The sea, the world ocean or the ocean is the connected body of salty water that covers over 70 percent of the Earth's surface. It moderates the Earth's climate and has important roles in the water cycle, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, it has been travelled and explored since ancient times, while the scientific study of the sea—oceanography—dates broadly from the voyages of Captain James Cook to explore the Pacific Ocean between 1768 and 1779. The word "sea" is used to denote smaller landlocked sections of the ocean and certain large landlocked, saltwater lakes such as the Caspian Sea and the Dead Sea; the most abundant solid dissolved in sea water is sodium chloride. The water contains salts of magnesium and potassium, amongst many other elements, some in minute concentrations. Salinity varies being lower near the surface and the mouths of large rivers and higher in the depths of the ocean. Winds blowing over the surface of the sea produce waves. Winds create surface currents through friction, setting up slow but stable circulations of water throughout the oceans.
The directions of the circulation are governed by factors including the shapes of the continents and the rotation of the earth. Deep-sea currents, known as the global conveyor belt, carry cold water from near the poles to every ocean. Tides, the twice-daily rise and fall of sea levels, are caused by the rotation of the Earth and the gravitational effects of the orbiting Moon, to a lesser extent of the Sun. Tides may have a high range in bays or estuaries. Submarine earthquakes arising from tectonic plate movements under the oceans can lead to destructive tsunamis, as can volcanoes, huge landslides or the impact of large meteorites. A wide variety of organisms, including bacteria, algae, plants and animals, live in the sea, which offers a wide range of marine habitats and ecosystems, ranging vertically from the sunlit surface waters and the shoreline to the enormous depths and pressures of the cold, dark abyssal zone, in latitude from the cold waters under the Arctic ice to the colourful diversity of coral reefs in tropical regions.
Many of the major groups of organisms evolved in the sea and life may have started there. The sea provides substantial supplies of food for humans fish, but shellfish and seaweed, whether caught by fishermen or farmed underwater. Other human uses of the sea include trade, mineral extraction, power generation and leisure activities such as swimming and scuba diving. Many of these activities create marine pollution; the sea is important in human culture, with major appearances in literature at least since Homer's Odyssey, in marine art, in cinema, in theatre and in classical music. Symbolically, the sea appears as monsters such as Scylla in mythology and represents the unconscious mind in dream interpretation; the sea is the interconnected system of all the Earth's oceanic waters, including the Atlantic, Indian and Arctic Oceans. However, the word "sea" can be used for many specific, much smaller bodies of seawater, such as the North Sea or the Red Sea. There is no sharp distinction between seas and oceans, though seas are smaller, are partly or wholly bordered by land.
However, the Sargasso Sea has no coastline and lies within a circular current, the North Atlantic Gyre. Seas are larger than lakes and contain salt water, but the Sea of Galilee is a freshwater lake; the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea states that all of the ocean is "sea". Earth is the only known planet with seas of liquid water on its surface, although Mars possesses ice caps and similar planets in other solar systems may have oceans, it is still unclear where Earth's water came from, seen from space, our planet appears as a "blue marble" of its various forms: oceans, ice caps, clouds. Earth's 1,335,000,000 cubic kilometers of sea contain about 97.2 percent of its known water and cover more than 70 percent of its surface. Another 2.15% of Earth's water is frozen, found in the sea ice covering the Arctic Ocean, the ice cap covering Antarctica and its adjacent seas, various glaciers and surface deposits around the world. The remainder form underground reservoirs or various stages of the water cycle, containing the freshwater encountered and used by most terrestrial life: vapor in the air, the clouds it forms, the rain falling from them, the lakes and rivers spontaneously formed as its waters flow again and again to the sea.
The sea's dominance of the planet is such that the British author Arthur C. Clarke once noted that "Earth" would have been better named "Ocean"; the scientific study of water and Earth's water cycle is hydrology. The more recent study of the sea in particular is oceanography; this began as the study of the shape of the ocean's currents but has since expanded into a large and multidisciplinary field: it examines the properties of seawater. The subfield dealing with the sea's motion, its forces, the forces acting upon it is known as physical oceanography. Marine biology studies the plants and other organisms inhabiting marine ecosystems. Both are informed by chemical oceanography, which studies the behavior of elements and molecules within the oceans: at the moment, the ocean's role in the carbon cycle and carbon dioxide's role in the increasing acid
Giuseppe Patroni Griffi
Giuseppe Patroni Griffi was an Italian playwright, screenwriter and author. He was born in Naples in an aristocratic family and moved to Rome after the end of World War II and spent his professional life there. Patroni Griffi is considered one of the most prominent contributors to Italian theater and film in post-war Italy. Roberto Rossellini made a movie from his play Anima nera, his first listed film writing credit was on the 1952 musical Canzoni di mezzo secolo. Patroni Griffi would direct Charlotte Rampling, Elizabeth Taylor, Marcello Mastroianni, Laura Antonelli, Florinda Bolkan, Terence Stamp, Fabio Testi. Patroni Griffi was involved with numerous television productions of lyric opera, including Verdi's La Traviata, his many theatrical productions include works by Pirandello, Eduardo De Filippo, Jean Cocteau and Tennessee Williams. As a writer, he published a first collection of stories in Ragazzo di Trastevere, he contributed to the body of Italian gay literature with Scende giù per Toledo and La morte della bellezza, both set in Naples.
He died in Rome. As a director, he is most noted for: Il Mare Metti una sera a cena Addio, fratello crudele Identikit with Elizabeth Taylor The Divine Nymph La gabbia La romana Tosca La traviata Films of Giuseppe Patroni Griffi Giuseppe Patroni Griffi on IMDb
Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis
Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis was a Lithuanian painter and writer.Čiurlionis contributed to symbolism and art nouveau, was representative of the fin de siècle epoch. He has been considered one of the pioneers of abstract art in Europe. During his short life he composed about 400 pieces of music and created about 300 paintings, as well as many literary works and poems; the majority of his paintings are housed in the M. K. Čiurlionis National Art Museum in Kaunas, Lithuania. His works have had a profound influence on modern Lithuanian culture. Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis was born in Senoji Varėna, a town in southeastern Lithuania that at the time was in the Russian Empire, he was the oldest of nine children of his father and his mother, Adelė née Radmanaitė, descended from a Lutheran family of Bavarian origin. Like many educated Lithuanians of the time, Čiurlionis's family spoke Polish, he began learning Lithuanian only after meeting his fiancée in 1907. In 1878 his family moved to Druskininkai, 30 mi. away, where his father went on to be the town organist.
Čiurlionis was a musical prodigy: he could play by ear at age three and could sight-read music by age seven. Three years out of primary school, he went to study at the musical school of Polish Prince Michał Ogiński in Plungė, where he learned to play several instruments, in particular the flute, from 1889 to 1893. Supported by Prince Ogiński's'scholarship' Čiurlionis studied piano and composition at Warsaw Conservatory from 1894 to 1899. For his graduation, in 1899, he wrote a cantata for mixed chorus and symphonic orchestra titled De Profundis, with the guidance of the composer Zygmunt Noskowski, he attended composition lectures at the Leipzig Conservatory from 1901 to 1902. He returned to Warsaw in 1902 and studied drawing at the Warsaw School of Fine Arts from 1904 to 1906 and became a friend with Polish composer and painter Eugeniusz Morawski-Dąbrowa. After the 1905 Russian Revolution, which resulted in the loosening of cultural restrictions on the Empire's minorities, he began to identify himself as a Lithuanian.
He was one of the initiators of, a participant in, the First Exhibition of Lithuanian Art in 1907 at Vileišis Palace, Vilnius. Soon after this event the Lithuanian Union of Arts was founded, Čiurlionis was one of its 19 founding members. In 1907 he became acquainted with an art critic. Through this association Čiurlionis learned to speak better Lithuanian. Early in 1909 he married Sofija. At the end of that year he traveled to St. Petersburg. On Christmas Eve Čiurlionis fell into a profound depression and at the beginning of 1910 was hospitalized in a psychiatric hospital "Czerwony Dwór" in Marki, northeast of Warsaw. While a patient there he died of pneumonia in 1911 at 35 years of age, he was buried at the Rasos Cemetery in Vilnius. He never saw his daughter Danutė. Čiurlionis felt. Many of his paintings bear the names of musical pieces: sonatas and preludes. In 1911 the first posthumous exhibition of Čiurlionis's art was held in Kaunas. During the same year an exhibition of his art was held in Moscow, in 1912 his works were exhibited in St. Petersburg.
In 1957 the Lithuanian community in Chicago opened the Čiurlionis Art Gallery, hosting collections of his works. In 1963 the Čiurlionis Memorial Museum was opened in Druskininkai, in the house where Čiurlionis and his family lived; this museum holds biographical documents as well as photographs and reproductions of the artist's works. The National M. K. Čiurlionis School of Art in Vilnius was named after him in 1965.Čiurlionis inspired the Lithuanian composer Osvaldas Balakauskas' work Sonata of the Mountains, every four years junior musical performers from Lithuania and neighbouring countries take part in the Čiurlionis Competition. Čiurlionis's name has been given to cliffs in Franz Josef Land, a peak in the Pamir Mountains, to asteroid #2420, discovered by the Crimean astrophysicist Nikolai Chernykh. Čiurlionis's works have been displayed at international exhibitions in Japan, Germany and elsewhere. His paintings were featured at "Visual Music" fest, an homage to synesthesia that included the works of Wassily Kandinsky, James McNeill Whistler, Paul Klee, at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles in 2005.
A commemorative plaque has been placed on the building of the former hospital in Marki, Poland where Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis died in 1911. Čiurlionis's life was depicted in the 2012 film Letters to Sofija directed by Robert Mullan. The precise number of Čiurlionis musical compositions is not known – a substantial part of his manuscripts did not survive, while others, perished in the fire during the war, or were lost; the ones available for us today include sketches, rough drafts, fragments of his musical ideas. The nature of the archive determined the fact that Čiurlionis’ works were published only a hundred years after the composer’s death. Today, the archive amounts to 400 music compositions, the major part of which are works for piano, but significant opuses for symphony orchestra, string quartet, works for various choirs, as well as works for organ; some of his most-performed musical works include: The most popular Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis paintings include: List of things named after Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis Rokas Zubov
The Sea (2013 film)
The Sea is a 2013 British-Irish drama film directed by Stephen Brown. It is based on the novel of the same name by John Banville, who wrote the screenplay for the film; the film premiered in competition at the Edinburgh International Film Festival on 23 June 2013. The film had its North American premiere at the 2013 Toronto International Film Festival; the story of a man who returns to the sea where he spent his childhood summers in search of peace following the death of his wife. Rufus Sewell as Carlo Grace Natascha McElhone as Connie Grace Ciarán Hinds as Max Morden Sinéad Cusack as Anna Morden Bonnie Wright as Rose Charlotte Rampling as Miss Vavasour Ruth Bradley as Claire Karl Johnson as Blunden Mark Huberman as Jerome Missy Keating as Chloe Amy Molloy as Shop Girl Stephen Cromwell as Young Tough The producer of the film Luc Roeg said that "I've wanted to make a film of John Banville's haunting and soulful novel for several years and it's been worth the wait. I'm excited to introduce a new film maker, Stephen Brown, to world cinema and I couldn't be more delighted with the cast and crew we've assembled together with our producing partners at Samson Films."Filming started in September 2012 and finished in January 2013.
The Sea premièred at the 2013 Edinburgh International Film Festival and received mixed reviews. Rating it at 7/10,the Screenkicker website said "intimate, superbly acted meditation on grief and abandonment that will make you think about how we cope with tragedy". Marc Adams, chief film critic of Screen Daily wrote, "the film's emotional still waters run deep and the film is watchable as a series of fine actors deliver nuanced and powerful performances." Guy Lodge of Variety wrote "This good, middlebrow adaptation of John Banville's Booker Prize-novel sacrifices structural intricacy for Masterpiece-style emotional accessibility." And added "Afforded the least, but most searing, screen time are Anna's final days, which economically imply longer-running problems in Max’s marriage. In a uniformly strong cast, a superbly terse Cusack cuts that little bit deeper as a dying woman who understandably has no time for her husband’s hovering pain."Local response was less favourable. Niki Boyle of Film List, a Scottish web magazine, gave the film two out of five stars and said that "Hinds and Rampling are suitably low-key, character actor Karl Johnson puts in a decent turn as a more poignant version of The Major from Fawlty Towers, but the whole thing feels utterly derivative, from the contrast between the muted-palette and light-saturated flashbacks, to the spare, mournful piano-and-violin score."
Rob Dickie of "Sound on Sight", praised the performance of cast but criticise the pace and climax of the film by saying that " the pace is lethargic, there are no surprising revelations and the ending is horribly anticlimactic, meaning the strong performances and flashes of visual flair go to waste."Ross Miller of Thoughts on Film gave it 1 out of 5 stars, saying that, "What could have been a fascinating and melancholic look at memory and loss is a boring and monotonous character drama... a pretentious mess that's a chore to sit through." Emma Thrower of The Hollywood News gave film a negative review by saying that "A frustrating blend of wooden and naturalistic, it is a surprise to realise author John Banville is responsible for a screenplay that unfolds like an overblown television drama. Rufus Sewell and Bonnie Wright suffer in these laborious and unwelcome instagram-filtered interludes, Sewell an incongruous pantomime villain and Wright an underused but ineffective screen presence."The Sea served as the closing film at "25th Galway Film Fleadh", at 14 July 2013.
IconCinema listed The Sea at its Top 200 most anticipated films of 2013. The Sea on IMDb The Sea at AllMovie The Sea at Rotten Tomatoes
The Sea (novel)
The Sea is a 2005 novel by John Banville. His fifteenth book, it won the 2005 Booker Prize; the story is told by Max Morden, a self-aware, retired art historian attempting to reconcile himself to the deaths of those he loved as a child and as an adult. The novel is written as a reflective journal. Despite the constant fluctuations, Max returns to three settings: his childhood memories of the Graces—a wealthy middle-class family living in a rented cottage home, the "Cedars"—during the summer holidays; these three settings are diced and impromptly jumbled together for the novel's entire duration. Max's final days with Anna were awkward. Scenes of Anna's dying days are more full of commentary than with actual details, as are most of the novel's settings. It's through these commentaries that we learn of Max's choice to return to the cottage of his childhood memories, confirming that a room would be available for residence during a visit with his adult daughter, Claire. We learn of the Cedars' current house-maid, Miss Vavasour, her other tenant: a retired army Colonel described as a background character.
The Colonel is seen, at the beginning of Max's stay, to have a crush on Miss Vavasour. Despite the actual present day setting of the novel, the underlying motivation to Max's redaction of memories, the single setting which ties the novel together, are Max's childhood memories. With Max's unreliable and omitted iteration of events, we learn the names of the Graces: Chloe, the wild daughter. After brief encounters, fruitless moments of curiosity, Max becomes infatuated with Connie Grace upon first sight, he succeeds. Max recounts being invited on a picnic—for what reasons or what specific time during the summer is never explicitly stated—where Max, in awe, catches an unkempt glance at her pelvic area; this day of "illicit invitation" climaxes when Max is pulled to the ground, snuggled with Connie and Rose in a game of hide-and-seek. The latter half of his summer memories, revolve around Max's awkward relationship with Chloe: a girl with a spastic personality and blunt demeanor whom Max describes as one who " not play, on her own or otherwise".
Chloe is shown as a volatile character: flagrantly kissing Max in a Cinema, rough-housing with her brother Myles, what was hinted as hypersexuality earlier, is quite confirmed as hypersexuality in the book's final moments. We soon learn that Chloe and Myles like to tease Rose, young and timid enough to feel bullied. Max, another day, climbs a tree in the yard of the Cedars' house, soon spots Rose crying not too far from him. Mrs. Grace soon emerges. Max overhears key words from their conversation: "love him" and "Mr. Grace". Assuming this to mean Rose and Mr. Grace are having an affair, he tells Myles; the ending of the book entwines the exact moment of Anna's death with Chloe and Myles drowning in the sea itself as Max and Rose look on. Max, done with his childhood memories, offers a final memory of a near-death episode while he was inebriated; the Colonel does not physically save Max. His daughter scolds him at the hospital, assumingly being told he nearly killed himself, tells him to come home with her.
It is revealed at this point that Miss Vavasour is Rose she was in love with Mrs. Grace. Max finishes with a redaction of himself standing in the sea after Anna's death. We are to assume that he will leave the Cedars' home to be cared for by Claire. Banville himself has described the book as "a direct return to my childhood, to when I was ten or so; the book is set in a fictionalized Rosslare, the seaside village where we went every summer as children. Looking back now it seems idyllic, though I’m sure ninety-five percent of the experience was absolute, grinding boredom." The book began in the third person - "Shroud was the latest in a series of novels of mine in the first person, all of them about men in trouble. I knew. So I started to write The Sea in the third person, it was going to be short, seventy pages or so, about childhood holidays at the seaside—very bare. I worked on it for about eighteen months, and out of nowhere, the first-person narrative voice made itself heard again." The Sea was completed in September 2004.
The novel won the Booker Prize for 2005. The selection of The Sea for the Booker Prize was a satisfying victory for Banville, as his novel The Book of Evidence was shortlisted in 1989 but lost to The Remains of the Day by Kazuo Ishiguro. Ishiguro was again on the shortlist in 2005. In fact it was reported in The Times th
A Sea Symphony
A Sea Symphony is a piece for orchestra and chorus by Ralph Vaughan Williams, written between 1903 and 1909. Vaughan Williams' first and longest symphony, it was first performed at the Leeds Festival in 1910, with the composer conducting; the symphony's maturity belies the composer's relative youth. One of the first symphonies in which a choir is used throughout the work and is an integral part of the musical texture, A Sea Symphony helped set the stage for a new era of symphonic and choral music in Britain during the first half of the 20th century; the work is sometimes referred to as the Symphony No. 1. From 1903 to 1909, Ralph Vaughan Williams worked intermittently on a series of songs for chorus and orchestra that were to become his most lengthy project to date and his first true symphony. Titled The Ocean, A Sea Symphony was first performed in 1910 at the Leeds Festival on the composer's 38th birthday; this is cited as his first large-scale work. Vaughan Williams had never before attempted a work of quite this duration, or for such large forces, it was his first of what would be nine symphonies.
Like Brahms, Vaughan Williams delayed a long time before composing his first symphony, but remained prolific throughout the end of his life: his final symphony was composed from 1956–58, completed when he was 85 years of age. At 70 minutes, A Sea Symphony is the longest of all Vaughan Williams’ symphonies. Although it represents a departure from the traditional Germanic symphonic tradition of the time, it follows a standard symphonic outline: fast introductory movement, slow movement and finale; the four movements are: A Song for All Seas, All Ships On the Beach at Night, Alone Scherzo: The Waves The Explorers The first movement lasts twenty minutes. The text of A Sea Symphony comes from Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass. Though Whitman's poems were little known in England at the time, Vaughan Williams was attracted to them for their ability to transcend both metaphysical and humanist perspectives. Whitman's use of free verse was beginning to make waves in the compositional world, where fluidity of structure was beginning to be more attractive than traditional, metrical settings of text.
Vaughan Williams sets sections from the following poems in A Sea Symphony: Movement 1: “Song of the Exposition” and “Song for all Seas, all Ships" Movement 2: "On the Beach at Night Alone" Movement 3: "After the Sea-ship", taken in its entirety Movement 4: "Passage to India" The symphony is scored for soprano, chorus and a large orchestra consisting of: Woodwinds: two flutes, two oboes, cor anglais, two clarinets, E-flat clarinet, bass clarinet, two bassoons, contrabassoon Brass: four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, tuba Percussion: timpani, side drum, bass drum, suspended cymbal, crash cymbals Organ Strings: two harps, strings. To facilitate more performances of the work, the full score includes the provision that it may be performed by a reduced orchestra of two flutes, one oboe, cor anglais, two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, timpani, one harp, strings; the chorus sings in all four movements. Both soloists are featured in the first and last movements, while only the baritone sings in the second movement.
The scherzo is for the orchestra alone. Comparisons to Stanford and Elgar, as in the Grove article, are expected. Not only were the four writing during the same era and in the same country, Vaughan Williams studied with both Stanford and Parry at the Royal College of Music, his preparations for composing A Sea Symphony included study of both Elgar's Enigma Variations and his oratorio The Dream of Gerontius. A Sea Symphony is among the best-known of a host of sea-related pieces being written around the same time in England, some of the most famous of which are Stanford's Songs of the Sea and Songs of the Fleet, Elgar's Sea Pictures, Frank Bridge's The Sea. Debussy's La mer may have been influential in this apparent nautical obsession. Vaughan Williams studied with Ravel for three months in Paris in the winter of 1907–1908. Though he worked chiefly on orchestration, this was to provide quite a contrast to the Germanic tradition handed down through Stanford and Parry at the RCM, began to give Vaughan Williams a greater sense for colour and a freedom to move chords as block units.
His partiality towards mediant relationships, a unifying harmonic motive of A Sea Symphony, may have been somewhat liberated by these studies, this harmonic relationship is now considered symptomatic of his style in general. A Sea Symphony makes use of both pentatonic and whole tone scales, now considered idiomatic features of French music of the period; this music was in Vaughan Williams’ mind as he finished work on A Sea Symphony in 1908–1909, but Ravel paid him the great compliment of calling him “the only one of my students who does not write my music.” Musically, A Sea Symphony contains two strong unifying motives. The first is the harmonic motive of two chords whose roots are a th
The Sea, the Sea
The Sea, the Sea is a novel by Iris Murdoch. Published in 1978, it was her nineteenth novel, it won the 1978 Booker Prize. The Sea, the Sea is a tale of the strange obsessions that haunt a self-satisfied playwright and director as he begins to write his memoirs. Murdoch's novel exposes the motivations that drive her characters – the vanity and lack of compassion behind the disguises they present to the world. Charles Arrowby, its central figure, decides to withdraw from the world and live in seclusion in a house by the sea. While there, he encounters his first love, Mary Hartley Fitch, whom he has not seen since his love affair with her as an adolescent. Although she is unrecognisable in old age, outside his theatrical world, he becomes obsessed by her, idealizing his former relationship with her and attempting to persuade her to elope with him, his inability to recognise the egotism and selfishness of his own romantic ideals is at the heart of the novel. After the farcical and abortive kidnapping of Mrs. Fitch by Arrowby, he is left to mull over her rejection in a self-obsessional and self-aggrandising manner over the space of several chapters.
"How much, I see as I look back, I read into it all, reading my own dream text and not looking at the reality... Yes of course I was in love with my own youth... Who is one's first love?" Iris Murdoch's biographer Peter J. Conradi gives Xenophon as the ultimate source of the title. According to Xenophon's Anabasis, "The Sea! The Sea!" was the shout of exultation given by the roaming 10,000 Greeks when, in 401 BC, they caught sight of the Black Sea from Mount Theches in Trebizond and realised they were saved from death. Conradi states. A line in the poem's final stanza quotes the Greeks' shouts: "La mer, la mer, toujours recommencėe". Murdoch refers to the poem in several of her books, this stanza appears in full at the end of chapter 4 in her 1963 novel The Unicorn. A four-part adaptation of The Sea, The Sea by Richard Crane, directed by Faynia Williams appeared as the Classic Serial on BBC Radio 3 in 1993; the actors included John Wood as Charles Arrowby, Joyce Redman as Hartley Fitch, with Sian Phillips, Sam Crane & Peter Kelly.
Episode 3 included an interview with Iris Murdoch. A two-part adaptation of The Sea, the Sea by Robin Brooks appeared on BBC Radio 4 in August 2015; the actors included Jeremy Irons as Charles Arrowby, Maggie Steed as Hartley Fitch, Simon Williams as James Arrowby