The 500 Hats of Bartholomew Cubbins
The 500 Hats of Bartholomew Cubbins is a children's book and illustrated by Theodor Geisel under the pen name Dr. Seuss and published by Vanguard Press in 1938. Unlike the majority of Geisel's books, it is written in prose rather than metered verse. Geisel, who collected hats, got the idea for the story on a commuter train from New York to New England while he was sitting behind a businessman wearing a hat. Geisel concluded. Set in feudal times, the story begins in the Kingdom of Didd, when King Derwin is riding through a street past peasant protagonist Bartholomew Cubbins. Ordered to remove his hat, according to the laws, Bartholomew does so, but another hat mysteriously appears; the 500th hat, studded with massive gems and gilding, leaves Bartholomew's head bare. Stunned by the beauty of the hat, King Derwin grants him reprieve and trades him 500 gold coins for the 500th hat; the book received positive reviews from critics. The New York Times reviewer called the book "a lovely bit of tomfoolery which keeps up the suspense and surprise until the end."
Booklist, which had criticized Geisel's previous book, And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street, for containing only enough material for one comic strip, praised The 500 Hats as "a brand-new idea, developed into a complete tale, not too long, not too short, just right. Somewhere between the Sunday supplements and the Brothers Grimm, Dr. Seuss has produced a picture book combining features of both." Alexander Laing, who had worked with Geisel on the Dartmouth Jack-O-Lantern humor magazine, wrote in his review of the book in the Dartmouth Alumni Magazine, "His several other occupations, madly fascinating as they are, may have been only preludes to a discovery of his proper vocation. That he is a rare and loopy genius has been common knowledge from an early epoch of his undergrad troubles, it now becomes plain that his is the happy madness beloved by children. I do not see what is to prevent him from becoming the Grimm of our times." Not long after publication, the story was adapted for an album issued by RCA Victor.
Narrated by Paul Wing, the audio adaptation had a running time of 37 seconds. The dramatization featured sound effects on two 10" 78rpm records in a bi-fold sleeve; this recording was played in elementary school classrooms during the early 1940s. Geisel wrote the script for the 1943 Puppetoon short of the same name for Paramount Pictures, produced by George Pal, it received an Academy Award nomination for Best Short. Unlike the book's illustrations, in which Cubbins' hats were all the same one, the hats in the film were of many different kinds. Minnesota's Children's Theatre Company produced a version of The 500 Hats of Bartholomew Cubbins for the stage in 1973, says this was the first theater adaptation of a Dr. Seuss work; the characters of Bartholomew and King Derwin returned a decade in Bartholomew and the Oobleck. Morgan, Neil. Dr. Seuss Mr. Geisel: A Biography. New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-80736-7. RCA Victor: The 500 Hats of Bartholomew Cubbins "Hats Off to Dr. Seuss"
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
If I Ran the Zoo
If I Ran the Zoo is a children's book written by Dr. Seuss in 1950; the book is written in anapestic tetrameter, Seuss's usual verse type, illustrated in Seuss's pen-and-ink style. It tells the story of a child named Gerald McGrew who, when visiting a zoo, finds that the exotic animals are "not good enough", he says that if he ran the zoo, he would let all of the current animals free and find new, more bizarre and exotic ones. Throughout the book he lists these creatures, starting with a lion with ten feet and escalating to more imaginative creatures, such as the Fizza-ma-Wizza-ma-Dill, "the world's biggest bird from the island of Gwark, who eats only pine trees, spits out the bark." The illustrations grow wilder as McGrew imagines going to remote and exotic habitats and capturing each fanciful creature, bringing them all back to a zoo now filled with his wild new animals. He imagines the praise he receives from others, who are amazed at his "new Zoo, McGrew Zoo"; some of the animals featured in If I Ran the Zoo have been featured in a segment of The Hoober-Bloob Highway, a 1975 CBS TV special.
In this segment, Hoober-Bloob babies don't have to be human if they don't choose to be, so Mr. Hoober-Bloob shows them a variety of different animals; such animals include: Obsks, a flock of Wild Bippo-No-Bungus, a Tizzle-Topped Tufted Mazurka, a Big-Bug-Who-Is-Very-Surprising, Chuggs, a Deer with Horns-That-Are-Just-A-Bit-Queer, a New Sort-Of-A-Hen, an Elephant-Cat, an Iota. If I Ran the Zoo is credited with the first printed modern English appearance of the word "nerd," although the word is not used in its modern context, it is the name of an otherwise un-characterized imaginary creature, appearing in the sentence "And just to show them, I'll sail to Ka-Troo/And Bring Back an It-Kutch, a Preep, a Proo,/A Nerkle, a Nerd, a Seersucker too!" Dr. Seuss's Zoo book is the main theme for one of the children's play areas at Universal Studios' Islands of Adventure; the small play area is located inside the area of the park known as Seuss Landing. An animation short directed and produced by Ray Messecar and narrated by Brett Ambler was released in 1992.
If I Ran the Circus
Horton Hatches the Egg
Horton Hatches the Egg is a children's book written and illustrated by Theodor Geisel under the pen name Dr. Seuss and published in 1940 by Random House; the book tells the story of Horton the Elephant, tricked into sitting on a bird's egg while its mother, takes a permanent vacation to Palm Beach. Horton endures a number of hardships but persists stating, "I meant what I said, I said what I meant. An elephant's faithful, one hundred percent!" The egg hatches, revealing an elephant-bird, a creature with a blend of Mayzie's and Horton's features. According to Geisel's biographers Judith and Neil Morgan, Geisel claimed the story was born in early 1940, when he left a window open in his studio, the wind fortuitously blew a sketch of an elephant on top of a sketch of a tree. However, according to biographer Charles Cohen, this account is apocryphal, he found elements of Horton in earlier Dr. Seuss works, most notably the 1938 short story "Matilda, the Elephant with a Mother Complex". Horton Hatches the Egg was published to immediate critical acclaim and financial success and has remained popular with the general public.
The book has been used as the basis for academic articles on a variety of topics, including economics, Christianity and adoption. Horton appeared again in the 1954 Dr. Seuss book Horton Hears a Who! These two books provided the thrust of the plot for the 2000 Broadway musical Seussical; the book centers on Horton, a genial elephant, convinced by Mayzie, a lazy, irresponsible bird, to sit on her egg while she takes a short "break", which turns into her permanent relocation to Palm Beach. As Horton sits in the nest on top of a tree, he is exposed to the elements, laughed at by his jungle friends, captured by hunters, forced to endure a terrible sea voyage, placed in a traveling circus. However, despite his hardships and Mayzie's clear intent not to return, Horton refuses to leave the nest because he insists on keeping his word repeating, "I meant what I said, I said what I meant. An elephant's faithful, one hundred per cent!" The traveling circus ends up visiting near Mayzie's new Palm Beach residence.
She visits the circus just as the egg is due to hatch and demands that Horton should return it, without offering him a reward. However, when the egg hatches, the creature that emerges is an "elephant-bird", a cross between Horton and Mayzie, Horton and the baby are returned to the jungle. According to Geisel's biographers Judith and Neil Morgan, Horton Hatches the Egg was born in 1940, the day after New Year's, when he took a break from drawing in his Park Avenue apartment and went for a walk; when he returned, he noticed that he had left a window open in his studio and that the wind had blown one sketch on transparent paper on top of another, making it look like an elephant was sitting in a tree. This account was based on interviews with Geisel, who had told similar stories about the book's creation to reporters asking about his creative process since as early as 1957; the story had changed with each telling but always involved the fortuitous juxtaposition of drawings of an elephant and a tree.
Charles Cohen, on the other hand, found traces of Horton Hatches the Egg in early Dr. Seuss works. In an early installment of Geisel's cartoon feature "Boids and the Beasties", which began in Judge magazine in 1927, he juxtaposed a bird and an elephant. A few weeks he drew a story in which a whale ends up passed out in a catalpa tree. In a 1959 cartoon for Life magazine, he depicted a dachshund. In 1961, he drew an illustration for Judge that showed a walrus sitting in a tree, trying to hatch the eggs in a bird nest; some of his earlier work featured elephant-bird hybrids, which prefigured the elephant-bird that hatches at the end of Horton Hatches the Egg. In 1938, two years before Horton Hatches the Egg, Judge published the most obvious precursor to Horton, "Matilda, the Elephant with a Mother Complex", a short story by Geisel about an "old maid elephant" who sits on a chickadee egg until it hatches, only to have the newborn chickadee fly away from her. In 1939, Geisel created an advertisement for NBC featuring a sympathetic-looking elephant lashed with ropes and contained in a cage made of sticks, similar to Horton's situation when the hunters capture him in Horton Hatches the Egg.
In early drafts, the elephant's name changed from Osmer to Bosco to Humphrey. The final choice, was after Horton Conrad, one of Geisel's classmates at Dartmouth College; the bird's name changed from Bessie to Saidie and Mayzie. In the first draft, the elephant character volunteered to sit on the eggs for the bird, reluctant. Horton Hatches the Egg was published by Random House in fall 1940 to immediate success, it received positive notice from critics. Kirkus Reviews called it "sheer nonsense, but good fun." The reviewer for The New York Times Book Review wrote, "A moral is a new thing to find in a Dr. Seuss book, but it doesn't much interfere with the hilarity with which he juggles an elephant up a tree. To an adult the tale seems a little forced compared to his first grand yarns, less inevitable in its nonsense, but neither young nor old are going to quibble with the fantastic comedy of his pictures."The book found early success with book buyers and the general public. It sold 6,000 copies in 1,600 in its second.
Frances Chrystie, the juvenile buyer for FAO Schwarz, wrote to Bennett Cerf, Geisel's publisher, "I've been sitting alone in my apartment reading Horton aloud to myself over and over again... It's the funniest book I've seen... merchandise manager thinks he can find an elephant in the store, we can make a tree and l
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
Hearst Communications referred to as Hearst, is an American mass media and business information conglomerate based in New York City. Hearst owns newspapers, television channels, television stations, including the San Francisco Chronicle, the Houston Chronicle and Esquire, it owns 50% of broadcasting firm A&E Networks and 20% of the sports broadcaster ESPN in partnership with The Walt Disney Company. Despite being better known for the above media holdings, Hearst makes most of its profits in the business information section, where it owns companies including Fitch Ratings, First Databank, others. Hearst Communications is based in the Hearst Tower in New York City; the company was founded by William Randolph Hearst as an owner of newspapers, the Hearst family remains involved in its ownership and management. In 1880, George Hearst, mining entrepreneur and U. S. senator, entered the publishing business by acquiring the San Francisco Daily Examiner. In 1887, he turned the Examiner over to his son, William Randolph Hearst, who that year founded the Hearst Corp. W. R. Hearst went on to purchase or launch several more newspapers in multiple cities and to found the Los Angeles Examiner in 1903.
W. R. Hearst found early success, growing readership for the Examiner from 15,000 in 1887 to over 20 million. Hearst's magazine division began with W. R. Hearst's creation of Motor magazine, he acquired several other publications, including Cosmopolitan in 1905, Good Housekeeping in 1911. W. R. Hearst entered the book publishing business in 1913 with the formation of Hearst's International Library. W. R. Hearst began producing film features in the mid-1910s, creating one of the earliest animation studios: the International Film Service, turning characters from Hearst newspaper strips into film characters. After purchasing the Atlanta Georgian in 1912, the San Francisco Call and the San Francisco Post in 1913, Hearst acquired the Boston Advertiser and the Washington Times in 1917, he purchased the Chicago Herald in 1918. In 1919, Hearst's book publishing division was renamed Cosmopolitan Book. In the 1920s and 1930s, Hearst owned the biggest media conglomerate in the world, which included a number of magazines and newspapers in major cities.
Hearst began acquiring radio stations to complement his papers. Hearst saw financial challenges in the early 1920s, during which time he was subsidizing funds from his corporation to fund the construction of Hearst Castle in San Simeon and movie production at Cosmopolitan Productions; this lead to the merger of the magazine Hearst International with Cosmopolitan in 1925. Despite some financial troubles, Hearst began extending its reach in 1921, purchasing the Detroit Times, The Boston Record and the Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Hearst added the Los Angeles Herald and Washington Herald, as well as the Oakland Post-Enquirer, the Syracuse Telegram and the Rochester Journal in 1922, he continued his buying spree into the mid-1920s, purchasing the Baltimore News, the San Antonio Light, the Albany Times Union, The Milwaukee Sentinel. In 1924, Hearst entered the tabloid market in New York City with The New York Mirror, meant to compete with the New York Daily News. In addition to print and radio, Hearst established Cosmopolitan Pictures in the early 1920s, distributing his films under the newly created Metro Goldwyn Mayer.
In 1929, Hearst and MGM created. The Great Depression had a negative impact on his publications. Cosmopolitan Book was sold to Farrar and Reinhart in 1931. After two years of leasing them to her, Hearst had to sell the Washington Times and Herald to Eleanor "Cissy" Patterson in 1939 who merged them to form the Washington Times-Herald; that year he bought the Milwaukee Sentinel from Paul Block, absorbing his afternoon Wisconsin News into the morning publication. In 1939, he sold the Atlanta Georgian to Cox Newspapers, which merged it with the Atlanta Journal. Hearst, with his chain now owned by his creditors after a 1937 liquidation had to merge some of his morning papers into his afternoon papers. In Chicago, he combined the morning Herald-Examiner and the afternoon American into the Herald-American in 1939; this followed the 1937 combination of the New York Evening Journal and the morning American into the New York Journal-American, the sale of the Omaha Daily Bee to the World-Herald. Abandoning the morning market was harmful in the long run for Hearst's media holdings as most of his remaining newspapers became afternoon papers.
Newspapers in Rochester and Fort Worth were sold or closed. Afternoon papers were a profitable business in pre-television days outselling their morning counterparts featuring stock market information in early editions, while editions were heavy on sporting news with results of baseball games and horse races. Afternoon papers benefited from continuous reports from the battlefront during World War II. After the war, both television news and suburbs experienced an explosive growth. Another major blow was the fact that beginning in the 1950s, football and baseball games were being played in the afternoon and now stretched through early in the evening, preventing afternoon papers from publishing all the results. In 1947, Hearst produced an early television newscast for the DuMont Television Network: I. N. S