Massasoit Sachem or Ousamequin was the sachem or leader of the Wampanoag tribe. The term Massasoit means Great Sachem. Massasoit Ousamequin lived in a Pokanoket village in Bristol, Rhode Island, he held the allegiance of a number of lesser Pokanoket sachems. Outbreaks of smallpox had devastated the Pokanokets, Massasoit sought an alliance with the colonies of New England against the neighboring Narragansetts, who controlled an area west of Narragansett Bay in the Colony of Rhode Island, he forged critical political and personal ties with colonial leaders William Bradford, Edward Winslow, Stephen Hopkins, John Carver, Myles Standish, ties which grew out of a negotiated peace treaty on March 22, 1621. The alliance ensured that the Wampanoags remained neutral during the Pequot War in 1636. According to Colonial sources, Massasoit prevented the failure of Plymouth Colony and the certain starvation that the Pilgrims faced during the earliest years of the colony's establishment. There was some tension between Massasoit and the colonists when they refused to give up Squanto, whom Massasoit believed to have betrayed him.
This, was resolved in March 1623 when Massasoit was gravely ill and Edward Winslow nursed him back to health. After his recovery, Winslow reports that Massasoit said, "the English are my friends and love me... whilst I live I will never forget this kindness they have showed me." In return for their kindness, Massasoit warned the Plymouth colonists of a plot against them. He had learned that a group of influential Massachusett warriors intended to destroy both the Wessagusset and Plymouth colonies, he warned the Pilgrims in time; the alliance came under minor tension in years, as the colonists needed to expand into new lands in order to support their growing colony. Massasoit sold a tract of land 14 miles square to Myles Standish and others of Duxbury in 1649 to alleviate tension and maintain the peace between his people and the colonists; the sale took place atop Sachem Rock, an outcropping on the Sawtucket River in East Bridgewater, Massachusetts. The site is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Massasoit had five children: son Wamsutta, born between 1621 and 1625. Soon after the death of Massasoit and Pometecomet went to Plymouth and asked the Pilgrims to give them English names; the court named them Philip. Wamsutta, the eldest, became sachem of the Pokanokets on the death of his father, he died within a year, his brother Metacom succeeded him in 1662. The Wampanoags and the Colonists of Massachusetts Bay Colony maintained peace for nearly 40 years, until Massasoit's death. Roger Williams was banished from the Massachusetts colony and was taken in by Massasoit for several weeks. Massasoit was humane and honest, never violated his word, endeavored to imbue his people with a love of peace, he kept. It is unclear; some accounts claim that it was as early as 1660. He was anywhere from 80 to 90 at the time, his son Wamsutta became his successor after his death, but Wamsutta died in 1662 and Metacom succeeded him. Amie married Tispaquin and was the only one of Massasoit's five children to survive King Philip's War in 1676.
The half century of peace that Massasoit so assiduously maintained collapsed soon after his death. Wamsutta broke away from his father's diplomacy and began to form an alliance with Connecticut Colony, he died within a year of his succession in 1662, Massasoit's second son Metacom became sachem of the Pokanokets and chief sachem of the Greater Wampanoag Confederacy. He believed that Alexander had been murdered at the hands of the Colonists, this was one of the factors that led to King Philip's War, one of the bloodiest wars in American history. Roger Williams fled the Massachusetts Bay Colony to avoid arrest and deportation for religious reasons and stayed the winter of 1635–36 with Massasoit, who gave him land along the Seekonk River the following spring. Governor Winslow of Plymouth Colony advised Williams to move his settlement to the other side of the river because his current location was within the bounds of Plymouth Colony. Williams did so and founded Providence Plantations, which became part of the Colony of Rhode Island.
Statues of Massasoit by sculptor Cyrus E. Dallin stand near Plymouth Rock, outside the Utah State Capitol building, on the campus of Brigham Young University, at the Springville Museum of Art in Springville, in Kansas City, Missouri at the corner of Main Street and Emanuel Cleaver II Blvd. In Massachusetts, both Massasoit Community College and Massasoit State Park are named for him. List of early settlers of Rhode Island "Native People", "Massasoit Sachem", MayflowerFamilies.com, webpage: MFcom-Native. Bicknell, Thomas Williams. Sowams, with Ancient Records of Sowams and Parts Adjacent. New Haven: Associated Publishers of American Records. Winslow, Edward. Good Newes from New England. London. Nathaniel Philbrick, Mayflower: A Story of Courage and War, New York 2006. Media related to Massasoit at Wikimedia Commons "Massasoit"; the New Student's Reference Work. 1914. "Massasoit". The American Cyclopædia. 1879. Massasoit at Find a Grave
A ceasefire called cease fire, is a temporary stoppage of a war in which each side agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. Ceasefires may be declared as part of a formal treaty, but they have been called as part of an informal understanding between opposing forces. A ceasefire is more limited than a broader armistice, a formal agreement to end fighting. Successful ceasefires may be followed by armistices, by peace treaties. During World War I, on December 24, 1914, there was an unofficial ceasefire on the Western Front as France, the United Kingdom, Germany observed Christmas. There are accounts that claimed the unofficial ceasefire took place through the week leading to Christmas and British and German troops exchanged seasonal greetings and songs between their trenches, it was brief but spontaneous, beginning when German soldiers lit Christmas trees, it spread up and down the Western Front. One account described this development in the following words:It was good to see the human spirit prevailed amongst all sides at the front, the sharing and fraternity.
All was well until the higher echelons of command got to hear about the effect of the ceasefire, whereby their wrath ensured a return to hostilities. There was the war resumed after a few days. On November 29, 1952, the newly U. S. president-elect Dwight D. Eisenhower, went to Korea to learn. With the United Nations' acceptance of India's proposed Korean War armistice, the Korean People's Army, the People's Volunteer Army, the UN Command ceased fire with the battle line at the 38th parallel. Upon agreeing to the ceasefire agreement, the belligerents established the Korean Demilitarized Zone, which has since been patrolled by the KPA and the joint ROKA, US, UN Command; the Korean Demilitarized Zone runs northeast of the 38th parallel. The old Korean capital city of Kaesong, site of the armistice negotiations lay in the pre-war ROK, but now is in the DPRK; the United Nations Command, the North Korean Korean People's Army, the Chinese People's Volunteer Army, signed the Armistice Agreement on July 27, 1953, to end the fighting.
The Armistice called upon the governments of South Korea, North Korea and the United States to participate in continued peace talks. For his part, ROK President Syngman Rhee attacked the peace proceedings; the war is considered to have ended at this point though there was no peace treaty. On January 15, 1973, President Richard Nixon of the USA ordered a ceasefire of the aerial bombings in North Vietnam; the decision came after Dr. Henry Kissinger, the National Security Affairs advisor to the president, returned to Washington from Paris, France with a draft peace proposal. Combat missions continued in South Vietnam. By January 27, 1973, all warring parties in the Vietnam War signed a ceasefire as a prelude to the Paris Peace Accord. After Iraq was driven by U. S.-led coalition forces out of Kuwait during Operation Desert Storm and the U. N. Security Council signed a ceasefire agreement on March 3, 1991. Throughout the 1990s, the U. N. Security Council passed 16 Resolutions calling for Iraq to disarm the WMDs program unconditionally and immediately.
Because no peace treaty was signed after the Gulf War, the war still remained in effect, such as an assassination attempt of former U. S. President George H. W. Bush by Iraqi agents while on a visit to Kuwait and Iraq was bombed in June 1993 as a response, Iraqi forces firing on coalition aircraft patrolling the Iraqi no-fly zones, U. S. President Bill Clinton's bombing of Baghdad in 1998 during Operation Desert Fox, an earlier 1996 bombing of Iraq by the U. S. during Operation Desert Strike. The war remained in effect until 2003 when U. S. and United Kingdom forces toppled Saddam Hussein's regime from power. A United Nations-mediated ceasefire was agreed between India and Pakistan on 1 January 1949, ending the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947. Fighting broke out between the two newly independent countries in Kashmir in October 1947, with India intervening on behalf of the princely ruler of Kashmir who had joined India and the rebels, who were supported by Pakistan; the fighting was limited to Kashmir but, apprehensive that it might develop into a full-scale international war, India referred the matter to the UN Security Council under Article 35 of the UN Charter, which addresses situations `likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace'.
The Security Council set up a dedicated United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan, which mediated for an entire year as the fighting continued. After several UN resolutions outlining a procedure for resolving the dispute via a plebiscite, a ceasefire agreement was reached between the countries towards the end of December 1948, which came into effect in the New Year; the Security Council set up a United Nations Military Observer Group for India and Pakistan to monitor the ceasefire line. India has declared a ceasefire in Kashmir Valley during Ramadan 2018. During World War I, an ally of Germany, had its troops stationed both in the Balkan States in the west and at the Russian-Iranian border in the north and east; the Russian army was holding its positions against Turkey in the Caucasus mountains on the north and at the Turkish-Iranian border on the east, but when the Russian army withdrew from the war zone in this area due to Lenin's Revolution, its army stationed in the Caucasus was no longer there to protect the Assyrian and Armenian minorities.
The Turkish government, who were angry at the Christians, had been kept under pressure by the Russian A
Hester Prynne is the protagonist of Nathaniel Hawthorne's novel The Scarlet Letter. She is portrayed as a woman condemned by her Puritan neighbors; the character has been called "among the first and most important female protagonists in American literature". A resident of Colonial America, Hester is sent ahead to the "New World" by her husband, who assumes the name of Roger Chillingworth, as he has some business to finish before he can join her. After he is shipwrecked and captured by Native Americans and presumed dead, Hester continues to live her life as a seamstress in the town, she looks to the local pastor Arthur Dimmesdale for comfort. Because Hester has no husband with her, she is imprisoned, convicted of the crime of adultery, sentenced to be forced to wear a prominent scarlet letter'A' for the rest of her life. Though scorned by her fellow citizens, Hester continues to lead a uneventful life. Shortly after the birth of the child and her punishment, Hester's husband reappears and demands that she tell him the name of the child's father.
Hester swears not to reveal the fact that Chillingworth is her husband to the town folk. Hester continues providing for herself and her child. Novelist John Updike said of Prynne: She's such an arresting and ambiguous figure. She's a funny mix of a liberated, defiantly sexual woman, but in the end a woman who accepts the penance that society imposed on her, and I don't know, I suppose she's an epitome of female predicaments.... She is a mythic version of every woman's attempt to integrate her sexuality with societal demands. One analyst wrote: All the contradictions of Hester Prynne – guilt and honesty and holiness, sex and chastity – make her an enduring heroine of American literature, she is flawed and above all fertile. The idea of Hester Prynne, the good woman gone bad, is a cultural meme that recurs again and again – because we as a culture are still trying to figure out who Hester is and how we feel about her. According to popular tradition, the gravestone of Elizabeth Pain in Boston's King's Chapel Burying Ground was the inspiration for Hester Prynne's grave.
Scholar Laurie Rozakis has argued that an alternate or additional source for the story may be Hester Craford, a woman flogged for fornication with John Wedg. Another story claims that Hester was the modeled after Mary Bachiler Turner whose life in colonial Maine bore a striking resemblance to Hester's tale. In various film adaptations of the novel, Prynne has been portrayed by actresses such as Lillian Gish, Sommer Parker, Meg Foster, Mary Martin, Sybil Thorndike, Senta Berger, Demi Moore and Emma Stone. In the cult television series Twin Peaks the name was adopted as a pseudonym by the character Audrey Horne. Another literary figure using the surname Prynne is a woman who had an adulterous relationship with a pastor in the novel A Month of Sundays by John Updike, part of his trilogy of novels based on characters in The Scarlet Letter. In the musical The Music Man, Harold Hill refers to Hester Prynne in the song "Sadder but Wiser Girl", he sings that he wants a girl "with a touch of sin", remarking "I hope, I pray, for a Hester to win just one more'A'."
Nathaniel Hawthorne The Scarlet Letter Notes "Hester Prynne" on IMDB The Scarlet Letter on Project Gutenberg "Hester Prynne: Sinner, Object, Winner" on NPR.org
16th Golden Raspberry Awards
The 16th Golden Raspberry Awards were held on March 24, 1996, at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel to recognize the worst the movie industry had to offer in 1995. The list of nominees follows, with recipients denoted in bold. For the first time in Razzie history, an actual "winner" showed up to the ceremony and accepted his award: Showgirls director Paul Verhoeven. 1995 in film 68th Academy Awards 49th British Academy Film Awards 53rd Golden Globe Awards 2nd Screen Actors Guild Awards "Razzie Awards". Internet Movie Database. 1996
Gary Leonard Oldman is an English actor and filmmaker who has performed in theatre and television. Known for his versatility and expressive acting style, Oldman is regarded as one of the greatest actors of his generation. Among other accolades, he has won an Academy Award, three BAFTA Awards, two Critics' Choice Awards, a Golden Globe Award and a Screen Actors Guild Award, along with nominations for an Emmy Award and the Palme d'Or. In 2011, Empire readers voted him the recipient of the Empire Icon Award. Oldman began acting in theatre in 1979, made his earliest screen appearances in Remembrance and Meantime, he continued to lead a stage career, during which he performed at London's Royal Court and was a member of the Royal Shakespeare Company, with credits including Cabaret, The Massacre at Paris, Entertaining Mr Sloane, The Country Wife and Hamlet. Oldman rose to prominence in British film with his portrayals of Sid Vicious in Sid and Nancy, Joe Orton in Prick Up Your Ears, a football firm leader in The Firm and Rosencrantz in Rosencrantz & Guildenstern Are Dead.
Identified with the "Brit Pack", he achieved greater renown as a Hell's Kitchen gangster in State of Grace, Lee Harvey Oswald in JFK and Count Dracula in Bram Stoker's Dracula. Oldman went on to star as the antagonists of several films, including True Romance, The Fifth Element, Air Force One and The Contender, he meanwhile played Ludwig van Beethoven in Immortal Beloved. In the 21st century, Oldman is known for his roles as Sirius Black in the Harry Potter series, James Gordon in The Dark Knight Trilogy, George Smiley in Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy, a human leader in Dawn of the Planet of the Apes, Winston Churchill in Darkest Hour, which earned him the Academy Award for Best Actor. Films in which he has appeared have grossed over $11 billion. In addition to acting in film, Oldman directed Nil by Mouth. Oldman was born in New Cross, the son of Leonard Bertram Oldman, a former sailor who worked as a welder, Kathleen, he has stated. Oldman attended West Greenwich School in Deptford, leaving school at the age of 16 to work in a sports shop.
He was a pianist as a child, a singer, but gave up his musical aspirations to pursue an acting career after seeing Malcolm McDowell's performance in the 1971 film The Raging Moon. In a 1995 interview with Charlie Rose, Oldman said: "Something about Malcolm just arrested me, I connected, I said,'I wanna do that'."Growing up in south London, Oldman supported his local football club Millwall, followed Manchester United so that he could watch his idol, George Best. In 2011, Oldman would learn from his mother that his father represented Millwall after World War II, with Oldman stating: "Just after the war, she ran a boarding house, for football players, Millwall players, and I knew. But two weeks ago my mum said,'Oh yeah, your dad played for Millwall; when he was young he had a couple of first team games'." Oldman studied with the Young People's Theatre in Greenwich during the mid-1970s, while working jobs on assembly lines, as a porter in an operating theatre, selling shoes and beheading pigs in an abattoir.
He unsuccessfully applied to the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, which welcomed him to try again the following year, but advised him to find something else to do for a living. When asked by Charlie Rose if he had reminded RADA of this, Oldman joked that "the work speaks for itself", he won a scholarship to attend the Rose Bruford College in Sidcup, Southeast London, from which he graduated with a BA in Acting in 1979. Oldman describes himself as'shy but diligent worker' during his time there, where he performed roles such as Puck in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. After leaving school, Oldman was the first in his class to receive professional work. Oldman stated on The South Bank Show that it had nothing to do with being better than someone else, rather his diligence and application, he made his professional stage debut in 1979 as Puss, alongside Michael Simkins and Peter Howitt, in Dick Whittington and His Cat, at York's Theatre Royal. The play ran in Colchester with Glasgow's Citizens Theatre.
In 1979, he starred in Cabaret. From 1980 to 1981, he appeared in The Massacre at Paris, Desperado Corner, Robert David MacDonald's plays Chinchilla and A Waste of Time, he performed in a 6-month West End run of MacDonald's Summit Conference, opposite Glenda Jackson, in 1982. That year, Oldman made his film debut in Colin Gregg's Remembrance, would have starred in Don Boyd's Gossip if that film had not collapsed; the following year, he landed a starring role as a skinhead in Mike Leigh's film Meantime, moved on to Chesterfield to assume the lead role in Entertaining Mr Sloane. Afterwards, he went to Westcliffe to star in Saved. Saved proved to be a major breakthrough for Oldman. Max Stafford-Clark, artistic director of the Royal Court Theatre, had seen Oldman's performance and
The Algonquian are one of the most populous and widespread North American native language groups. Today, thousands of individuals identify with various Algonquian peoples; the peoples were prominent along the Atlantic Coast and into the interior along the Saint Lawrence River and around the Great Lakes. This grouping consists of the peoples. Before Europeans came into contact, most Algonquian settlements lived by hunting and fishing, although quite a few supplemented their diet by cultivating corn and squash; the Ojibwe cultivated wild rice. The Algonquians of New England practiced a seasonal economy; the basic social unit was the village: a few hundred people related by a clan kinship structure. Villages were mobile; the people moved to locations of greatest natural food supply breaking into smaller units or gathering as the circumstances required. This custom resulted in a certain degree of cross-tribal mobility in troubled times. In warm weather, they constructed portable wigwams, a type of hut with buckskin doors.
In the winter, they erected the more substantial longhouses, in which more than one clan could reside. They cached food supplies in more semi-subterranean structures. In the spring, when the fish were spawning, they left the winter camps to build villages at coastal locations and waterfalls. In March, they caught moving about in birch bark canoes. In April, they netted alewife and salmon. In May, they caught cod with line in the ocean. Putting out to sea, the men hunted whales, porpoises and seals.dubious The women and children gathered scallops, mussels and crabs, all the basis of menus in New England today. From April through October, natives hunted migratory birds and their eggs: Canada geese, mourning doves and others. In July and August they gathered strawberries, raspberries and nuts. In September, they moved up the streams to the forest. There, the men hunted beaver, caribou and white-tailed deer. In December, when the snows began, the people created larger winter camps in sheltered locations, where they built or reconstructed longhouses.
February and March were lean times. The tribes in southern New England and other northern latitudes had to rely on cached food. Northerners developed a practice of going hungry for several days at a time. Historians hypothesize that this practice kept the population down, according to Liebig's law of the minimum. Northerners were food gatherers only; the southern Algonquians of New England burn agriculture. They cleared fields by burning for one or two years of cultivation, after which the village moved to another location; this is the reason the English found the region cleared and ready for planting. By using various kinds of native corn and squash, southern New England natives were able to improve their diet to such a degree that their population increased and they reached a density of 287 people per 100 square miles as opposed to 41 in the north. With mobile crop rotation, southern villages were less mobile than northern ones; the natives continued their seasonal occupation but tended to move into fixed villages near their lands.
They adjusted to the change by developing a gender-oriented division of labor. The women cultivated crops, the men fished and hunted. Scholars estimate that, by the year 1600, the indigenous population of New England had reached 70,000–100,000. At the time of the first European settlements in North America, Algonquian peoples occupied what is now New Brunswick, much of what is now Canada east of the Rocky Mountains, they were concentrated in the New England region. The homeland of the Algonquian peoples is not known. At the time of the European arrival, the hegemonic Iroquois Confederacy, based in present-day New York and Pennsylvania, was at war with Algonquian neighbours. There are three "tribes" with plant uses that can be found at http://naeb.brit.org/uses/tribes/6/, http://naeb.brit.org/uses/tribes/7/, http://naeb.brit.org/uses/tribes/8/. The latter, "Tete-de-Boule," is an early European name for the Atikamekw; the French and English encountered the Maliseet of present-day Maine and New Brunswick.
Further north are the Betsiamite, Atikamekw and Innu/Naskapi. The Beothuk of Newfoundland might have been Algonquians, but as their last known speaker died in the early 19th century, little record of their language or culture remains. Colonists in the Massachusetts Bay area first encountered the Wampanoag, Nipmuck, Penobscot and Quinnipiac; the Mohegan, Pocumtuc and Narragansett were based in southern New England. The Abenaki were located in northern New England: present-day Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont in what became the United States and eastern Quebec in what became Canada, they had established trading relationships with French colonists who settled along the Atlantic coast and what was called the Saint Lawrence River. The Mahican was located in western New England and in the upper Hudson River Valley (around what was developed by Europeans as Albany
Adultery is extramarital sex, considered objectionable on social, moral, or legal grounds. Although what sexual activities constitute adultery varies, as well as the social and legal consequences, the concept exists in many cultures and is similar in Christianity and Judaism. A single act of sexual intercourse is sufficient to constitute adultery, a more long-term sexual relationship is sometimes referred to as an affair. Many cultures have considered adultery to be a serious crime. Adultery incurred severe punishment for the woman and sometimes for the man, with penalties including capital punishment, mutilation, or torture; such punishments have fallen into disfavor in Western countries from the 19th century. In most Western countries, adultery itself is no longer a criminal offense, but may still have legal consequences in divorce cases. For example, in fault-based family law jurisdictions, adultery always constitutes a ground for divorce and may be a factor in property settlement, the custody of children, the denial of alimony, etc.
Adultery is not a ground for divorce in jurisdictions. In some societies and among certain religious adherents, adultery may affect the social status of those involved, may result in social ostracism. In countries where adultery is a criminal offense, punishments range from fines to caning and capital punishment. Since the 20th century, criminal laws against adultery have become controversial, with international organizations calling for their abolition in the light of several high-profile stoning cases that have occurred in some countries; the head of the United Nations expert body charged with identifying ways to eliminate laws that discriminate against women or are discriminatory to them in terms of implementation or impact, Kamala Chandrakirana, has stated that: "Adultery must not be classified as a criminal offence at all". A joint statement by the United Nations Working Group on discrimination against women in law and in practice states that: "Adultery as a criminal offence violates women’s human rights".
In Muslim countries that follow Sharia law for criminal justice, the punishment for adultery may be stoning. There are fifteen countries in which stoning is authorized as lawful punishment, though in recent times it has been carried out only in Iran and Somalia. Most countries that criminalize adultery are those where the dominant religion is Islam, several Sub-Saharan African Christian-majority countries, but there are some notable exceptions to this rule, namely Philippines and several U. S. states. In some jurisdictions, having sexual relations with the king's wife or the wife of his eldest son constitutes treason. By analogy, in cultures which value and practice exclusive interpersonal relationships, sexual relations with a person outside the relationship may be described as infidelity or cheating, is subject to sanction; the term adultery refers to sexual acts between a married person and someone, not that person's spouse. It may arise in family law. For instance, in the United Kingdom, adultery is not a criminal offense, but is a ground for divorce, with the legal definition of adultery being "physical contact with an alien and unlawful organ".
Extramarital sexual acts not fitting this definition are not "adultery" though they may constitute "unreasonable behavior" a ground of divorce. The application of the term to the act appears to arise from the idea that "criminal intercourse with a married woman... tended to adulterate the issue of an innocent husband... and to expose him to support and provide for another man's ". Thus, the "purity" of the children of a marriage is corrupted, the inheritance is altered; some adultery laws differentiate based on the sex of the participants, as a result such laws are seen as discriminatory, in some jurisdictions they have been struck down by courts on the basis that they discriminated against women. The term adultery, rather than extramarital sex, implies a moral condemnation of the act. Adultery refers to sexual relations which are not legitimized. In the traditional English common law, adultery was a felony. Although the legal definition of adultery differs in nearly every legal system, the common theme is sexual relations outside of marriage, in one form or another.
In archaic law, there was a tort of adultery, called criminal conversation, "conversation" being an old expression for sexual intercourse. This tort has been abolished in all jurisdictions. Traditionally, many cultures Latin American ones, had strong double standards regarding male and female adultery, with the latter being seen as a much more serious violation. Adultery involving a married woman and a man other than her husband was considered a serious crime. In 1707, English Lord Chief Justice John Holt stated that a man having sexual relations with another man's wife was "the highest invasion of property" and claimed, in regard to the aggrieved husband, that "a man cannot receive a higher provocation"; the Encyclopedia of Diderot & d'Alembert, Vol. 1 equated adultery to theft writing that, "adultery is, after homicide, the most punishable of all crimes, because it is