor of wildlife. Pareidolia can be considered a subcategory of Apophenia.
Rocks may come to mimic recognizable forms through the random processes of formation and erosion. Most the size scale of the rock is larger than the object it resembles, such as a cliff profile resembling a human face. Well-meaning people with a new interest in fossils can pick up chert nodules, concretions or pebbles resembling bones, turtle shells, dinosaur eggs, etc. in both size and shape. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Japanese researcher Chonosuke Okamura self-published a series of reports titled Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory, in which he described tiny inclusions in polished limestone from the Silurian period as being preserved fossil remains of tiny humans, dogs, dragons and other organisms, all of them only millimeters long, leading him to claim, "There have been no changes in the bodies of mankind since the Silurian period... except for a growth in stature from 3.5 mm to 1,700 mm." Okamura's research earned him an Ig Nobel Prize in biodiversity in 1996. The Rorschach inkblot test uses pareidolia in an attempt to gain insight into a person's mental state.
The Rorschach is a projective test, as it intentionally elicits the thoughts or feelings of respondents that are "projected" onto the ambiguous inkblot images. In his notebooks, Leonardo da Vinci wrote of pareidolia as a device for painters, writing, "If you look at any walls spotted with various stains or with a mixture of different kinds of stones, if you are about to invent some scene you will be able to see in it a resemblance to various different landscapes adorned with mountains, rocks, plains, wide valleys, various groups of hills. You will be able to see divers combats and figures in quick movement, strange expressions of faces, outlandish costumes, an infinite number of things which you can reduce into separate and well conceived forms." Two 13th-century edifices in Turkey display architectural use of shadows of stone carvings at the entrance. Outright pictures are avoided in Islam but tessellations and calligraphic pictures were allowed, so designed "accidental" silhouettes of carved stone tesellations became a creative escape.
Alaaddin Mosque, Niğde, Turkey with its "mukarnas" art where the shadows of three-dimensional ornamentation with stone masonry around the entrance form a chiaroscuro drawing of a woman's face with a crown and long hair appearing at a specific ti
Entangled (Red Dwarf)
"Entangled" is the fourth episode of science fiction sitcom Red Dwarf series X broadcast on the British television channel Dave on 25 October 2012. Lister loses Rimmer in a game of poker to a group of "biologically engineered garbage gobblers", in return gets an unwanted gift: a groinal exploder programmed to detonate in 24 hours unless Lister pays his debts. Meanwhile and Cat become quantum entangled and do everything in perfect unison. While chasing a space weevil, Cat encounters Kryten conducting an experiment with the quantum rod from Trojan, it unexpectedly causes the two of them to become'quantum entangled', meaning they are more prone to coincidences such as saying the same thing at the same time when stressed. Meanwhile, Rimmer comes up with a complicated new accident reporting system, involving filling out a form several pages long, which frustrates Lister. Lister discovers a moon with signs of life and heads down in Starbug, hoping to find out if his former lover Kochanski passed this way.
Much he returns - minus Starbug. He explains that he lost Starbug, as well as Rimmer; the BEGGs have outfitted him with an explosive device attached to his groin that will explode if he does not pay up. An offer of an alternative deal goes another poker game is proposed. Kryten and Cat's quantum entanglement combines with a stressed Lister's insistence that he does not'choke' in poker games and causes the BEGGs to choke to death. Hoping to use the quantum entanglement to save his life, Lister gets Cat stressed and the Dwarfers learn some space co-ordinates that lead them to a space station that Kryten recognises as a science institution, staffed by scientists who were always wrong. Investigating the station's stasis pods, they discover that one is still functional and contains a professor, Irene Edgington – who turns out to be a chimp because an evolution device she invented went wrong; the Dwarfers take Edgington use her device to make her human again. She tells them how to remove the device, but they have to do the opposite of everything she suggests because all her instructions are incorrect.
After saving Lister, Edgington takes a walk with Rimmer and ends up accidentally trapped in an airlock. She is ejected into space. Lister gives Rimmer the accident report forms to fill in; the episode was subject to on-set rewrites when it emerged that there were rules and regulations which governed how long performer Peter Elliott could play the role of the chimp without taking a break. The ending planned for the episode would have seen Rimmer and Lister bickering like a divorced couple over looking after the chimp; the character of Professor Edgington was a late addition to the story. The legs of Professor Edgington were a model as the actress playing the part was yet to be cast; these problems meant that the final five minutes of the episode were not filmed in front of a live studio audience – the entire episode was shown at a special screening to provide the necessary laughter track for the final part. The BEGG chief was played by Steven Wickham, nineteen years earlier, had played Lister’s GELF bride in Emohawk: Polymorph II.
Reviews for the fourth episode were positive. SFX magazine gave it four stars out of five, stating that it was "another cracking episode filled with comedy gems... the gag rate is so fast you're in danger of whiplash, the barmy central plot twists and turns so much you never know bizarre situation you’re going to witness next." Radio Times called it "a smart, inventive episode," and reserved particular praise for the skill of Danny John-Jules and Robert Llewellyn "who, as a result of a quantum entanglement, have to deliver their lines in perfect unison." IGN awarded the episode 7.2 out of 10, stating that although the pace was "a little pedestrian at times," there was "enough smart plotting and good gags to ensure it maintains the high standard of this 10th season." Starburst magazine gave it eight stars out of 10, called it "the best episode of the series since the opener "Trojan" and said that "the whole idea of having the crew go off on an adventure, meet strange life forms and at the last minute figure a way out of a tricky situation with some absurd logic gives the proceedings a classic Dwarf feel."
"Entangled" on IMDb
V for Vendetta
V for Vendetta is a British graphic novel written by Alan Moore and illustrated by David Lloyd. Published in black and white as an ongoing serial in the short-lived UK anthology Warrior, it morphed into a ten-issue limited series published by DC Comics. Subsequent collected editions have been published under DC's more specialized imprint Vertigo; the story depicts a dystopian and post-apocalyptic near-future history version of the United Kingdom in the 1990s, preceded by a nuclear war in the 1980s which had devastated most of the rest of the world. The White supremacist, neo-fascist and outwardly Christofascistic Norsefire political party has exterminated its opponents in concentration camps and rules the country as a police state; the comics follow its title character and protagonist, V, an anarchist revolutionary dressed in a Guy Fawkes mask, as he begins an elaborate and theatrical revolutionist campaign to kill his former captors, bring down the fascist state and convince the people to abandon fascism in favour of anarchy, while inspiring a young woman, Evey Hammond, to be his protégé.
DC Comics had sold more than 500,000 copies of the books in the United States as of 2006. Warner Bros. released a film adaptation of the same title in 2005. The first episodes of V for Vendetta appeared in black-and-white between 1982 and 1985, in Warrior, a British anthology comic published by Quality Communications; the strip was one of the least popular in that title. But with five or six strips an issue, regular only needed two or three favorites to justify their buying the title."When the publishers cancelled Warrior in 1985, several companies attempted to convince Moore and Lloyd to let them publish and complete the story. In 1988, DC Comics published a ten-issue series that reprinted the Warrior stories in colour continued the series to completion; the first new material appeared in issue No. 7, which included the unpublished episodes that would have appeared in Warrior No. 27 and No. 28. Tony Weare contributed additional art to two others; the entire series has appeared collected in paperback and hardback form, including Moore's "Behind the Painted Smile" essay and two "interludes" outside the central continuity.
Collections include reissued paperbacks, published in the US by DC's Vertigo imprint and in the UK by Titan Books. A new hardback edition was published in 2005 coloring. In August 2009 DC published a slipcased Absolute Edition. — —. V for Vendetta. DC Vertigo. ISBN 9781401208417. — —. V for Vendetta. DC Vertigo. — —. V for Vendetta. DC Vertigo. ISBN 9781401223618. — —. V for Vendetta. DC Vertigo. ISBN 9781401238582. — —. V for Vendetta. DC Vertigo. ISBN 9781401285005. David Lloyd's paintings for V for Vendetta in Warrior first appeared in white. In writing V for Vendetta, Moore drew upon a comic strip idea submission that the DC Thomson scriptwriting competition rejected in 1975. "The Doll" involved a transsexual terrorist in white face makeup who fought a totalitarian state during the 1980s. Years Skinn invited Moore to create a dark mystery strip with artist David Lloyd. V for Vendetta was intended to recreate something similar to their popular Marvel UK Night Raven strip in a 1930s noir, they chose against doing historical research and instead set the story in the near future rather than the recent past.
V for Vendetta emerged, putting the emphasis on "V" rather than "Vendetta". David Lloyd developed the idea of dressing V as Guy Fawkes after previous designs followed the conventional superhero look. During the preparation of the story, Moore made a list of what he wanted to bring into the plot, which he reproduced in "Behind the Painted Smile":Orwell. Huxley. Thomas Disch. Judge Dredd. Harlan Ellison's "Repent, Harlequin!" Said the Ticktockman and The Prowler in the City at the Edge of the World by the same author. Vincent Price's Dr. Theatre of Blood. David Bowie; the Shadow. Night Raven. Batman. Fahrenheit 451; the writings of the New Worlds school of science fiction. Max Ernst's painting "Europe After the Rain". Thomas Pynchon; the atmosphere of British Second World War films. The Prisoner. Robin Hood. Dick Turpin... The influence of such a wide number of references has been demonstrated in academic studies, above which dystopian elements stand out the similarity with George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four in several stages of the plot.
The political climate of Britain in the early 1980s influenced the work, with Moore positing that Margaret Thatcher's Conservative government would "obviously lose the 1983 elections", that an incoming Michael Foot-led Labour government, committed to complete nuclear disarmament, would allow the United Kingdom to escape unscathed after a limited nuclear war. However, Moore felt that fascists would subvert a post-holocaust Bri
David Marks (psychologist)
David Francis Marks is a psychologist and editor of twenty-five books concerned with four areas of psychological research – health psychology, consciousness and intelligence. He has published books about artists and their works. Marks was born 12 February 1945 in Liphook, England to Victor W. F. Marks and Mary Dorothy Marks. Marks earned a BSc at University of Reading in 1966 and a PhD at University of Sheffield in 1970. From there, he moved to New Zealand where he taught at the University of Otago as senior lecturer in psychology, he returned to the UK as Head of the School of Psychology at Middlesex University before working at City University London from 2000–10. He founded and edits the Journal of Health Psychology and Health Psychology Open, an open access journal, his late brother Jon Marks was a jazz musician. He has two children, his daughter, Jessica Marks, is a chef working internationally. His son, Michael Marks, is a teacher in East London. British Psychological Society Committee for the Scientific Investigation of the Paranormal In his work on health psychology Marks advocates a greater understanding of the socio-political context affecting individual behaviour.
With Michael Murray and colleagues he has promoted a critical-theoretical approach, including the foundation of the International Society of Critical Health Psychology. This organisation has included the consideration of social justice, community approaches, arts projects for the reduction of health inequalities. Marks has been interested in new research methods for clinical psychology and health psychology. Marks has promoted the use of cognitive behaviour therapy as an effective clinical approach to smoking cessation; this research began in New Zealand with Paul Sulzberger where they developed the Isis Smoking Cessation Programme. After returning to England in 1986 Marks developed a UK version of the programme, published by the British Psychological Society in 1993 as The QUIT FOR LIFE Programme; the approach was developed further and re-published in the Overcoming series by Robinson as "Overcoming Your Smoking Habit". Conceptualizing methods for the design and evaluation of interventions has been a complex challenge for the discipline of Psychology.
Marks published a Taxonomic system for psychological interventions. In 2015, Marks published a new theoretical explanation of obesity based on the concept of homeostasis, a property of all living things. Physiological homeostasis maintains equilibrium at set-points using feedback loops for optimum functioning of the organism. Long-term imbalances in homeostasis arise though genetic, environmental or biopsychosocial mechanisms causing illness and/or loss of well-being. Psychological homeostasis works in a similar fashion to maintain stability in behaviour. However, rapid environmental and economic changes generate challenging conditions for the human organism. Over-consumption of high-caloric, low-nutrient foods, combined with stressful living and working conditions, have caused imbalances in homeostasis and obesity in more than two billion people; the Homeostasis Theory of Obesity was further elaborated in his 2016 book, "Obesity. Comfort vs. Discontent"; the book's dedication states: "To the two-point-one billion people who are overweight or living with obesity.
Please take note. It is not your fault. You are not to blame. You are the victims. Be informed, be empowered, above all else, resist; this book is for you.". According to this new theory, homeostatic imbalance includes the'Circle of Discontent', a system of feedback loops linking weight gain, body dissatisfaction, negative affect and over-consumption; the theory is consistent with an extensive evidence-base of prospective studies. A four-armed strategy to halt the obesity epidemic consists of: Putting a stop to victim-blaming and discrimination. If implemented, interventions designed to restore homeostasis would halt the obesity epidemic. Marks' research into consciousness and mental imagery led to the development of the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire, a tool for the assessment of individual differences in visual imagery. Marks reported that high vividness scores correlate with the accuracy of recall of coloured photographs. In 1995 he published a new version of the VVIQ, the VVIQ2; this questionnaire consists of twice the number of items and reverses the rating scale so that higher scores reflect higher vividness.
The VVIQ and VVIQ2 are available on the Internet: http://www.art-n-stuff.com/news/ The VVIQ has been validated in about 1000 studies using perceptual and cognitive tasks. Rodway and Schepman found that high vividness participants were more accurate at detecting salient changes to pictures compared to low vividness participants, replicating an earlier study by Gur and Hilgard. Cui et al. found that reported image vividness correlates with increased activity in the visual cortex. This study shows that the subjective experience of forming a mental image is reflected by increased visual cortical activity. Logie, Pernet and Della Sala used behavioural and fMRI data for mental rotation from individuals reporting vivid and poor imagery on the VVIQ. Groups differed in brain activation patterns suggesting that the groups performed the same tasks in different way
Darkness at Noon
Darkness at Noon is a novel by Hungarian-born British novelist Arthur Koestler, first published in 1940. His best known work, it is the tale of Rubashov, an Old Bolshevik, arrested and tried for treason against the government that he had helped to create; the novel is set in 1939 during the Stalinist Great Moscow show trials. Despite being based on real events, the novel does not name either Russia or the USSR, tends to use generic terms to describe people and organizations: for example the Soviet government is referred to as "the Party" and Nazi Germany is referred to as "the Dictatorship". Joseph Stalin is represented by "Number One", a menacing dictator; the novel expresses the author's disillusionment with the Soviet Union's version of Communism at the outset of World War II. In 1998, the Modern Library ranked Darkness at Noon number eight on its list of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century. Koestler wrote Darkness at Noon as the second part of a trilogy: the first volume was The Gladiators, first published in Hungarian.
It was a novel about the subversion of the Spartacus revolt. The third novel was Arrival and Departure, about a refugee during World War II. Koestler, by living in London, rewrote that novel in English after the original German version had been lost. Darkness at Noon was written in German, its title may be a quotation from Victor Hugo, in his book Napoleon le Petit: "il fait nuit en plein midi", which, in turn, is an allusion to the unnatural darkness that occurred at midday in the story of Christ's crucifixion. Koestler's companion, the sculptor Daphne Hardy, translated it into English during early 1940 while she was living in Paris with him. For decades the German text was thought to have been lost during the escape of Koestler and Hardy from Paris in May 1940, just before the German occupation of France. However, a copy had been sent to Swiss publisher Emil Oprecht. Rupert Hart-Davis, Koestler's editor at Jonathan Cape had misgivings about the English text but agreed to publish it when a request to Oprecht for his copy went unanswered.
At Hart-Davis' prompting, Hardy changed the title from Rubaschow to Darkness at Noon. In August 2015, Oprecht's copy was identified in a Zurich library by a doctoral candidate of the University of Kassel; the original German manuscript was published as Sonnenfinsternis in May 2018 by Elsinor Verlag. Koestler joined the French Foreign Legion, deserted it in North Africa, made his way to Portugal. Waiting in Lisbon for passage to Great Britain, Koestler heard a false report that the ship taking Hardy to England had been torpedoed and all persons lost. Koestler arrived in London, the book was published there in early 1941. Darkness at Noon is an allegory set in the USSR during the 1938 purges, as Stalin consolidated his dictatorship by eliminating potential rivals within the Communist Party: the military, the professionals. None of this is identified explicitly in the book. Most of the novel occurs within an unnamed prison and in the recollections of the main character, Rubashov. Koestler drew on the experience of being imprisoned by Francisco Franco's officials during the Spanish Civil War, which he described in his memoir, Dialogue with Death.
He was expected to be executed. He was permitted to walk in the courtyard in the company of other prisoners. Though he was not beaten, he believed; the main character is Nicholas Salmanovitch Rubashov, a man in his fifties whose character is based on "a number of men who were the victims of the so-called Moscow trials," several of whom "were known to the author". Rubashov is a stand-in for the Old Bolsheviks as a group, Koestler uses him to explore their actions at the 1938 Moscow Show Trials. Secondary characters include some fellow prisoners: No. 402 is a Czarist army officer and veteran inmate. "Rip Van Winkle", an old revolutionary demoralised and driven to madness by 20 years of solitary confinement and further imprisonment. Hare-Lip, who "sends his greetings" to Rubashov, but insists on keeping his name secret. Two other secondary characters never are mentioned frequently: No. 1, representing Joseph Stalin, dictator of the USSR. He is depicted in a disseminated photograph, a "well-known color print that hung over every bed or sideboard in the country and stared at people with its frozen eyes."
Old Bolsheviks. They are represented by an image in his "mind's eye, a big photograph in a wooden frame: the delegates to the first congress of the Party", in which they sat "at a long wooden table, some with their elbows propped on it, others with their hands on their knees and earnest."Rubashov has two interrogators: Ivanov, a comrade from the civil war and old friend. Gletkin, a young man characterised by starching his uniform so that it "cracks and groans" whenever he moves. Darkness at Noon is divided into four parts: The First Hearing, the Second Hearing, the Third Hearing, the Grammatical Fiction; the novel begins with Rubashov's arrest in the middle of the night by two men from the secret police. When they came for Rubashov, they woke him from a dream in which he was being arrested by the Gestapo. One of the men is about Rubashov's age, the other is somewhat younger; the older man is formal and courteous, the younger is brutal. The difference between them introduces the first major theme of Darkness at Noon: the passing of the older, ci
Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in irreversible succession through the past, in the present, the future. Time is a component quantity of various measurements used to sequence events, to compare the duration of events or the intervals between them, to quantify rates of change of quantities in material reality or in the conscious experience. Time is referred to as a fourth dimension, along with three spatial dimensions. Time has long been an important subject of study in religion and science, but defining it in a manner applicable to all fields without circularity has eluded scholars. Diverse fields such as business, sports, the sciences, the performing arts all incorporate some notion of time into their respective measuring systems. Time in physics is unambiguously operationally defined as "what a clock reads". See Units of Time. Time is one of the seven fundamental physical quantities in both the International System of Units and International System of Quantities.
Time is used to define other quantities – such as velocity – so defining time in terms of such quantities would result in circularity of definition. An operational definition of time, wherein one says that observing a certain number of repetitions of one or another standard cyclical event constitutes one standard unit such as the second, is useful in the conduct of both advanced experiments and everyday affairs of life; the operational definition leaves aside the question whether there is something called time, apart from the counting activity just mentioned, that flows and that can be measured. Investigations of a single continuum called spacetime bring questions about space into questions about time, questions that have their roots in the works of early students of natural philosophy. Temporal measurement has occupied scientists and technologists, was a prime motivation in navigation and astronomy. Periodic events and periodic motion have long served as standards for units of time. Examples include the apparent motion of the sun across the sky, the phases of the moon, the swing of a pendulum, the beat of a heart.
The international unit of time, the second, is defined by measuring the electronic transition frequency of caesium atoms. Time is of significant social importance, having economic value as well as personal value, due to an awareness of the limited time in each day and in human life spans. Speaking, methods of temporal measurement, or chronometry, take two distinct forms: the calendar, a mathematical tool for organising intervals of time, the clock, a physical mechanism that counts the passage of time. In day-to-day life, the clock is consulted for periods less than a day whereas the calendar is consulted for periods longer than a day. Personal electronic devices display both calendars and clocks simultaneously; the number that marks the occurrence of a specified event as to hour or date is obtained by counting from a fiducial epoch – a central reference point. Artifacts from the Paleolithic suggest that the moon was used to reckon time as early as 6,000 years ago. Lunar calendars were among the first to appear, with years of either 13 lunar months.
Without intercalation to add days or months to some years, seasons drift in a calendar based on twelve lunar months. Lunisolar calendars have a thirteenth month added to some years to make up for the difference between a full year and a year of just twelve lunar months; the numbers twelve and thirteen came to feature prominently in many cultures, at least due to this relationship of months to years. Other early forms of calendars originated in Mesoamerica in ancient Mayan civilization; these calendars were religiously and astronomically based, with 18 months in a year and 20 days in a month, plus five epagomenal days at the end of the year. The reforms of Julius Caesar in 45 BC put the Roman world on a solar calendar; this Julian calendar was faulty in that its intercalation still allowed the astronomical solstices and equinoxes to advance against it by about 11 minutes per year. Pope Gregory XIII introduced a correction in 1582. During the French Revolution, a new clock and calendar were invented in attempt to de-Christianize time and create a more rational system in order to replace the Gregorian calendar.
The French Republican Calendar's days consisted of ten hours of a hundred minutes of a hundred seconds, which marked a deviation from the 12-based duodecimal system used in many other devices by many cultures. The system was abolished in 1806. A large variety of devices have been invented to measure time; the study of these devices is called horology. An Egyptian device that dates to c. 1500 BC, similar in shape to a bent T-square, measured the passage of time from the shadow cast by its crossbar on a nonlinear rule. The T was oriented eastward in the mornings. At noon, the device was turned around so. A sundial uses a gnomon to cast a shadow on a set of markings calibrated to the hour; the position of the shadow marks the hour in local time. The idea to separate the day into smaller parts is credited to Egyptians because of their sundials, which operated on a duodecimal system; the importance of the number 12 is due to the number of lunar cycles in a year and the number of stars used to count the passage of night.
The most precise timekeeping device of the ancient
Apophenia is the tendency to mistakenly perceive connections and meaning between unrelated things. The term was coined by psychiatrist Klaus Conrad in his 1958 publication on the beginning stages of schizophrenia, he defined it as "unmotivated seeing of connections a specific feeling of abnormal meaningfulness". He described the early stages of delusional thought as self-referential, over-interpretations of actual sensory perceptions, as opposed to hallucinations. Apophenia has come to imply a universal human tendency to seek patterns in random information, such as gambling. Pareidolia is a type of apophenia involving the perception of sounds in random stimuli. A common example is the perception of a face within an inanimate object—the headlights and grill of an automobile may appear to be "grinning". People around the world see the "Man in the Moon". People sometimes see the face of a religious figure in a piece of toast or in the grain of a piece of wood. Pareidolia occurs as a result of the fusiform face area, the part of the human brain, responsible in seeing faces, mistakenly interpreting an object, shape or configuration with some kind of perceived "face-like" features as being a face.
Apophenia is well documented as a rationalization for gambling. Gamblers may imagine that they see patterns in the numbers that appear in lotteries, card games, or roulette wheels. One variation of this is known as the "gambler's fallacy". In statistics, apophenia is an example of a Type I error – the false identification of patterns in data, it may be compared with a so-called false positive in other test situations. The problem of apophenia in finance has been addressed in academic journals. More within the world of finance itself, the examples most prone to apophenia are trading, structuring and compensation. In contrast to an epiphany, an apophany does not provide insight into the nature of reality nor its interconnectedness, but is a "process of repetitively and monotonously experiencing abnormal meanings in the entire surrounding experiential field"; such meanings are self-referential and paranoid—"being observed, spoken about, the object of eavesdropping, followed by strangers". Thus the English term "apophenia" has a somewhat different meaning than that which Conrad defined when he coined the term "Apophänie".
In 2008, Michael Shermer coined the word "patternicity", defining it as "the tendency to find meaningful patterns in meaningless noise". In The Believing Brain, Shermer wrote that humans have "the tendency to infuse patterns with meaning and agency", which he called "agenticity". A clustering illusion is a type of cognitive bias in which a person sees a pattern in a random sequence of numbers or events. Many theories have been disproved as a result of this bias being brought up. In 1985, a study of the "hot-hand fallacy" by Thomas Gilovich, Robert Vallon and Amos Tversky found that the idea of basketball players possessing a "hot hand" was false, their analysis provided "no evidence for a positive correlation between the outcomes of successive shots."Another case, during the early 2000s, involved the occurrence of breast cancer amongst the female employees at ABC Studios in Queensland. A study found that the incidence of breast cancer at the studios was six times higher than the rate in the rest of Queensland.
However, an examination found no correlation between the heightened incidence and any factors related to the site, genetic or lifestyle factors of the employees. Apophenia is referred to as an error in perception. Although there is no confirmed reason as to why it occurs, there are some respected theories. Pattern recognition is a cognitive process that involves retrieving information either from long-term, short-term or working memory and matching it with information from stimuli. However, there are three different ways in which this may happen and go wrong, resulting in apophenia; the stimulus is compared to copies in the long-term memory. These templates are stored as a result of past learning or educational experiences. E.g. D d D d are all recognized as the letter D but not any other letter; these detection routines, when applied on more complex data sets can result in the wrong template being matched. A false positive detection will result in apophenia; this is similar to template matching, except for the fact.
An example of this would be to look at an animal such as a tiger and instead of recognizing that it was a tiger knowing that it was a cat based on the known information about the characteristics of a cat. This type of pattern recognition can result in apophenia based on the fact that since the brain is not looking for exact matches, it can pick up some characteristics of a match and assume it fits; this is more common with pareidolia than data collection. The stimulus is allowed to process the information; this model of pattern recognition comes from the result of four stages, which are: Detection, Pattern dissection, Feature comparison in memory, Recognition. One of the explanations put forth by evolutionary psychologists for apophenia is that it is not a flaw in the cognition of human brains but rather something that has come about through years of need; the study of this topic is referred to as error management theory. One of the most accredited studies in this field is Skinner's superstition.
This experiment involved taking a hungry pigeon, placing it in a box and releasing a food pellet at a random time. The pigeon received a food pellet while performing some actio