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The Royale

"The Royale" is the 12th episode of the second season of the American science fiction television series Star Trek: The Next Generation, the 38th episode overall. It was released on March 27, 1989, in broadcast syndication. Set in the 24th century, the series follows the adventures of the Starfleet crew of the Federation starship Enterprise-D. In this episode, Riker and Worf become trapped in a strange hotel on a planet otherwise incapable of supporting human life. Following a tip from a Klingon ship, the Federation starship Enterprise, under the command of Captain Jean-Luc Picard, finds debris from an Earth ship orbiting an uninhabitable alien planet. A sample of the debris beamed aboard shows NASA markings and a 52-star American flag, meaning the debris of the ship is several hundred years old, has traveled far beyond the capability of ships of that era. Scans of the planet reveal a small anomalous area capable of supporting human life, so Commander Riker, Lt. Worf, Lt. Commander Data beam down to investigate, find a revolving door in an otherwise blank environment.

Upon entering they find themselves in an old Earth-style hotel and casino called The Royale, where they are cut off from contact with the Enterprise. The away team soon discovers they are trapped inside the casino, after making several unsuccessful attempts to leave, they decide to explore the building, they find the desiccated but preserved remains of Col. Steven Richey, a NASA astronaut, a pulp novel entitled Hotel Royale. Upon reading Richey's logs, they learn that his starship was accidentally contaminated by an unknown race of aliens thrown across the galaxy, he was the only survivor. Taking pity on him, the aliens created The Royale for him, thinking the novel's story represented humans' preferred way of living, whereas Richey found it unbearable thanks to the poor quality of the novel. Riker and Worf realize that the plot has been recreated in detail by the aliens and is playing out in front of them, surmise that they might be able to leave if they are scripted to do so, they assume the role of a trio of "foreign investors" described in the novel and, taking advantage of Data's ability to manipulate dice at the casino's craps table, win enough money to buy out the Royale, are able to leave.

The episode was written by Tracy Tormé under the pseudonym of Keith Mills. Tormé had his name removed from the credits, his original idea was a surreal nightmare about an astronaut stuck forever in his most pleasant memory. The episode mentions Fermat's Last Theorem, that it still had not been solved after 800 years. A proof was, found by Andrew Wiles and published in 1995, six years after the episode aired; the resulting incongruity in "The Royale" was addressed in the Star Trek: Deep Space Nine episode "Facets". In the scene where Chief Engineer Geordi La Forge scans the planet, he describes the surface temperature as −291 °C, a temperature, below absolute zero. Although absolute negative temperatures are possible, they do not correspond to the portrayal of the planet in the episode. In the scene where Lt. Commander Data observes a couple playing blackjack, he advises a woman that "the odds favor standing pat" on her total of hard thirteen against a dealer's king up. Zack Handlen of The A. V. Club wrote that the episode is "watchable" but does not live up to his memories.

In a ranking of every Star Trek:The Next Generation episodes, "The Royale" was ranked 166th by Medium in 2016. In 2019, Screen Rant ranked "The Royale" the number one funniest episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation, it was a stormy night, referenced by the first line of the "Hotel Royale" novel. Star Trek The Next Generation DVD set, volume 2, disc 3, selection 4. "The Royale" on IMDb "The Royale" at TV.com "The Royale" at Memory Alpha "The Royale" at StarTrek.com "The Royale" rewatch by Keith R. A. DeCandido

Woodbury Historic District No. 2

The Woodbury Historic District No. 2 encompasses a linear rural-residential area of southern Woodbury, Connecticut. It extends along the town's Main Street, from the town line with Southbury in the south to the South Pomperaug Avenue junction in the north, it contains some of the town's finest examples of 18th and early 19th-century residential architecture. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1972; the town of Woodbury was settled by colonists in 1673, having purchased its land from the Potatuck people. The early settlement was made along a long-standing Native American trail, now followed by Main Street, it was incorporated in 1674, was the mother town for several surrounding communities, achieving its present municipal bounds by 1807. It was a prosperous agricultural community in early 19th century; the historic district is organized as a linear area of about 50 acres, stretching from the town line in the south for about 1 mile to the junction with South Pomperaug Avenue.

This area is rural-residential in character, which continues into the [[It abuts the Southbury Historic District No. 1 to the south, into the Woodbury Historic District No. 1. There are 27 houses of historic significance in the district, ranging in construction date from the late 18th to the 20th century. There is only one house that predates 1740. Most of the houses in the district post-date the American Civil War. Woodbury Historic District No. 1, covering the town center to the north National Register of Historic Places listings in Litchfield County, Connecticut

Bruce Ridge

Bruce Ridge is an American symphonic bassist and arts advocate. He is the former Chairman of the International Conference of Symphony and Opera Musicians and a member of the North Carolina Symphony. In 2014, he was re-elected to a fifth term as ICSOM Chairman, making him the longest-serving Chair in the organization's history Ridge served as ICSOM Chair from 2006 until August, 2016. In 2008, Ridge was invited by the Federation International des Musiciens to address the first International Orchestra Conference in Berlin, Germany, he was invited to speak at the Second International Orchestra Conference in Amsterdam, as well as the third International Conference in Oslo. In March 2009, he was invited to testify before the United States Congress during a hearing on the Economic and Employment Impact of the Arts and Music Industry. Ridge's speeches and articles have been published in numerous countries, he has been quoted in newspapers across the United States, as well as in the American Foreign Press.

As chairman of ICSOM, Ridge became an international leader on issues affecting arts organizations and met with countless orchestras across America, from San Juan to Honolulu. He served as a faculty member for many sessions of the League of American Orchestras "Orchestra Leadership Academy" as well as on the faculty for the League's music director search seminars, he has appeared as a guest speaker on the history of symphony orchestras in America at The Colburn School of Music in Los Angeles and Roosevelt University in Chicago. Ridge began his professional career when he joined the Virginia Symphony at the age of 15, becoming the youngest member in the history of the orchestra, he studied at the Curtis Institute of Music and the New England Conservatory of Music, where he graduated with Distinction in Performance honors. He has performed at Tanglewood, the Grand Teton Music Festival, with the orchestras of Charleston and Honolulu. Ridge is believed to be just the second musician from a major American symphony orchestra to chair a music director search.

He has served on grant panels for the National Endowment for the Arts, as a member of the City of Raleigh Arts Commission. Ridge's double bass teachers include Lawrence Wolfe of the Boston Symphony, Roger Scott of the Philadelphia Orchestra, he performs on the bass guitar and solo jazz bass for the North Carolina Symphony Pops series. He has recorded two albums of original folk rock compositions. On March 8, 2016, Ridge announced that he would step down as ICSOM Chair following the August, 2016 ICSOM Conference in Washington, DC, ending his tenure as the organization's longest serving Chairperson. In 2018, Ridge published a book of his writings as ICSOM Chair, titled Last Year's Words, Next Year's Voices: Essays and Speeches from a Decade as Chairman of the International Conference of Symphony and Opera Musicians In August 2019, Ridge was invited to deliver the keynote address at the conference of the Symphony Orchestra Musicians Association of Australia, sponsored by the Media Entertainment and Arts Alliance, in Sydney, Australia September 2008 interview with Polyphonic.org January, 2008 Editorial on the Jacksonville Symphony Orchestra lockout in the Florida Times-Union April, 2011 guest editorial in the Syracuse Post-Standard, March, 2011 address to 2nd International Orchestra Conference, hosted by Federation International des Musiciens, Amsterdam September, 2013 editorial in the Minneapolis Star-Tribune on the Minnesota Orchestra Lockout August, 2019 keynote address to the Symphony Orchestra Musicians Association of Australia Feature profile in the Virginian-Pilot, August, 2009 Feature in the Houston Chronicle, August, 2010 Feature in the Chicago Tribune, August 22, 2012 Q&A: National musicians’ leader Bruce Ridge on ASO’s future and necessity for “positive message”

Godavari Loya Boggugani Karmika Sangham

The Godavari Loya Boggugani Karmika Sangham is a trade union in the Singareni coal fields in Andhra Pradesh, India. The union is affiliated to the Indian Federation of Trade Unions. Politically, it is aligned with the Communist Party of India New Democracy. GLBKS polled 12,694 votes in the 1998 SCCL union representative election. In the 2001 election GLBKS came third with 14,882 votes, contesting on a joint list with the All India Federation of Trade Unions. GLBKS won the election in two out of 13 divisions, Ramagundem I and Ramagundem II. After the 2001 union election, GLBKS gained representative status at area level. In 2003 several key GLBKS leaders defected to the Communist Party of India, including its state president Bojja Bixamaiah, vice president Y. Yakaiah and secretary B Pandu. GLBKS is part of the Joint Action Committee, a coalition of unions at the Singareni coal fields

History of Karelia

The History of Karelia is about the cultural and geopolitical region of Karelia, in present-day eastern Finland and northwestern Russia in northern Europe. The Karelian people's presence can be dated back to the 7th millennium BC—6th millennium BC. Karelia is within the Scandinavian and Russian taiga habitat and ecoregion, rich in natural resources for prehistoric people's food and shelter needs; the mining of copper in Karelia began between 1 AD and 1000 AD. The ethnic composition of Karelia at the end of the 1st millennium consisted of Finno-Ugrian tribes. Karelia was bitterly fought over by Sweden and the Novgorod Republic during the 13th-century Swedish-Novgorodian Wars; the Treaty of Nöteborg in 1323 divided Karelia between the two. The Baltic Sea port city of Viborg became the capital of the new Swedish province, with the Fief of Viborg existing from 1320 to 1534; the Russians received East Karelia. Since the 13th century the Karelians have lived in the tension between the East and the West, between the Eastern Christianity of Eastern Orthodoxy and Western Christianity of Catholicism and Lutheranism.

The Treaty of Nystad in 1721 between Imperial Russia and Sweden ceded most of Karelia, as the Vyborg Governorate, to Russia. The Treaty of Åbo in 1743 between Sweden and Russia ceded South Karelia to Russia. After Finland had been occupied by Russia in the Finnish War, parts of the ceded provinces'Old Finland' were incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Finland, in the Russian Empire. In 1917, with Finland's declaration of independence, Finland became independent and the border was confirmed in 1920 by the Russian–Finnish Treaty of Tartu; this included the Finnish Viipuri Province in Karelia from 1917 to 1947. During the 1920s, Finns were involved in attempts to overthrow the Bolshevists in Russian Karelia, for instance in the failed Aunus expedition; these private expeditions ended after the peace Treaty of Tartu. After the end of the Russian Civil War, the establishment of the Soviet Union in 1922, the Russian part of Karelia became the Karelian Autonomous republic of the Soviet Union in 1923.

During Soviet Union's first five-year plan tens of thousands of gulag prisoners were used to dig the White Sea–Baltic Canal. In the years of the Stalin's Great Purge around 6,000 people were executed in the woods at Sandormokh near the Solovetsky Islands. In 1939 the Soviet Union attacked Finland starting the Winter War; the Moscow Peace Treaty of 1940 handed most of Finnish Karelia to the Soviet Union. About 400,000 people the whole population, had to be relocated within Finland. In 1941 Finland attacked the Soviet Union alongside the Axis powers as co-belligerents; the Finnish military administration in Eastern Karelia administered the region during 1941-1944. The cedeing of Karelia to the Soviets caused considerable bitterness in Finland, which had lost its second largest city, its industrial heartland along the River Vuoksi, its Saimaa canal that connected central Finland to the Gulf of Finland, its access to the fishing waters of Lake Ladoga; the serious loss made of an eighth of the Finnish population displaced refugees, without a chance of return to their Karelian homeland.

As a consequence of the peace treaty, the Karelian ASSR was incorporated with the Karelo-Finnish SSR 1941-1956, after which it became an ASSR again. Karelia was the only Soviet republic, "demoted" from an SSR to an ASSR within the Russian SFR. Unlike autonomous republics, soviets republics had the constitutional right to secede; the possible fear of secession, as well as the Russian ethnic majority in Karelia may have resulted in its "demotion." In 1991 the Republic of Karelia was created out in the Russian Federation. Karelian language Karelian peoples Karelia Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland—this.is. FINLAND: "Tracing Finland's eastern border"

Daisy Miller

Daisy Miller is a novel by Henry James that first appeared in Cornhill Magazine in June–July 1878, in book form the following year. It portrays the courtship of the beautiful American girl Daisy Miller by Winterbourne, a sophisticated compatriot of hers, his pursuit of her is hampered by her own flirtatiousness, frowned upon by the other expatriates when they meet in Switzerland and Italy. Annie "Daisy" Miller and Frederick Winterbourne first meet in Vevey, Switzerland, in a garden of the grand hotel, where Winterbourne is vacationing from his studies, they are introduced by Daisy's nine-year-old brother. Randolph considers their hometown of Schenectady, New York, to be superior to all of Europe. Daisy, however, is delighted with the continent the high society she wishes to enter. Winterbourne is at first confused by her attitude, though impressed by her beauty, he soon determines that she is nothing more than a young flirt, he continues his pursuit of Daisy in spite of the disapproval of his aunt, Mrs. Costello, who spurns any family with so close a relationship to their courier as the Millers have with their Eugenio.

She thinks Daisy is a shameless girl for agreeing to visit the Château de Chillon with Winterbourne after they have known each other for only half an hour. Two days the two travel to Château de Chillon and although Winterbourne had paid the janitor for privacy, Daisy is not quite impressed. Winterbourne informs Daisy that he must go to Geneva the next day. Daisy feels disappointment and chaffs him asking him to visit her in Rome that year. In Rome and Daisy meet unexpectedly in the parlor of Mrs. Walker, an American expatriate, whose moral values have adapted to those of Italian society. Rumors about Daisy meeting with young Italian gentlemen make her exceptionable under these criteria. Winterbourne learns of Daisy's increasing intimacy with a young Italian of questionable society, Giovanelli, as well as the growing scandal caused by the pair's behaviour. Daisy is undeterred by the open disapproval of the other Americans in Rome, her mother seems quite unaware of the underlying tensions. Winterbourne and Mrs. Walker attempt to persuade Daisy to separate from Giovanelli.

One night, Winterbourne takes a walk through the Colosseum and sees a young couple sitting at its centre. He realises that they are Daisy. Winterbourne, infuriated with Giovanelli, asks him how he could dare to take Daisy to a place where she runs the risk of catching "Roman Fever". Daisy says she does not care and Winterbourne leaves them. Daisy dies a few days later; this novella serves as both a psychological description of the mind of a young woman and as an analysis of the traditional views of a society where she is a clear outsider. Henry James uses Daisy's story to discuss what he thinks Europeans and Americans believe about each other and more the prejudices common in any culture. In a letter, James said that Daisy is the victim of a "social rumpus" that goes on either over her head or beneath her notice; the names of the characters are symbolic. Daisy is a flower without inhibitions and in the springtime of her life. Daisy contrasts with Winterbourne. Flowers die in winter and this is what happens to Daisy after catching the Roman Fever.

As an objective analogue to this psychological reality, Daisy catches the real Roman fever, the malaria, endemic to many Roman neighbourhoods in the 19th century. The issue on which the novella turns is the "innocence" of Daisy, despite her scandalous behaviour. John Burnside, writing for The Independent, Daisy Miller arrives in Frederick Winterbourne's staid world the way that an angel arrives at an Annunciation, as both promise and challenge. From their first meeting at Vevey, to the story's dramatic conclusion in Rome, Winterbourne's interest in Daisy is subject to constant censure from his "exclusive" aunt, Mrs Costello, her forensically respectable social circle: the girl is "not nice," they say. At first sight, it seems that Winterbourne is genuinely torn between romantic attachment and his suffocating social milieu – and that might have made for an engaging, but not uncommon study of love versus convention, it was as if a sudden illumination had been flashed upon the ambiguity of Daisy's behaviour and the riddle had become easy to read.

She was a young lady whom a gentleman need no longer be at pains to respect." Though the novel's final act has yet to unfold, we cannot help but conclude that the real tragedy lies here, in Winterbourne's relief. Daisy Miller was an immediate and widespread popular success for James, despite some criticism that the story was "an outrage on American girlhood"; the story continues to be one of James' most popular works, along with The Turn of the Screw and The Portrait of a Lady. Critics have praised the freshness and vigor of the storytelling. In 1909, James revised Daisy Miller extensiv