Constantine Alexander Payne is an American film director and producer, known for the films Election, About Schmidt, The Descendants and Downsizing. His films are noted for satirical depictions of contemporary American society. Payne is a two-time winner of the Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, a three-time nominee of the Academy Award for Best Director. Payne was born in Omaha, the son of Peggy and George Payne, restaurant owners. Payne is the youngest of three sons and grew up in what is now known as the Dundee-Happy Hollow Historic District, the same neighborhood as billionaire Warren Buffett, his father is of Greek and German descent, his mother is of Greek ancestry. His paternal grandfather, Nicholas "Nick" Payne, anglicized the last name from Papadopoulos, his family comes from three areas in Greece: the island of Syros and Aegio. Payne's family was part of the fabric of Omaha, his grandfather was a founder of The Virginia Cafe, with Payne's father taking over the restaurant. Payne went there as a child.
The restaurant was destroyed in a fire in 1969. Payne's paternal grandmother, Clara Payne, was from a German Nebraska family from Nebraska. In Omaha, Payne attended Brownell-Talbot School, Dundee Elementary School, Lewis and Clark Junior High, he graduated from Creighton Prep for high school in 1979. At Prep, Payne wrote a humor column for his high school newspaper and was the editor of the high school yearbook. Payne attended Stanford University, where he double majored in Spanish and history; as a part of his Spanish degree, he studied at Spain's University of Salamanca. He lived a few months in Medellin, where he published an article about social changes between 1900 and 1930. Payne received his MFA in 1990 from the UCLA Film School. In the 1960s, Payne's father received a Super 8mm projector from Kraft Foods as a loyalty reward, passed it on to his son when Alexander was about 14 years old. A short time after getting his MFA from UCLA Film School—and after his successful thesis film, The Passion of Martin had attracted industry attention—Payne got a writing/directing deal with Universal Pictures.
The ensuing screenplay, turned down, would become About Schmidt. He says that he cleared about $60,000, enough to fund his simple lifestyle at the time for about five years. Payne has said he sees his talent as being one of learned economy, referring to the essay written by Tennessee Williams on The Catastrophe of Success. Payne was the guest for an'Ask Me Anything' session at India Film Project in 2018; this session was conducted via. Skype. Payne worked in various capacities on films and television before he co-wrote and directed his first full-length film, Citizen Ruth, his second film, starring Matthew Broderick and Reese Witherspoon, which takes aim at politics and education in America, attracted attention when New Yorker film critic David Denby named it the best film of 1999. Payne was nominated for an Academy Award for Writing Adapted Screenplay for Election. In 2003 he received a Golden Globe for his screenplay for About Schmidt, nominated for a Writers Guild of America Award for Best Adapted Screenplay.
To the surprise of many who kept track of Hollywood news and his writing partner Jim Taylor were not nominated for an Oscar for the About Schmidt screenplay. He won both the Academy Award and Golden Globe in 2005 for Best Adapted Screenplay for Sideways, while the film won the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy. In total, Sideways received five Academy Award nominations. Payne returned to directing in 2011 after a seven-year hiatus with the film The Descendants, starring George Clooney, he co-wrote the screenplay, winning the Oscar for Best Adapted Screenplay. Payne's Nebraska, starred SNL comedian Will Forte, it was released on November 15, 2013. Payne has said that during his seven-year hiatus between Sideways and The Descendants, he, along with working partner Jim Taylor, were developing the satire Downsizing, which Payne has described as "a large canvas, science-fiction social satire" and "an epic masterpiece." The film, about an impoverished married couple who decide the way ahead lies in shrinking themselves, was to star Paul Giamatti and Reese Witherspoon, but was superseded by The Descendants and Nebraska.
In March 2016, Witherspoon was replaced by Kristen Giamatti by Matt Damon. Hong Chau, Christoph Waltz, Udo Kier, Neil Patrick Harris, Jason Sudeikis starred. Paramount Pictures released the film on December 22, 2017, it has received mixed reviews, with many critics describing it as the weakest film of Payne's career. Payne executive produced the short film RUN FAST. Anna Musso, his long-time assistant and protege and directed the film, which shot in March 2014; the project was funded by a Kickstarter campaign. In 2000, he did an uncredited polish-up of the screenplay for the comedy hit Meet the Parents. In 2001, Payne wrote a draft of Jurassic Park III. Payne served as an executive producer on the films King of California and The Savages, he teamed up once again with writing partner Jim Taylor to write a draft of the screenplay for the film I Now Pronounce You Chuck and Larry, a comedy directed by Dennis Dugan, starring Adam Sandler and Kevin James. Payne disliked the final product, stating that Adam Sandler rewrote so much of the story that all of what Payne and Taylor wrote was gone.
Payne was executive producer
The Diving Bell and the Butterfly (film)
The Diving Bell and the Butterfly is a 2007 biographical drama film directed by Julian Schnabel and written by Ronald Harwood. Based on Jean-Dominique Bauby's memoir of the same name, the film depicts Bauby's life after suffering a massive stroke that left him with a condition known as locked-in syndrome. Bauby is played by Mathieu Amalric; the Diving Bell and the Butterfly won awards at the Cannes Film Festival, the Golden Globes, the BAFTAs, the César Awards, received four Academy Award nominations. Several critics listed it as one of the best films of its decade, it ranks in BBC's 100 Greatest Films of the 21st Century. The first third of the film is told from the main character's, Jean-Dominique Bauby, or Jean-Do as his friends call him, first person perspective; the film opens as Bauby wakes from his three-week coma in a hospital in France. After an initial rather over-optimistic analysis from one doctor, a neurologist explains that he has locked-in syndrome, an rare condition in which the patient is completely physically paralyzed, but remains mentally normal.
At first, the viewer hears Bauby's "thoughts", which are inaccessible to the other characters. A speech therapist and physical therapist try to help Bauby become as functional as possible. Bauby cannot speak, but he develops a system of communication with his speech and language therapist by blinking his left eye as she reads a list of letters to laboriously spell out his messages, letter by letter; the film's restricted point of view broadens out, the viewer begins to see Bauby from "outside", in addition to experiencing incidents from his past, including a visit to Lourdes. He fantasizes, imagining beaches, the Empress Eugénie and an erotic feast with one of his transcriptionists, it is revealed that Bauby had been editor of the popular French fashion magazine Elle, that he had a deal to write a book. He decides that he will still write a book, using his exhausting communication technique. A woman from the publishing house with which Bauby had the original book contract is brought in to take dictation.
The new book explains what it is like to now be him, trapped in his body, which he sees as being within an old-fashioned deep-sea diving suit with a brass helmet, called a scaphandre in French, as in the original title. Others around see his spirit, still alive, as a "Butterfly"; the story of Bauby's writing is juxtaposed with his regrets until his stroke. We see his three children, their mother, his mistress, his friends, his father, he encounters people from his past whose lives bear similarities to his own "entrapment": a friend, kidnapped in Beirut and held in solitary confinement for four years, his own 92-year-old father, confined to his own apartment, because he is too frail to descend four flights of stairs. Bauby completes his memoir and hears the critics' responses, he dies of pneumonia ten days after its publication. The closing credits are accentuated by reversed shootings of breaking glacier ice, accompanied by the Joe Strummer & the Mescaleros song "Ramshackle Day Parade". Mathieu Amalric as Jean-Dominique Bauby Emmanuelle Seigner as Céline Desmoulins Anne Consigny as Claude Mendibil Marie-Josée Croze as Henriette Durand Olatz López Garmendia as Marie Lopez Patrick Chesnais as Dr. Lepage Max von Sydow as Mr. Bauby Sr. Isaach de Bankolé as Laurent Marina Hands as Joséphine Niels Arestrup as Roussin Anne Alvaro as Betty Zinedine Soualem as Joubert Emma de Caunes as Empress Eugénie Françoise Lebrun as Madame Bauby The film was to be produced by American company Universal Studios and the screenplay was in English, with Johnny Depp slated to star as Bauby.
According to the screenwriter, Ronald Harwood, the choice of Julian Schnabel as director was recommended by Depp. Universal subsequently withdrew, Pathé took up the project two years later. Depp dropped the project due to scheduling conflicts with Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End. Schnabel remained as director; the film was produced by Pathé and France 3 Cinéma, in association with Banque Populaire Images 7 and the American Kennedy/Marshall Company, in participation with Canal+ and Ciné Cinémas. According to the New York Sun, Schnabel insisted that the movie should be in French, resisting pressure by the production company to make it in English, believing that the rich language of the book would work better in the original French, went so far as to learn French to make the film. Harwood tells a different story: Pathé wanted "to make the movie in both English and French, why bilingual actors were cast". Schnabel said his influence for the film was drawn from personal experience: My father got sick and he was dying.
He had never been sick in his life. So he was in this bed at my house, he was staying with me, this script arrived for The Diving Bell and the Butterfly; as my father was dying, I read Ron Harwood's script. It gave me a bunch of parameters that would make a film have a different structure; as a painter, as someone who doesn't want to make a painting that looks like the last one I made, I thought it was a good palette. So and artistically these things all came together. Several key aspects of Bauby'
Cara Seymour is an English actress from Essex, England. She has appeared in films such as American Psycho, Dancer in the Dark, Gangs of New York, Hotel Rwanda, The Savages, An Education, she appeared on stage in the New York Shakespeare Festival production of Caryl Churchill's The Skriker. Cara Seymour on IMDb
Philip Michael Bosco was an American actor. He was known for his Tony Award-winning performance as Saunders in the 1989 Broadway production of Lend Me a Tenor, for his starring role in the 2007 film The Savages, he won a Daytime Emmy Award in 1988. Bosco was born in Jersey City, New Jersey, the son of Margaret Raymond, a policewoman, Philip Lupo Bosco, a carnival worker, his father was of Italian descent and his mother was of German ancestry. Bosco attended St. Peter's Preparatory School in Jersey City, studied Drama at Catholic University of America, where he had notable success in the title role of Shakespeare's Richard III. Bosco married a fellow Catholic University student, Nancy Ann Dunkle, on January 2, 1957, they had seven children, Diane, Chris, Lisa, Celia and 15 grandchildren. Bosco resided in New Jersey. Bosco died at his home in Haworth, New Jersey of complications from dementia on December 3, 2018 at the age of 88, his funeral was held at Mount Carmel Church in Tenafly, New Jersey followed by his internment at Brookside Cemetery in Englewood, New Jersey.
Bosco began his career in Broadway theatre. He received a Tony Award nomination for his debut in The Rape of the Belt in 1960 and spent the next three decades supporting major stars in classic revivals like Cyrano de Bergerac, King Lear, Twelfth Night, he appeared in revivals of plays by George Bernard Shaw, including Man and Superman, Saint Joan, Mrs. Warren's Profession, Major Barbara, Heartbreak House, You Never Can Tell, winning Tony nominations for the last three, he appeared with Shirley Knight in the Roundabout Theatre Company revival of Come Back, Little Sheba. Following his Tony-winning performance in the farce Lend Me a Tenor in 1990, Bosco appeared on Broadway in An Inspector Calls, The Heiress, Twelfth Night and Twelve Angry Men, he played "Grandpa Potts" in the 2005 Broadway production of Chitty Chitty Bang Bang, capped his Shavian work as the aged Captain Shotover in a Broadway revival of Heartbreak House in 2006. He retired from the stage in 2009, after appearing in the City Center Encores production of Finian's Rainbow, although he loaned his voice to Douglas Carter Beane's 2010 play Mr. and Mrs. Fitch.
Bosco appeared in the Law & Order franchise of television series, in various roles ranging from judges to lawyers to villains.. His motion picture credits include Trading Places, Working Girl, Children of a Lesser God, Walls of Glass, Straight Talk, Nobody's Fool, Wonder Boys, The Money Pit, Three Men and a Baby, Milk Money, Quick Change, The First Wives Club, The Savages. Bosco narrated the 1991 documentary film Coney Island, directed by Ric Burns and voiced a number of characters for Ken Burns' documentaries for PBS. Bosco portrayed Vincenzo the butler in the 1995 comedy It Takes Two, portrayed Walter Wallace, father of the bride-to-be in the 1997 romantic comedy My Best Friend's Wedding, co-starring Julia Roberts, Cameron Diaz and Dermot Mulroney. In 1988, Bosco won a Daytime Emmy Award for his appearance in the ABC Afterschool Special "Read Between The Lines". Bosco was a series regular on the FX original series Damages, he narrated Desert Giant: The World of the Saguaro Cactus by Barbara Bash on the PBS series Reading Rainbow in its sixty-second episode on March 27, 1990.
In 1998, Bosco was inducted into the American Theater Hall of Fame. Philip Bosco on IMDb Philip Bosco at the Internet Broadway Database Philip Bosco at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Philip Bosco at AllMovie Philip Bosco and Boyd Gaines, Downstage Center interview, American Theatre Wing.org. TonyAwards.com Interview with Philip Bosco
Philip Seymour Hoffman
Philip Seymour Hoffman was an American actor and producer. Best known for his distinctive supporting and character roles – lowlifes, eccentrics and misfits – Hoffman acted in many films from the early 1990s until his death in 2014. Drawn to theater as a teenager, Hoffman studied acting at New York University's Tisch School of the Arts, he began his screen career in a 1991 episode of Law & Order and started to appear in films in 1992. He gained recognition for his supporting work, notably in Scent of a Woman, Boogie Nights, Patch Adams, The Big Lebowski, The Talented Mr. Ripley, Almost Famous, Punch-Drunk Love, Along Came Polly, he began to play leading roles, for his portrayal of the author Truman Capote in Capote, won multiple accolades, including the Academy Award for Best Actor. Hoffman's profile continued to grow, he received three more Oscar nominations for his supporting work as a brutally frank CIA officer in Charlie Wilson's War, a priest accused of pedophilia in Doubt, the charismatic leader of a Scientology-type movement in The Master.
While he worked in independent films, including The Savages and Synecdoche, New York, Hoffman appeared in Flawless, Hollywood blockbusters such as Twister and Mission: Impossible III, in one of his final roles, as Plutarch Heavensbee in the Hunger Games series. The feature Jack Goes Boating marked his debut as a filmmaker. Hoffman was an accomplished theater actor and director, he joined the off-Broadway LAByrinth Theater Company in 1995, where he directed and appeared in numerous stage productions. His performances in three Broadway plays – True West in 2000, Long Day's Journey into Night in 2003, Death of a Salesman in 2012 – all led to Tony Award nominations. Hoffman struggled with drug addiction as a young adult and relapsed in 2013 after many years of abstinence. In February 2014, he died of combined drug intoxication. Remembered for his fearlessness in playing reprehensible characters, for bringing depth and humanity to such roles, Hoffman was described in his New York Times obituary as "perhaps the most ambitious and admired American actor of his generation".
Hoffman was born on July 1967, in the Rochester suburb of Fairport, New York. His mother, Marilyn O'Connor, came from nearby Waterloo and worked as an elementary school teacher before becoming a lawyer and a family court judge, his father, Gordon Stowell Hoffman, of German descent, was a native of Geneva, New York, worked for the Xerox Corporation. Along with one brother, Hoffman has two sisters and Emily. Hoffman was baptized a Roman Catholic and attended Mass as a child, but did not have a religious upbringing, his parents divorced when he was nine, the children were raised by their mother. Hoffman's childhood passion was sports wrestling and baseball, but at age 12, he saw a stage production of Arthur Miller's All My Sons and was transfixed, he recalled. It was like a miracle to me". Hoffman developed a love for the theater, proceeded to attend with his mother, a lifelong enthusiast, he remembered that productions of Quilters and Alms for the Middle Class, the latter starring a teenaged Robert Downey, Jr. were particularly inspirational.
At the age of 14, Hoffman suffered a neck injury that ended his sporting activity, he began to consider acting. Encouraged by his mother, he joined a drama club, committed to it because he was attracted to a female member. Acting became a passion for Hoffman: "I loved the camaraderie of it, the people, that's when I decided it was what I wanted to do." At the age of 17, he was selected to attend the 1984 New York State Summer School of the Arts in Saratoga Springs, where he met his future collaborators Bennett Miller and Dan Futterman. Miller commented on Hoffman's popularity at the time: "We were attracted to the fact that he was genuinely serious about what he was doing, he was passionate." Hoffman applied for several drama degree programs and was accepted to New York University's Tisch School of the Arts. Between starting on the program and graduating from Fairport High School, he continued his training at the Circle in the Square Theatre's summer program. Hoffman had positive memories of his time at NYU.
With friends, he co-founded the Bullstoi Ensemble acting troupe. He received a drama degree in 1989. After graduating, Hoffman worked in off-Broadway theater and made additional money with customer service jobs, he made his screen debut in 1991, in a Law & Order episode called "The Violence of Summer", playing a man accused of rape. His first cinema role came the following year, when he was credited as "Phil Hoffman" in the independent film Triple Bogey on a Par Five Hole. After this, he adopted Seymour, to avoid confusion with another actor. More film roles promptly followed, with appearances in the studio production My New Gun, a small role in the comedy Leap of Faith, starring Steve Martin. Following these roles, he gained attention playing a spoiled student in the Oscar-winning Al Pacino film Scent of a Woman. Hoffman auditioned five times for his role, which The Guardian journalist Ryan Gilbey says gave him an early opportunity "to indulge his skill for making unctuousness compelling"; the film was the first to get Hoffman noticed.
Reflecting on Scent of a Woman, Hoffman late
Margo Martindale is an American character actress who has appeared on television, in film, onstage. In 2011, she won a Primetime Emmy Award and a Critics' Choice Television Award for her recurring role as Mags Bennett on Justified. Martindale was nominated for an Emmy Award four times for her recurring role as Claudia on The Americans, winning the award in 2015 and 2016, she has played supporting roles in several films, including The Hours, Million Dollar Baby, Dead Man Walking, The Firm, Lorenzo's Oil... First Do No Harm, Eye of God, Win Win, Marvin's Room, Orphan, The Savages, Hannah Montana: The Movie, August: Osage County, Paris, je t'aime. Martindale was nominated for a Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in 2004 for her performance in the play Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, she voices a fictional version of herself in the Netflix animated comedy BoJack Horseman. Martindale was born July 18, 1951 in Jacksonville, the youngest of three children and only daughter of William Everett and Margaret Martindale.
In addition to owning and operating a lumber company in Jacksonville, her father was known as a champion dog handler in Texas and throughout the southern United States. Her oldest brother is golf course designer Billy Martindale. Middle child, brother Bobby Tim, died in 2004. Margo Martindale participated in golf and drama while in school and was crowned "Football Sweetheart" as well as "Miss Jacksonville High School 1969."Following graduation from Jacksonville High School in 1969, Martindale attended Lon Morris College transferred to the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. While at Michigan, she did summer study at Harvard University, appearing onstage with future movie and TV stars Jonathan Frakes and Christopher Reeve. In the early 1980s, Martindale worked for four years at the Actors Theatre, Kentucky. While there she became good friends with fellow actress Kathy Bates. Martindale made her Broadway debut in 2004 as Big Mama in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, she received a Tony Award nomination for Best Featured Actress for her work in the role.
Prior to that, Martindale had starred in several Off-Broadway stage productions, most notably originating the role of Truvy Jones in the first production of Steel Magnolias Off-Broadway, as well as starring in the first national tour of the play. Other Off-Broadway appearances include Always... Patsy Cline and The Sugar Bean Sisters. Martindale's film roles include turns as Susan Sarandon's character's fellow nun in Dead Man Walking, again with Sarandon, in Lorenzo's Oil, she appeared as Leonardo DiCaprio's character's doctor in Marvin's Room. Other films include The Human Stain with Anthony Hopkins and Nicole Kidman, Nobody's Fool with Paul Newman, 28 Days with Sandra Bullock, Proof of Life with Russell Crowe and Meg Ryan, Practical Magic, again with Nicole Kidman and Sandra Bullock, she was featured in Paris, je t'aime. She played Mama Cox in the 2007 film Walk Hard, played Ruby in Hannah Montana: The Movie and played Miss Elizabeth Ham in the movie Secretariat. Martindale had a role in August: Osage County, a film adaptation of the Pulitzer Prize-winning play by Tracy Letts.
She played the sister of lead character Violet Weston. Filming took place in the fall and winter of 2012. Martindale has been described as a character actress. One of her first television roles came in the miniseries Lonesome Dove. A series of character and guest appearances followed in a wide range of TV shows. Martindale played recurring character Camilla Figg on the first three seasons of Dexter and had a recurring role in the A&E courtroom drama 100 Centre Street with Alan Arkin. From 2007-08, she had a recurring role as Nina Burns, a neighbor of the Malloy/"Rich" family in The Riches with Minnie Driver and Eddie Izzard. In 2011, Martindale joined the cast of Justified for the second season, she played the role of Mags Bennett, matriarch of the Bennett crime family which controlled much of the drug activity in the fictional version of Harlan County, Kentucky. She won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series for her performance. After learning of the nomination, Martindale told CNN she hoped that it would open up more doors for older women in Hollywood.
"People identify with this character and I think it's because it is a character, powerful and older and mean", she said. She won Best Supporting Actress in a Drama Series at the Critics' Choice Television Awards for her role as Mags Bennett. In February 2012 it was announced Martindale had been cast in the ABC comedy pilot Counter Culture, not picked up. Martindale returned to television in late January 2013 in the spy drama The Americans on FX Network, she plays the KGB "handler" of two Soviet spies living in 1980s Cold War America. She co-starred in the sitcom The Millers on CBS. In 2015, she began a recurring role as Ruth Eastman, Peter Florrick's new campaign manager on The Good Wife. Martindale took up the role of Ruth again in 2018 in season two of The Good Fight, the sequel to The Good Wife, she appears as a fictionalized version of herself on the Netflix animated comedy BoJack Horseman. Her fictional version is angered and temperamentally violent, moonlighting as a bank robber and going on frequent criminal heists.
BoJack refers to her as "Esteemed Character Actress Margo Martindale", while most other characters begin addressing her with "Beloved."Martindale played Audrey Bernhardt, matriarch of the family on the Amazon series Sneaky Pete starring Giovanni Ribisi, for the 2015 pilot the first season which aired in January 2017, the second season as well. Martindal
San Francisco Chronicle
The San Francisco Chronicle is a newspaper serving the San Francisco Bay Area of the U. S. state of California. It was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. The paper is owned by the Hearst Corporation, which bought it from the de Young family in 2000, it is the only major daily paper covering the county of San Francisco. The paper benefited from the growth of San Francisco and was the largest circulation newspaper on the West Coast of the United States by 1880. Like many other newspapers, it has experienced a rapid fall in circulation in the early 21st century, was ranked 24th by circulation nationally for the six months to March 2010; the newspaper publishes two web sites: and sfchronicle.com, which reflects the articles that appear in the print paper, SFGate, which has a mixture of online news and web features. The Chronicle was founded by brothers Charles and M. H. de Young in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle, inside of 10 years, it had the largest circulation of any newspaper west of the Mississippi River.
The paper's first office was in a building at the corner of Kearney Streets. The brothers commissioned a building from Burnham and Root at 690 Market Street at the corner of Third and Kearney Streets to be their new headquarters, in what became known as Newspaper Row; the new building, San Francisco's first skyscraper, was completed in 1889. It was damaged in the 1906 earthquake, but it was rebuilt under the direction of William Polk, Burnham's associate in San Francisco; that building, known as the "Old Chronicle Building" or the "DeYoung Building", still stands and was restored in 2007. It is the location of the Ritz-Carlton Club and Residences. In 1924, the Chronicle commissioned a new headquarters at 901 Mission Street on the corner of 5th Street in what is now the South of Market neighborhood of San Francisco, it was designed by Charles Peter Weeks and William Peyton Day in the Gothic Revival architecture style, but most of the Gothic Revival detailing was removed in 1968 when the building was re-clad with stucco.
This building remains the Chronicle's headquarters in 2017, although other concerns are located there as well. Between World War II and 1971, new editor Scott Newhall took a bold and somewhat provocative approach to news presentation. Newhall's Chronicle included investigative reporting by such journalists as Pierre Salinger, who played a prominent role in national politics, Paul Avery, the staffer who pursued the trail of the self-named "Zodiac Killer", who sent a cryptogram in three sections in letters to the Chronicle and two other papers during his murder spree in the late 1960s, it featured such colorful columnists as Pauline Phillips, who wrote under the name "Dear Abby," "Count Marco", Stanton Delaplane, Terence O'Flaherty, Lucius Beebe, Art Hoppe, Charles McCabe, Herb Caen. The newspaper grew in circulation to become the city's largest, overtaking the rival San Francisco Examiner; the demise of other San Francisco dailies through the late 1950s and early 1960s left the Examiner and the Chronicle to battle for circulation and readership superiority.
The competition between the Chronicle and Examiner took a financial toll on both papers until the summer of 1965, when a merger of sorts created a Joint Operating Agreement under which the Chronicle became the city's sole morning daily while the Examiner changed to afternoon publication. The newspapers were owned by the San Francisco Newspaper Agency, which managed sales and distribution for both newspapers and was charged with ensuring that one newspaper's circulation did not grow at the expense of the other. Revenue was split which led to a situation understood to benefit the Examiner, since the Chronicle, which had a circulation four times larger than its rival, subsidized the afternoon newspaper; the two newspapers produced a joint Sunday edition, with the Examiner publishing the news sections and the Sunday magazine and the Chronicle responsible for the tabloid entertainment section and the book review. From 1965 on the two papers shared a single classified-advertising operation; this arrangement stayed in place until the Hearst Corporation took full control of the Chronicle in 2000.
Beginning in the early 1990s, the Chronicle started to face competition beyond the borders of San Francisco. The newspaper had long enjoyed a wide reach as the de facto "newspaper of record" in Northern California, with distribution along the Central Coast, the Inland Empire and as far as Honolulu, Hawaii. There was little competition in the Bay Area suburbs and other areas that the newspaper served, but as Knight Ridder consolidated the San Jose Mercury News in 1975; the Chronicle launched five zoned sections to appear in the Friday edition of the paper. The sections covered San Francisco, four different suburban areas, they each featured enterprise pieces and local news specific to the community. The newspaper added 40 full-time staff positions to work in the suburban bureaus. Despite the push to focus on suburban coverage, the Chronicle was hamstrung by the Sunday edition, being produced by the San Francisco-centric "un-Chronicle" Examiner, had none of the focus on the suburban communities that the Chronicle was striving to cultivate.
The de Young family controlled the paper, via the Chronicle Publishing Company, until July 27, 2000, when it was sold to Hearst Communications, Inc. which owned the Examiner. Following the sale, the