Marny Elizabeth Kennedy is an Australian actress and model. She is best known for her roles as Taylor Fry in the series Mortified and Veronica di Angelo #2 on The Saddle Club, she starred as Ally Henson in the TV series A gURLs wURLd. She is known for her role as Winter Frey in the TV adaptation of Conspiracy 365. In 2011 she appeared in the short-film Golden Girl as teenage Cilla, whose life is drastically changed after she becomes scarred by a fire. Marny Kennedy won the Australian Film Institute's 2006 Young Actor Award for her starring role in Mortified. Marny Kennedy on IMDb Marny Kennedy on Twitter
Connecticut Public Television
Connecticut Public Television is the Public Broadcasting Service member network for the U. S. state of Connecticut. It is owned by Connecticut Public Broadcasting, a community-based organization which holds the licenses for all of the PBS member stations licensed in the state and owns the state's National Public Radio member, Connecticut Public Radio. Together, the television and radio stations make up the Connecticut Public Broadcasting Network. CPBN is the state's only locally owned media organization producing TV, radio and Internet content for distribution to Connecticut's wide-ranging and diverse communities; the broadcasting company is led by Jerry Franklin, President of CPTV. The organizational structure of CPTV includes a Board of Trustees, it co-produced the long-running children's television series Barney & Friends. The network's first station, WEDH in Hartford, signed on in 1962, airing broadcasts in "black and white" at the Trinity College Library, it was the fourth educational television station in New England, following WGBH-TV in Boston, WENH-TV in Durham, New Hampshire, WCBB in Augusta, Maine.
A member of National Educational Television, it joined PBS upon its launch October 4, 1970. Known as Connecticut Educational Television, it became Connecticut Public Television in 1984. CPTV remained based on rented space at Trinity College until selling its headquarters back to the school for $10 million in 2002. In 2004, CPTV moved to a state-of-the-art facility on Asylum Avenue in the Asylum Hill neighborhood of Hartford; the infrastructure of CPTV was upgraded through a partnership with Sony Systems Integration Center, which enabled the delivery of HD quality telecommunications to subscribers. In the 1990s, a "volunteer of the week" program was offered. Since 1985, CPTV has received the following awards: 69 Regional Emmy Awards 6 Golden Eagle Awards 7 Mark Twain Awards from the Associated Press, 2 George Foster Peabody Awards 2 Gracie Allen Awards 2 Ohio State Awards for Broadcast Excellence CPTV was the broadcast and web streaming home of UConn Women's Basketball from 1994-2012; the game broadcasts were the highest-rated locally produced program in the PBS system.
CPTV is a major producer of children's programming for the PBS system. Its best-known offering was Friends; the character was discovered in 1991 when the daughter of CPTV executive Larry Rifkin bought a Barney and the Backyard Gang home video and was mesmerized by it. CPTV continued to distribute the show until 2006. Other children's shows originated by CPTV are Thomas & Friends, Bob The Builder, Make Way for Noddy, Angelina Ballerina, The Saddle Club and as well as the first season of SeeMore's Playhouse. From 1993 to 2005, M*A*S*H star Alan Alda hosted the science series Scientific American Frontiers, based on the popular magazine Scientific American; that show was produced by CPTV and aired nationwide. Since 2002, CPTV has been working with HiT Entertainment, who has helped distribute some of CPTV's children's programs. Beginning in 2008, most of CPTV's kids programming have been presented by WNET. Other programs produced by or for CPTV include: The CPTV stations are: The network operated a translator in Waterbury, W12BH, which directly repeated WEDY.
That station was taken off the air to allow WTXX to begin digital television operations. CPTV is available on all cable systems in the state. On satellite, WEDH is available in nearly all of the state on the Hartford–New Haven DirecTV and Dish Network feeds, while WEDW is available on the New York City local feeds. WEDH is additionally provided on many cable systems in the Pioneer Valley of Massachusetts in high definition, providing a second choice to viewers besides WGBY-TV in Springfield; this gives CPTV a potential audience of 21 million people in five states. The digital signals of CPTV's stations are multiplexed: During 2009, in the lead-up to the analog-to-digital television transition that would occur on June 12, CPTV shut down the analog transmitters of its stations on a staggered basis. Listed below are the dates each analog transmitter ceased operations as well as their post-transition channel allocations: WEDH shut down its analog signal, over UHF channel 24, on June 12, 2009, the official date in which full-power television stations in the United States transitioned from analog to digital broadcasts under federal mandate.
The station's digital signal remained on its pre-transition UHF channel 45, using PSIP to display the station's virtual channel as its former UHF analog channel 24. WEDW shut down its analog signal, over UHF channel 49, on February 17, 2009, the original date in which full-power television stations in the United States were to transition from analog to digital broadcasts under federal mandate; the station's digital signal relocated from its pre-transition UHF channel 52, among the high band UHF channels that were removed from broadcasting use as a result of the transition, to its analog-era UHF channel 49. WEDN shut down its analog signal, over UHF channel 53, on June 12, 2009; the station's digital signal remained on its pre-transition VHF channel 9, using PSIP to display the station's virtual channel as its former UHF analog channel 53. WEDY went off the air on July 2005, as the result of an equipment failure. Connecticut Public Broadcasting was granted permission by the Federal Communications Commission to temporarily keep the station off-the-air until repa
ABC Television is a service of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation launched in 1956. As a public service broadcaster, the ABC provides four non-commercial channels within Australia, a advertising-funded satellite channel overseas. ABC is one of five main free-to-air networks in Australia; the history of the ABC's television operations can be traced back to 1953, when the federal Television Act was passed, providing the initial regulatory framework for both the ABC and commercial television networks. Over the next three years, planning for the introduction of a national television service was put in place, land for studios and transmitters in Sydney and Melbourne was acquired, overseas tutors were brought to Australia to assist with training. Commercial station TCN-9 Sydney was the first to broadcast in Australia, soon followed by the ABC's own ABN-2 Sydney and ABV-2 in Melbourne. Six stations, three in Melbourne and three in Sydney, were in operation in time to cover the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne.
The ABC's first television broadcast was inaugurated by Prime Minister Robert Menzies on 5 November, at the Gore Hill studios in Sydney, followed two weeks by transmission in Melbourne. Outside broadcasting was initiated on 5 November, from the ABC's first outside broadcast van; the van, now in the collection of the National Museum of Australia, was instrumental in the production of thousands of outside broadcasts. It was restored in time to be displayed at the Sydney Olympic Games and was used to film the visit of Queen Elizabeth II to the site of the National Museum in 2000. Although radio programs could be broadcast nationally by landline, television relay facilities were not put in place until the early 1960s; this meant that news bulletins had to be sent to each capital city by teleprinter, to be prepared and presented separately in each city, with filmed materials copied manually and sent to each state. A purpose-built television studio was built in Sydney, opened on 29 January 1958, replacing temporary sound studios used since the ABC's television services launched in 1956.
In the same year, technical equipment was moved to permanent locations, while main transmitters were introduced to Melbourne and Sydney in 1957 and 1958, respectively. Direct relays between Sydney and Melbourne, as well as Canberra, were established in 1961, replacing temporary microwave relays as a means of airing programs across multiple stations. Videotape equipment, allowing the sharing of footage with much greater ease and speed, was installed in each state capital by 1962. ABQ-2 Brisbane was the third ABC TV station to launch. ABC-3 Canberra opened a year with ABD-6 Darwin completing the ABC's coverage of every state in 1971. Teletext services were introduced to ABC in 1983 to allow hearing-impaired viewers access to closed captions. International television service Australia Television International was established in 1993. Australia Television was sold to the Seven Network in 1998; the ABC's television operations joined its radio and online divisions at the Corporation's Ultimo headquarters in 2000.
In 2002, the ABC launched ABC Asia Pacific, the replacement for the defunct Australia Television channel operated by the Seven Network. Much like its predecessor, companion radio network Radio Australia, the service provided a mix of programming targeted at audiences throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Funding cuts in 2003, led to the closure of Fly and the ABC Kid's Channel. ABC2, now ABC Comedy, a second attempt at a digital-only television channel, was launched on 7 March 2005, running on a budget of $3 million per year. Minister for Communications Helen Coonan inaugurated the channel at Parliament House three days later. Genre restrictions limiting the types of programming the channel could carry were lifted in October 2006. In the lead-up to the 2007 federal election, the Australian Government endorsed a proposal submitted to the Australian Communications and Media Authority by the ABC to launch a second digital channel targeted at children; the new channel, titled ABC3, was to aim to provide at least 50% Australian-made content.
At midday on 8 February 2008, ABC Television was rebranded as ABC1, complementing the existing ABC2 digital-only channel launched on 7 March 2005. ABC has four digital services; as of 2009, ABC announced an Australia-wide upgrade to its Digital service, that it would provide a seven-day Electronic Program Guide and give new logical channel numbers for all of ABC’s television services. The new ABC logical channel numbers are below; these services are available nationally through digital terrestrial television, all the digital TV services are available through the VAST free-to-air satellite service. Only the primary ABC channel is available on the Optus Aurora satellite platform. In June 2010, playout was moved to a new facility shared with WIN Television at Ingleburn. On 6 December 2016, ABC upgraded its HD format from 720p to 1080i. Within Australia, the ABC operates four television channels, all of them non-commercial. ABC, the Corporation's original television service, receives the bulk of funding for television and shows first-run comedy, drama and news and current affairs.
In each state and territory a local news bulletin is shown at 7 pm nightly. ABC Comedy, launched in 2005, shows comedic content in addition to some repeats from ABC TV of which the amount has decreased since ABC Comedy's inception, it is not a 24-hour channel, but is
Crawford Productions is an Australian media production company, focused on radio and television production. Founded by Hector Crawford and his sister and voice artist Dorothy Crawford, the company known as Crawfords Australia, is now a subsidiary of the WIN Corporation. Crawford Productions was founded in 1945 as a producer of drama, light entertainment and educational programs for radio. With the introduction of broadcast television to Australia in 1956, Crawford Productions was one of the few Australian radio production houses able to make a successful transition to the new medium. Early Crawford TV productions included Wedding Day, the first Australian-produced sitcom Take That!, The Peters Club, Raising a Husband and the drama play Seagulls Over Sorrento. They produced segments of the Export Action documentary series, The Flying Doctor and a local adaptation of the US game show Video Village. Crawford Productions had a reputation for higher quality productions than its nearest rival, the Reg Grundy Organisation, which specialized in quiz and game shows before transitioning to drama serials.
Company co-founder Hector Crawford was well-known as an orchestral conductor leader, as a prominent figure in the ongoing campaign for local content regulations on Australian television. During the 1960s and the first half of the 1970s, Crawford Productions dominated Australian drama series, they gained an early foothold with their first major TV series, Consider Your Verdict, which presented dramatizations of court cases. Like other local producers, Crawfords faced competition from imported overseas programming because there were no local content regulations governing Australian television at that time; as a result of this de facto free-trade agreement, most programs shown on Australian TV content were imported from America. At the time when Homicide premiered in late 1964, more than 80% of all content broadcast on Australian TV came from America, American productions enjoyed a virtual monopoly over the TV drama field; the report of the 1963 Vincent Commission into the Australian media found that 97% of all drama shows broadcast in Australia between 1956 and 1963 were American productions.
Australian producers had to compete against high-quality, high-budget imported programs that could draw on an international talent pool and a skill-base that had grown out of the Hollywood. The competitive advantage enjoyed by imported content was exacerbated by the fact that the once-thriving Australian film industry had been decimated by competition from the major American studios. Since the beginning of the 1960s, film production in Australia had come to a standstill. Only one locally produced and funded feature film was made in Australia in the decade between 1959 and 1969. One of the major impacts of the suppression of the local film industry was a rapid erosion of skills and experience among local film-makers and a "brain drain" of local talent to Britain and the USA. Crawford experienced mainstream success with its popular and long-running police drama Homicide, which premiered in October 1964 on the Seven Network, it became the first TV drama series produced by a local company in Australia to become a major ratings success and compete with imported American programming.
As video technology was still in its infancy in Australia at that time, Crawford Productions developed a efficient integrated production schedule to combine studio scenes recorded on videotape with location footage captured on film for each weekly episode. Encouraged by the success of Homicide their next drama project was the ambitious espionage drama Hunter, purchased by the Nine Network, it starred Tony Ward and made a star out of the actor who played its villain, Gerard Kennedy. After Hunter ended in 1969, a new police drama, Division 4 was conceived as a vehicle for Kennedy's talents and he became a dual Gold Logie winner, the series screened on the Nine Network. Unlike Homicide, which concentrated on murder plots, Division 4 was set in a suburban Melbourne police station, covered a broad range of police work, as well as featuring more light-hearted episodes, it too earned Kennedy two Logie Awards. Crawford's next venture was a rural police series Matlock Police, sold to the Network Ten which too became popular and successful.
It starred veteran Australian actor Michael Pate, who had spent many years in Hollywood in the 1950s and 1960s, featured Paul Cronin, given his own spinoff series: Solo One. With the success of Matlock Police, Crawford Productions cemented its position as Australia's leading drama production house and gained the unique distinction of having a successful weekly drama series running on each of the three major commercial networks. In 1973, Crawford Productions created the action-adventure series Ryan, starring Rod Mullinar as a private investigator; this was an all-film colour production made to target overseas sales, but it only lasted one series and 39 episodes. In 1974, Crawfords moved into the realm of soap opera with its sex-comedy serial The Box, set in a TV station, UCV channel 12. With the top-rating 0-10 Network serial Number 96 as its lead in The Box was an instant success. Homicide, Division 4, Matlock Police remained popular through the early 1970s, The Box was a big hit in its premiere year, ranking as Australia's s
Stereophonic sound or, more stereo, is a method of sound reproduction that creates an illusion of multi-directional audible perspective. This is achieved by using two or more independent audio channels through a configuration of two or more loudspeakers in such a way as to create the impression of sound heard from various directions, as in natural hearing, thus the term "stereophonic" applies to so-called "quadraphonic" and "surround-sound" systems as well as the more common two-channel, two-speaker systems. It is contrasted with monophonic, or "mono" sound, where audio is heard as coming from one position ahead in the sound field. Stereo sound has been in common use since the 1970s in entertainment systems such as broadcast radio, TV, recorded music, computer audio, cinema; the word stereophonic derives from the Greek στερεός + φωνή and it was coined in 1927 by Western Electric, by analogy with the word "stereoscopic". Stereo sound systems can be divided into two forms: the first is "true" or "natural" stereo in which a live sound is captured, with any natural reverberation or ambience present, by an array of microphones.
The signal is reproduced over multiple loudspeakers to recreate, as as possible, the live sound. Secondly "artificial" or "pan-pot" stereo, in which a single-channel sound is reproduced over multiple loudspeakers. By varying the relative amplitude of the signal sent to each speaker an artificial direction can be suggested; the control, used to vary this relative amplitude of the signal is known as a "pan-pot". By combining multiple "pan-potted" mono signals together, a complete, yet artificial, sound field can be created. In technical usage, true stereo means sound recording and sound reproduction that uses stereographic projection to encode the relative positions of objects and events recorded. During two-channel stereo recording, two microphones are placed in strategically chosen locations relative to the sound source, with both recording simultaneously; the two recorded channels will be similar, but each will have distinct time-of-arrival and sound-pressure-level information. During playback, the listener's brain uses those subtle differences in timing and sound level to triangulate the positions of the recorded objects.
Stereo recordings cannot be played on monaural systems without a significant loss of fidelity. Since each microphone records each wavefront at a different time, the wavefronts are out of phase; this phenomenon is known as phase cancellation. Clément Ader demonstrated the first two-channel audio system in Paris in 1881, with a series of telephone transmitters connected from the stage of the Paris Opera to a suite of rooms at the Paris Electrical Exhibition, where listeners could hear a live transmission of performances through receivers for each ear. Scientific American reported: "Every one, fortunate enough to hear the telephones at the Palais de l'Industrie has remarked that, in listening with both ears at the two telephones, the sound takes a special character of relief and localization which a single receiver cannot produce.... This phenomenon is curious, it approximates to the theory of binauricular audition, has never been applied, we believe, before to produce this remarkable illusion to which may be given the name of auditive perspective."This two-channel telephonic process was commercialized in France from 1890 to 1932 as the Théâtrophone, in England from 1895 to 1925 as the Electrophone.
Both were services available by coin-operated receivers at hotels and cafés, or by subscription to private homes. Modern stereophonic technology was invented in the 1930s by British engineer Alan Blumlein at EMI, who patented stereo records, stereo films, surround sound. In early 1931, Blumlein and his wife were at a local cinema; the sound reproduction systems of the early "talkies" invariably only had a single set of speakers - which could lead to the somewhat disconcerting effect of the actor being on one side of the screen whilst his voice appeared to come from the other. Blumlein declared to his wife that he had found a way to make the sound follow the actor across the screen; the genesis of these ideas is uncertain, but he explained them to Isaac Shoenberg in the late summer of 1931. His earliest notes on the subject are dated 25 September 1931, his patent had the title "Improvements in and relating to Sound-transmission, Sound-recording and Sound-reproducing Systems"; the application was dated 14 December 1931, was accepted on 14 June 1933 as UK patent number 394,325.
The patent covered many ideas in some not. Some 70 claims include: A "shuffling" circuit, which aimed to preserve the directional effect when sound from a spaced pair of microphones was reproduced via stereo headphones instead of a pair of loudspeakers; these discs used the two walls of the groove at right angles in order to carry th
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
1080i is an abbreviation referring to a combination of frame resolution and scan type, used in high-definition television and high-definition video. The number "1080" refers to the number of horizontal lines on the screen; the "i" is an abbreviation for "interlaced". A related display resolution is 1080p, which has 1080 lines of resolution; the term assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9, so the 1080 lines of vertical resolution implies 1920 columns of horizontal resolution, or 1920 pixels × 1080 lines. A 1920 pixels × 1080 lines screen has a total of 2.1 megapixels and a temporal resolution of 50 or 60 interlaced fields per second. This format is used in the SMPTE 292M standard; the choice of 1080 lines originates with Charles Poynton, who in the early 1990s pushed for "square pixels" to be used in HD video formats. Within the designation "1080i", the i stands for interlaced scan. A frame of 1080i video consists of two sequential fields of 540 vertical pixels; the first field consists of all odd-numbered TV lines and the second all numbered lines.
The horizontal lines of pixels in each field are captured and displayed with a one-line vertical gap between them, so the lines of the next field can be interlaced between them, resulting in 1080 total lines. 1080i differs from 1080p, where the p stands for progressive scan, where all lines in a frame are captured at the same time. In native or pure 1080i, the two fields of a frame correspond to different instants, so motion portrayal is good; this is true for interlaced video in general and can be observed in still images taken of fast motion scenes. However, when 1080p material is captured at 25 or 30 frames/second, it is converted to 1080i at 50 or 60 fields/second for processing or broadcasting. In this situation both fields in a frame do correspond to the same instant; the field-to-instant relation is somewhat more complex for the case of 1080p at 24 frames/second converted to 1080i at 60 fields/second. The field rate of 1080i is 60 Hz for countries that use or used System M as analog television system with 60 fields/sec, or 50 Hz for regions that use or used 625-lines television system with 50 fields/sec.
Both field rates can be carried by major digital television broadcast formats such as ATSC, DVB, ISDB-T International. The frame rate can be implied by the context, while the field rate is specified after the letter i, such as "1080i60". In this case 1080i60 refers to 60 fields per second; the European Broadcasting Union prefers to use the resolution and frame rate separated by a slash, as in 1080i/30 and 1080i/25 480i/30 and 576i/25. Resolutions of 1080i60 or 1080i50 refers to 1080i/30 or 1080i/25 in EBU notation. 1080i is directly compatible with some CRT HDTVs on which it can be displayed natively in interlaced form, but for display on progressive-scan—e.g. Most new LCD and plasma TVs, it must be deinterlaced. Depending on the television's video processing capabilities, the resulting video quality may vary, but may not suffer. For example, film material at 25fps may be deinterlaced from 1080i50 to restore a full 1080p resolution at the original frame rate without any loss. Preferably video material with 50 or 60 motion phases/second is to be converted to 50p or 60p before display.
Worldwide, most HD channels on satellite and cable broadcast in 1080i. In the United States, 1080i is the preferred format for most broadcasters, with Inc.. Viacom, AT&T, Comcast owned networks broadcasting in the format. Only Fox-owned television networks and Disney-owned television networks, along with MLB Network and a few other cable networks use 720p as the preferred format for their networks. Many ABC affiliates owned by Hearst Television and former Belo Corporation stations owned by TEGNA, along with some individual affiliates of those three networks, air their signals in 1080i and upscale network programming for master control and transmission purposes, as most syndicated programming and advertising is produced and distributed in 1080i, removing a downscaling step to 720p; this allows local newscasts on these ABC affiliates to be produced in the higher resolution to match the picture quality of their 1080i competitors. Some cameras and broadcast systems that use 1080 vertical lines per frame do not use the full 1920 pixels of a nominal 1080i picture for image capture and encoding.
Common subsampling ratios include 3/4 and 1/2. Where used, the lower horizontal resolution is scaled to capture and/or display a full-sized picture. Using half horizontal resolution and only one field of each frame results in the format known as qHD, which has fram