Metfield is a village in Suffolk, but its name is derived from Medefeld or'Meadow feld'. It is situated close to the border with Norfolk, being 5 miles south east of Harleston and 7 miles north west of Halesworth; the population was estimated increasing to 388 at the 2011 Census. The parish church is the 13th-century church of St. John the Baptist, extensively remodelled in the 15th century. St. John the Baptist has a sister parish in Medfield, Massachusetts in the United States, the Church of the Advent; the town is named after Metfield. The Village has had no public house since 2007, when The Duke William, closed. In May 2013 the pub re-opened as a successful Tea Room. During early 2014, the Tea Rooms expanded into a Breakfast along with a shop. During World War II an airfield was built just outside Metfield for use by the USAAF 491st Bomb Group and the 353d Fighter Group. On 15 July 1944 a bomb dump blew up, detonating over 1,000 tons of bombs and explosive, killing five men and wrecking five B-24 bombers.
The local economy is agricultural with some light industry. The village now has its own website at metfieldsuffolk.com. In November 2017, local author Christine Brennan published her book METFIELD Tales From a Suffolk Village 1928–2017. Nearby villages include Cratfield. Metfield St John the Baptist Church, Metfield Diss Express - village's local newspaper website a description of the explosion at the dump
Halesworth is a small market town, civil parish and electoral ward in the northeastern corner of Suffolk, England. The population was measured at 4,726 in the 2011 Census, it is located 15 miles south west of Lowestoft, stands on a small tributary of the River Blyth, 9 miles upstream from Southwold. The town is served by Halesworth railway station on the Ipswich–Lowestoft East Suffolk Line. Halesworth is twinned with both Bouchain in Eitorf in Germany. A Roman settlement, Halesworth has a medieval church. Former almshouses used to house the Halesworth & District Museum but this has now been moved to Halesworth railway station; the Town Trail walk provides opportunity to discover the history of Halesworth. Halesworth is centred on a pedestrianised shopping street known as the Thoroughfare; each year the Thoroughfare hosts a popular food and craft fair, termed the "Thoroughfair", to raise money for good causes. Halesworth is the home to the New Cut Arts Centre, which hosts the acclaimed annual Halesworth Arts Festival.
Halesworth has the largest Millennium Green in the UK with around 44 acres of grazing marsh providing a haven for wildlife close to the town centre. The rivers in this area are home to herons and otters. Nearby villages include Cratfield, Chediston, Blyford, Linstead Parva, Thorington and Bramfield; the village of Holton is 1-mile away with a large open space for walking called Holton Pits. The place-name'Halesworth' is first attested in the Domesday Book of 1086, where it appears as Healesuurda and Halesuuorda; the name means'Hæle's homestead'. A Halesworth bank used to issue its own banknotes. A 5 guinea banknote, issued by the Suffolk and Halesworth Bank in 1799, has been recovered. In the early 16th century the Angel Hotel was built and held a position of importance as the post house, coaching inn and main meeting place for townsfolk. Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker the famous botanist and traveller was born in Halesworth in 1817. Hooker House, now a dental surgery, is named after him, his widow declined the proposal of a burial of his body in Westminster Abbey alongside Charles Darwin.
In 1862 the only murder was recorded. Ebenezer Tye was a policeman, trying to stop a burglary in Chediston Street; however he is now buried in Halesworth Cemetery. The murderer, John Ducker, was the last person to be publicly hanged in Suffolk. In 1862 the Rifle Hall was presented to the town by the family of a late captain of the rifle corps, Andrew Johnston, it is so called. The hall was built in 1792 as a theatre and was used from 1812–44 by the theatre manager David Fisher, he owned an itinerant theatre group. It would take the company two years to complete the circuit travelling with their costumes and sets and publicising their plays as they went, they were successful with strong links with the London stage and the acting circle. Chediston Street was the site of many pubs and small breweries; the ghost of Squire Baker is reputed to haunt this street. He is renowned for breaking his legs. There is a heavy-footed ghost that walks into a house and clumps noisily through to the other side. Quay Street takes its name from the original town quay.
In the middle of the 18th century the river was made navigable from Halesworth to Southwold. A new brick lock was made at Halesworth and new cuts were dug; the first keel arrived from Southwold in 1761, laden with coal, shortening the journey of the cargo considerably. Part of the old navigation can be seen in the Town Park; the Town Park was created by Donald Newby with the help of Lady Rugby who donated some of the land.1822–31 – the Reverend Richard Whateley was Rector of Halesworth, living in the Rectory, Rectory Lane. He was a outspoken academic vociferously opposed to slavery, he left Halesworth to become Archbishop of Dublin. One of his descendants is the actor Kevin Whately. Since 2019, Halesworth has been governed by East Suffolk district council and Suffolk County Council. Between 1974 and 2019 it was part of the Waveney district. Prior to 1974, local government functions had been carried out by Halesworth Urban District Council. Halesworth Town Council was formed in 1974; the 12 Town Councillors are elected every four years.
The chairman and vice-chair are elected by fellow councillors and serve for two years in office. Prior to 1300 much of this area was a flood plain. Excavations outside the White Hart pub in 1991 discovered part of a causeway – dating from the late Saxon period. A piece of oak pile from these excavations is in the District Museum. There are fine examples of 17th, 18th and 19th century buildings in the Thoroughfare. Number 8 is a former ironmonger's; this shop belonged to the grandfather of Sir David Frost and the name of William Frost can still be seen underneath the archway next to the shop. The Thoroughfare is home to many specialist shops and cafes as well as playing host to events throughout the year. Number 6, thought to be 14th century and sometimes referred to as Dame Margery's, is believed to have been the home of Margaret de Argentein; the beam over the main doorway would have included the Argentein coat of armsNumber 14 is thought to have been the early home of George Lansbury – leader of the Labour
A parish church in Christianity is the church which acts as the religious centre of a parish. In many parts of the world in rural areas, the parish church may play a significant role in community activities allowing its premises to be used for non-religious community events; the church building reflects this status, there is considerable variety in the size and style of parish churches. Many villages in Europe have churches that date back to the Middle Ages, but all periods of architecture are represented. In England, the parish church is the basic administrative unit of episcopal churches. Nearly every part of England is designated as a parish, most parishes have an Anglican parish church, consecrated. If there is no parish church, the bishop licenses another building for worship, may designate it as a parish centre of worship; this building is not consecrated, but is dedicated, for most legal purposes it is deemed to be a parish church. In areas of increasing secularisation or shifts in religious belief, centres of worship are becoming more common, larger churches are sold due to their upkeep costs.
Instead the church may use community centres or the facilities of a local church of another denomination. While smaller villages may have a single parish church, larger towns may have a parish church and other smaller churches in various districts; these churches do not have the legal or religious status of'parish church' and may be described by a variety of terms, such as chapel of ease or mission church. The parish church will be the only one to have a full-time minister, who will serve any smaller churches within the parish. In cities without an Anglican cathedral, the parish church may have administrative functions similar to that of a cathedral. However, the diocese will still have a cathedral. In the Catholic Church, as the seat of worship for the parish, this church is the one where the members of the parish must go for baptisms and weddings, unless permission is given by the parish priest for celebrating these sacraments elsewhere. One sign of this is; the Church of Scotland, the established Presbyterian church uses a system of parish churches, covering the whole of Scotland.
In Massachusetts, towns elected publicly funded parish churches from 1780 until 1834, under the Constitution of Massachusetts. Toward the end of the 20th century, a new resurgence in interest in "parish" churches emerged across the United States; this has given rise to efforts like the Slow Church Movement and The Parish Collective which focus on localized involvement across work and church life. Roman Catholic parish church Church of England parish church
Redenhall with Harleston
Redenhall with Harleston is a civil parish in the South Norfolk district of the English county of Norfolk, comprising the town of Harleston and the neighbouring village of Redenhall. It covers an area of 13.73 km2, had a population of 4,058 in 1,841 households at the 2001 census, the population increasing to 4,640 at the 2011 census. Many Georgian residences and much earlier buildings, with Georgian frontages, line the streets of Harleston. Although there is no record of a royal charter, Harleston has been a market town since at least 1369 and still holds a Wednesday market; the right to hold an eight-day fair during the period of the Beheading of St. John the Baptist was granted to Roger Bigod, 4th Earl of Norfolk by Henry III in 1259; the village of Redenhall was mentioned in the Domesday Book, as part of the Lands of the King that Godric holds, in the Half Hundred of Earsham. It states that in King Edward the Confessor' time, Rada the Dane held Redenhall, that his holding was 700 acres, upon which there were forty subordinate tenantries with six plough-teams.
The Domesday Book only makes brief reference to Harleston saying that the Abbot of Bury St. Edmunds was lord here then. One of the plots to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I was to be launched on Midsummer Day 1570 at the Harleston Fair by proclamations and the sound of trumpets and drums; the Elizabethan play Friar Friar Bungay features this in one of its scenes. The parish includes two Church of England churches. In the town centre is the church of St John the Baptist, the present building being completed in 1872; the town's landmark clock tower, was designed and commissioned in 1876 from George Grimwood of Weybread, at a cost of £325 whilst the clock itself was supplied and fitted by Messers Gillet & Bland of Croydon at a cost of £90. The tower is on the edge of the site of the old chapel of ease, demolished in 1873, to the much larger medieval Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Redenhall, the mother church of the parish. Redenhall and Harleston railway stations connected these settlements by rail with Tivetshall St Margaret and Beccles on the Waveney Valley Line.
Redenhall Station closed in 1866, Harleston in 1953. Archbishop Sancroft High School is located in Harleston, is the main secondary school for the parish and surrounding area; the civil parish has a town council. Harleston is an electoral ward comprising the civil parish by itself. Samuel Fuller, a Pilgrim on the Mayflower Edward Fuller, a Pilgrim on the Mayflower Henry Ward, recipient of the Victoria Cross Notes on the Parish of Redenhall with Harleston in the County of Norfolk, complied chiefly from the records in the Town Chest. by Charles Candler, 1896. Redenhall with Harleston Town Council
Royal Air Force Bungay or more RAF Bungay is a former Royal Air Force station located 3 miles south-west of Bungay, England. The airfield is known after the village of Flixton, near which it was built. Bungay airfield was planned as a satellite for nearby RAF Hardwick and was constructed by Kirk & Kirk Ltd. during 1942 with a main runway of 6,000 feet in length and two intersecting secondary runways, one of 4,220 feet and the other of 4,200 feet. In common with other airfields of the period, the technical and domestic buildings were dispersed to lessen the impact of any enemy air attack; the buildings were all of a temporary nature and the various sites were chiefly to the west of the airfield. The airfield was allocated to the Americans and transferred to the United States Army Air Forces Eighth Air Force and designated Station 125. USAAF Station Units assigned to RAF Bungay were: 460th Sub-Depot Quartermaster Depot Q-104 18th Weather Squadron 25th Station Complement Squadron 555th Quartermaster Battalion 1214th Quartermaster Company 1248th Military Police Company 1821st Ordnance Supply & Maintenance Company 885th Chemical Company 979th Quartermaster Service Company 987th Military Police Company 2035th Engineer Fire Fighting Platoon 212nd Finance Section 558th Army Postal Unit Bungay was still unfinished when the Twelfth Air Force 428th Bombardment Squadron, 310th Bombardment Group at RAF Hardwick arrived with fourteen North American B-25 Mitchell medium bombers in October 1942.
The squadron moved on to Médiouna Airfield, French Morocco on 18 November 1942. A 12th Air Force film clip indicates that the 310th Bombardment Group was the first 12th Air Force group to fly the northern transport route from the United States to Europe and arrived at Prestwick, Scotland in October 1942. In December 1942, eight Consolidated B-24 Liberators of the 329th Bombardment Squadron, 93d Bombardment Group at RAF Hardwick were sent to Bungay to prepare for special intruder operations; these aircraft conducted raids in bad weather with the mission of harassing the German air raid warning system. The 329th flew these missions until March 1943. Additional construction was performed at Bungay until November 1943 when the airfield received the Eighth Air Force 446th Bombardment Group from Lowry AAF, Colorado; the 446th was assigned to the 20th Combat Bombardment Wing and the group tail code was a "Circle-H". Its operational squadrons were: 704th Bombardment Squadron 705th Bombardment Squadron 706th Bombardment Squadron 707th Bombardment Squadron The 446th operated chiefly against strategic objectives on the Continent from December 1943 until April 1945.
Targets included U-boat installations at Kiel, the port at Bremen, a chemical plant at Ludwigshafen, ball-bearing works at Berlin, aero-engine plants at Rostock, aircraft factories at Munich, marshalling yards at Coblenz, motor works at Ulm, oil refineries at Hamburg. Besides strategic missions, the group carried out support and interdictory operations, it supported the Normandy landings in June 1944 by attacking strong points, airfields and other targets in France. It aided ground forces at Caen and Saint-Lô during July by hitting bridges, gun batteries, enemy troops. Dropped supplies to Allied troops near Nijmegen during the airborne attack on the Netherlands in September. Bombed marshalling yards and road junctions during the Battle of the Bulge, December 1944 - January 1945. Dropped supplies to airborne and ground troops near Wesel during the Allied assault across the Rhine in March 1945; the 446th Bomb Group flew its last combat mission on 25 April. It returned to Sioux Falls AAF, South Dakota, during June and July 1945, being inactivated there on 18 August 1945.
The Pima Air & Space Museum as of 2013 has a Liberator N7866 with nose art "Bungay Buckaroo" related to the 446th Bomb Group stationed at Bungay in 1944. After the war, the field was transferred to the Royal Navy and the station became HMS Europa, being the satellite of HMS Sparrowhawk where three Fleet Air Arm squadrons were located. In 1946 it was returned to RAF control and was assigned to No. 53 Maintenance Unit RAF and became a maintenance sub-unit of No. 94 MU RAF which had its HQ at RAF Great Ashfield. Stored on the runways and in the buildings, were 250 lb. 500 lb. 2000 lb. and 4,000 lb. bombs, balloon cable cutting cartridges, depth charges, 7-inch parachute flares and German ammunition. The latter two items were taken to 53 MU at RAF Pulham, destroyed there; some time in July 1949, the site was taken over by 53 MU until Bungay's closure in 1955. The airfield was put up for sale and disposed of in 1961/1962. With the end of military control Bungay airfield was the location of the Martlesham Heath Parachute Club, with Cessna 182 G-ATNU and crop sprayers, including Pawnee D G-BFRY.
In 1981-82, the Flixton Church Roof Restoration Fund held mini air shows. Until 1983, the main runway and peritrack were in good condition, but the following year work started on breaking them up. In the spring of 1986 a new set of oak gates were hung at St Mary's Church, which stands close to the old airfield; these were bought as a result of donations by veterans of the 446th BG to replace those presented in 1945 by the Americans at Flixton. A small memorial plaque carries the inscription, "These gates were presented in memory of the men of the 446th Bombardment Group, USAAF, who gave their lives in the defence of freedom, 1941-1945". Of the airfield itself, most of the wartime buildings, including the control tower and hangars, have long since
Norfolk is a county in East Anglia in England. It borders Lincolnshire to the northwest, Cambridgeshire to the west and southwest, Suffolk to the south, its northern and eastern boundaries are the North Sea and, to the north-west, The Wash. The county town is Norwich. With an area of 2,074 square miles and a population of 859,400, Norfolk is a rural county with a population density of 401 per square mile. Of the county's population, 40% live in four major built up areas: Norwich, Great Yarmouth, King's Lynn and Thetford; the Broads is a network of lakes in the east of the county, extending south into Suffolk. The area is not a national park, it has similar status to a national park, is protected by the Broads Authority. Norfolk was settled in pre-Roman times, with camps along the higher land in the west, where flints could be quarried. A Brythonic tribe, the Iceni, inhabited the county from the 1st century BC to the end of the 1st century AD; the Iceni revolted against the Roman invasion in AD 47, again in 60 led by Boudica.
The crushing of the second rebellion opened the county to the Romans. During the Roman era roads and ports were constructed throughout the county and farming was widespread. Situated on the east coast, Norfolk was vulnerable to invasions from Scandinavia and Northern Europe, forts were built to defend against the Angles and Saxons. By the 5th century the Angles, after whom East Anglia and England itself are named, had established control of the region and became the "north folk" and the "south folk", hence, "Norfolk" and "Suffolk". Norfolk and several adjacent areas became the kingdom of East Anglia, which merged with Mercia and with Wessex; the influence of the Early English settlers can be seen in the many place names ending in "-ton" and "-ham". Endings such as "-by" and "-thorpe" are common, indicating Danish place names: in the 9th century the region again came under attack, this time from Danes who killed the king, Edmund the Martyr. In the centuries before the Norman Conquest the wetlands of the east of the county began to be converted to farmland, settlements grew in these areas.
Migration into East Anglia must have been high: by the time of the Domesday Book survey it was one of the most densely populated parts of the British Isles. During the high and late Middle Ages the county developed arable woollen industries. Norfolk's prosperity at that time is evident from the county's large number of medieval churches: out of an original total of over one thousand, 659 have survived, more than in the whole of the rest of Great Britain; the economy was in decline by the time of the Black Death, which reduced the population in 1349. By the 16th century Norwich had grown to become the second-largest city in England, but over one-third of its population died in the plague epidemic of 1579, in 1665 the Great Plague again killed around one-third of the population. During the English Civil War Norfolk was Parliamentarian; the economy and agriculture of the region declined somewhat. During the Industrial Revolution Norfolk developed little industry except in Norwich, a late addition to the railway network.
In the 20th century the county developed a role in aviation. The first development in airfields came with the First World War. For the local army regiments the Royal Norfolk Regiment and the Norfolk Yeomanry please click on the links. During the Second World War agriculture intensified, it has remained intensive since, with the establishment of large fields for growing cereals and oilseed rape. Norfolk's low-lying land and eroded cliffs, many of which are composed of chalk and clay, make it vulnerable to weathering by the sea; the most recent major erosion event occurred during the North Sea flood of 1953. The low-lying section of coast between Kelling and Lowestoft Ness in Suffolk is managed by the British Environment Agency to protect the Broads from sea flooding. Management policy for the North Norfolk coastline is described in the "North Norfolk Shoreline Management Plan" published in 2006, but has yet to be accepted by local authorities; the Shoreline Management Plan states that the stretch of coast will be protected for at least another 50 years, but that in the face of sea level rise and post-glacial lowering of land levels in the South East, there is an urgent need for further research to inform future management decisions, including the possibility that the sea defences may have to be realigned to a more sustainable position.
Natural England have contributed some research into the impacts on the environment of various realignment options. The draft report of their research was leaked to the press, who created great anxiety by reporting that Natural England plan to abandon a large section of the Norfolk Broads and farmland to the sea to save the rest of the Norfolk coastline from the impact of climate change. In 1998 Norfolk had a Gross Domestic Product of £9,319 million, which represents 1.5% of England's economy and 1.25% of the United Kingdom's economy. The GDP per head was £11,825, compared to £13,635 for East Anglia, £12,845 for England and £12,438 for the United Kingdom. In 1999–2000 the county had an unemployment rate of 5.6%, compared to 5.8% for England and 6.0% for the UK. Data from 2017 provided a useful update on the county's economy; the median hourly gross pay was £12.17 and the median weekly pay was £496.80. The employm
St John, Ilketshall
St John, Ilketshall is a village and civil parish in the Waveney district of Suffolk in eastern England. One of the Saints, in 2010 its population was 50