Helen Marguerite Clark was an American stage and silent film actress. As a movie actress, at one time, Clark was second only to Mary Pickford in popularity. Today, most of her films are lost, with only four extant. Born in Avondale, Ohio on February 22, 1883, she was the third child of Augustus "Gus" James and Helen Elizabeth Clark, she had an older sister, an older brother named Clifton. Clark's mother Helen died on January 21, 1893, her father worked in his self-owned successful haberdashery located in downtown Cincinnati before his death on December 29, 1896. Following the death, Clark's sister Cora was appointed her legal guardian and removed her from public school to further her education at Ursuline Academy, she finished school at age 16, decided to pursue a career in the theatre and soon made her Broadway debut in 1900. The 17-year-old performed at various venues. In 1903 she was seen on Broadway opposite that hulking comedian DeWolf Hopper in Mr. Pickwick; the 6-foot-6-inch Hopper dwarfed the nearly 5-foot-tall Clark in their scenes together.
Several adventure-fantasy roles followed. In 1909 Clark starred in the whimsical costume play The Beauty Spot, establishing the fantasy stories for which would soon become her hallmark. In 1910 Clark appeared in The Wishing Ring, a play directed by Cecil DeMille and made into a motion picture by Maurice Tourneur; that same 1910 season had Clark appearing in Baby Mine, a popular play produced by William A. Brady. In 1912 Clark performed in a lead role with John Barrymore, Doris Keane and Gail Kane in the play The Affairs of Anatol made into a motion picture by Clark's future movie studio Famous Players-Lasky and directed by Cecil DeMille. Clark's popularity led to her signing a contract in 1914 to make motion pictures with Famous Players-Lasky. Clark had a lead role in a film. At age 31, it was late in life for a film actress to begin a career with starring roles, but the diminutive Clark had a little-girl look, like Mary Pickford, that belied her years. Film was not developed or mature enough to showcase Clark at her youthful best at the turn of the century.
These were one of the reasons established. Feature films were unheard of, she made her first appearance on screen in the short film Wildflower, directed by Allan Dwan. In 1915, Clark starred as "Gretchen" in a feature-length production of The Goose Girl based on a 1909 best-selling novel by Harold MacGrath, she performed in the feature-length production The Seven Sisters, directed by Sidney Olcott, she reprised a Broadway role, starring in the first feature-length film version of Snow White. Clark was directed in this by J. Searle Dawley, as well as in a number of films, notably when she played the characters of both "Little Eva St. Clair" and "Topsy" in the feature Uncle Tom's Cabin. Clark starred in Come Out of the Kitchen, filmed in Pass Christian, Mississippi, at Ossian Hall; the same year, she enrolled as a yeowoman in the naval reserves. Clark made all but one of her 40 films with Famous Players-Lasky, her last with them in 1920 titled Easy to Get, in which she starred opposite silent film actor Harrison Ford.
Her next film, in 1921, was made by her own production company for First National Pictures distribution. As one of the most popular actresses going into the 1920s, one of the industry's best paid, her name alone was enough to ensure reasonable box office success; as such, Scrambled Wives was made under her direction, following which she retired at age 38 to be with her husband at their country estate in New Orleans. On August 15, 1918, Clark married New Orleans, Louisiana plantation owner and millionaire businessman Harry Palmerston Williams, a marriage that ended with the death of Williams' on May 19, 1936 in an aircraft crash. After his death, Clark was the owner of the Wedell-Williams Air Service Corporation, which had built and flown air racers, along with other aviation enterprises until sold in 1937. After the death of her husband, Clark moved to New York City. On September 20, 1940, she entered LeRoy Sanitarium where she died five days of pneumonia. A private funeral was held at the Frank E. Campbell Funeral Chapel on September 28.
She was buried with her husband in Metairie Cemetery in New Orleans. For her contribution to the motion picture industry, Marguerite Clark has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6304 Hollywood Boulevard. Wilson, H. W. Current Biography Yearbook. H. W Wilson. Marguerite Clark at the Internet Broadway Database Marguerite Clark on IMDb Contemporary interviews with Marguerite Clark Marguerite Clark page at Corbis Marguerite Clark gallery NY Public Library Marguerite Clark bio & pics portrait of Marguerite Clark and DeWolf Hopper on Broadway in Happyland Univ. of Washington/Sayre Collection Marguerite Clark at Find a Grave
A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound. In silent films for entertainment, the plot may be conveyed by the use of title cards, written indications of the plot and key dialogue lines; the idea of combining motion pictures with recorded sound is nearly as old as film itself, but because of the technical challenges involved, the introduction of synchronized dialogue became practical only in the late 1920s with the perfection of the Audion amplifier tube and the advent of the Vitaphone system. During the silent-film era that existed from the mid-1890s to the late 1920s, a pianist, theater organist—or in large cities, a small orchestra—would play music to accompany the films. Pianists and organists would play either from improvisation; the term silent film is a retronym—a term created to retroactively distinguish something. Early sound films, starting with The Jazz Singer in 1927, were variously referred to as the "talkies," "sound films," or "talking pictures." Within a decade, the widespread production of silent films for popular entertainment had ceased, the industry had moved into the sound era, in which movies were accompanied by synchronized sound recordings of spoken dialogue and sound effects.
Most early motion pictures are considered lost because the nitrate film used in that era was unstable and flammable. Additionally, many films were deliberately destroyed because they had little value in the era before home video, it has been claimed that around 75 percent of silent films have been lost, though these estimates may be inaccurate due to a lack of numerical data. The earliest precursors to film began with image projection through the use of a device known as the magic lantern, which utilized a glass lens, a shutter, a persistent light source to project images from glass slides onto a wall; these slides were hand-painted, after the advent of photography in the 19th century, still photographs were sometimes used. Thus the invention of a practical photography apparatus preceded cinema by only fifty years; the next significant step toward the invention of cinema was the development of an understanding of image movement. Simulations of movement date as far back as to 1828—only four years after Paul Roget discovered the phenomenon he called "Persistence of Vision."
Roget showed that when a series of still images is shown at a considerable speed in front of a viewer's eye, the images merge into one registered image that appears to show movement. This is an optical illusion, since the image is not moving; this experience was further demonstrated through Roget's introduction of the thaumatrope, a device that spun at a high speed a disk with an image on its surface. The three features necessary for motion pictures to work were "a camera with sufficiently high shutter speed, a filmstrip capable of taking multiple exposures swiftly, means of projecting the developed images on a screen." The first projected proto-movie was made by Eadweard Muybridge between 1877 and 1880. Muybridge set up a row of cameras along a racetrack and timed image exposures to capture the many stages of a horse's gallop; the oldest surviving film was created by Louis Le Prince in 1888. It was a two-second film of people walking in "Oakwood streets" garden, titled Roundhay Garden Scene.
The development of American inventor Thomas Edison's Kinetograph, a photographic device that captured sequential images, his Kinetoscope, a device for viewing those images, allowed for the creation and exhibition of short films. Edison made a business of selling Kinetograph and Kinetoscope equipment, which laid the foundation for widespread film production. Due to Edison's lack of securing an international patent on his film inventions, similar devices were "invented" around the world. In France, for example and Louis Lumière created the Cinématographe, which proved to be a more portable and practical device than both of Edison's as it combined a camera, film processor, projector in one unit. In contrast to Edison's "peepshow"-style kinetoscope, which only one person could watch through a viewer, the cinematograph allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple people, their first film, Sortie de l'usine Lumière de Lyon, shot in 1894, is considered the first true motion picture. The invention of celluloid film, strong and flexible facilitated the making of motion pictures.
This film was 35 mm wide and was pulled using four sprocket holes, which became the industry standard. This doomed the cinematograph; the art of motion pictures grew into full maturity in the "silent era". The height of the silent era was a fruitful period, full of artistic innovation; the film movements of Classical Hollywood as well as French Impressionism, German Expressionism, Soviet Montage began in this period. Silent filmmakers pioneered the art form to the extent that every style and genre of film-making of the 20th and 21st centuries has its artistic roots in the silent era; the silent era was a pioneering one from a technical point of view. Three-point lighting, the close-up, long shot and continuity editing all became prevalent long before silent films were replaced by "talking pictures" or "talkies" in the late 1920s; some scholars claim that the artistic quality of cinema decreased for several years, during the early 1930s, until film directors and production staff adapted to the new "talkies" around the late 1930s.
In films, an intertitle is a piece of filmed, printed text edited into the midst of the photographed action at various points. Intertitles used to convey character dialogue are referred to as "dialogue intertitles", those used to provide related descriptive/narrative material are referred to as "expository intertitles". In modern usage, the terms refer to similar text and logo material inserted at or near the start of films and television shows. In this era intertitles were always called "subtitles" and had Art Deco motifs, they were a mainstay of silent films once the films became of sufficient length and detail to necessitate dialogue and/or narration to make sense of the enacted or documented events. The British Film Catalogue credits the 1898 film Our New General Servant by Robert W. Paul as the first British film to use intertitles. Film scholar Kamilla Elliott identifies another early use of intertitles in the 1901 British film Scrooge, or, Marley's Ghost; the first Academy Awards presentation in 1929 included an award for "Best Title Writing" that went to Joseph W. Farnham for no specific film.
The award was never given again, as intertitles went out of common use due to the introduction of "talkies". In modern use, intertitles are used to supply an epigraph, such as a poem, or to distinguish various "acts" of a film or multimedia production by use as a title card. However, they are most used as part of a historical drama's epilogue to explain what happened to the depicted characters and events after the conclusion of the story proper; the development of the soundtrack eliminated their utility as a narrative device, but they are still used as an artistic device. For instance, intertitles were used as a gimmick in Frasier; the BBC's drama Threads uses them to give location and information on distant events beyond Sheffield. Law & Order and its related spinoffs used them to give not only the location, but the date of the upcoming scene. Guy Maddin is a modern filmmaker known for recreating the style of older films, uses intertitles appropriately; some locally produced shows, such as quiz bowl game shows, use animated variations of intertitles to introduce the next round.
Intertitles have had a long history in the area of amateur film as well. The efforts of home movie aficionados to intertitle their works post-production have led to the development of a number of innovative approaches to the challenge. Lacking access to high quality film dubbing and splicing equipment, amateur film makers must plan ahead when making a film to allow space for filming an intertitle over the existing film. Intertitles may be printed neatly on a piece of paper, a card, or a piece of cardboard and filmed, or they may be formed from adhesive strips and affixed to glass. In the early 1980s, digital recording technology improved to the point where intertitles could be created in born-digital format and recorded directly onto the film. Several specialty accessories from this period such as Sony's HVT-2100 Titler and cameras such as Matsushita's Quasar VK-743 and Zenith VC-1800 could be used to generate intertitles for home movies. Early 1980s video game consoles and applications catering to the demo scene were adapted for the generation and recording of intertitles for home films.
Among these were included the ColecoVision, the Magnavox Odyssey², the Bally Astrocade, the intertitle-specialized Famicom Titler. Acknowledgment Billing Character generator Closing credits Credit Digital on-screen graphic Lower third Opening credits Subtitle Supertitle Title sequence WGA screenwriting credit system
Daniel Frohman was an American theatrical producer and manager, an early film producer. Frohman was born to a Jewish family in Ohio, his parents were Barbara Straus Frohman. In his younger days he worked as a clerk at the New York Tribune, while there witnessed the fatal shooting of the reporter Albert Deane Richardson by Daniel McFarland on November 25, 1869, was a witness at McFarland's murder trial. With his brothers Charles and Gustave Frohman, he helped to develop a system of road companies that would tour the nation while the show played in New York City; the three brothers worked together at the Madison Square Theatre in the early 1880s. Daniel was the producer-manager of the old and new Lyceum Theatres and the Lyceum stock company from 1886 to 1909. During this period he launched careers for such actors as E. H. Sothern, Henry Miller, William Faversham, Maude Adams, Richard Mansfield and James Keteltas Hackett. Daniel Frohman was at 1903 -- 1909, married to Broadway actress Margaret Illington.
Illington married Major Edward Bowes. Frohman became involved in the motion picture business as a partner and producer with Adolph Zukor in the Famous Players Film Company, he worked from offices on West 26th Street in New York City. On his death in 1940, Frohman was buried in the Union Field Cemetery in Queens, near his brother Charles, who had died in 1915 in the sinking of the RMS Lusitania. Thomas Allston Brown, A History of the New York Stage From the First Performance in 1732 to 1901, vol. III, George Cooper, Lost Love: A True Story of Passion and Justice in Old New York ISBN 0-679-43398-8 Stanhope Searles, "Six Books of the Month: Charles Frohman and Man", The Bookman, vol. 44, no. 3 p. 306 Works by Daniel Frohman at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Daniel Frohman at Internet Archive Daniel Frohman at the Internet Broadway Database Daniel Frohman on IMDb Daniel Frohman at Find a Grave Daniel Frohman picture gallery in life
A lost film is a feature or short film, no longer known to exist in any studio archives, private collections, or public archives, such as the U. S. Library of Congress. During most of the 20th century, U. S. copyright law required at least one copy of every American film to be deposited at the Library of Congress, at the time of copyright registration, but the Librarian of Congress was not required to retain those copies: "Under the provisions of the act of March 4, 1909, authority is granted for the return to the claimant of copyright of such copyright deposits as are not required by the Library." Of American silent films, far more have been lost than have survived, of American sound films made from 1927 to 1950 half have been lost. The phrase "lost film" can be used in a literal sense for instances where footage of deleted scenes and alternative versions of feature films are known to have been created, but can no longer be accounted for. Sometimes, a copy of a lost film is rediscovered. A film that has not been recovered in its entirety is called a lost film.
For example, the 1922 film Sherlock Holmes was discovered, but some of the footage is still missing. Most film studios had a still photographer with a large-format camera working on the set during production, taking pictures for potential publicity use; the high-quality photographic paper prints that resulted – some produced in quantity for display use by theaters, others in smaller numbers for distribution to newspapers and magazines – have preserved imagery from many otherwise lost films. In some cases, such as London After Midnight, the surviving coverage is so extensive that an entire lost film can be reconstructed scene by scene in the form of still photographs. Stills have been used to stand in for missing footage when making new preservation prints of lost films. Most lost films are from the silent film and early talkie era, from about 1894 to 1930. Martin Scorsese's Film Foundation estimates that more than 90% of American films made before 1929 are lost, the Library of Congress estimates that 75% of all silent films are lost forever.
The largest cause of silent film loss was intentional destruction, as silent films were perceived as having little or no commercial value after the end of the silent era by 1930. Film preservationist Robert A. Harris has said, "Most of the early films did not survive because of wholesale junking by the studios. There was no thought of saving these films, they needed vault space and the materials were expensive to house."Many other early motion pictures are lost because the nitrate film used for nearly all 35 mm negatives and prints made before 1952 is flammable. When in badly deteriorated condition and improperly stored, nitrate film can and will spontaneously combust. Fires have destroyed entire archives of films. For example, a storage vault fire in 1937 destroyed all the original negatives of Fox Pictures' pre-1935 films; the 1965 MGM vault fire resulted in the loss of early talkies. Nitrate film is chemically unstable and over time can decay into a sticky mass or a powder akin to gunpowder.
This process can be unpredictable: some nitrate film from the 1890s is still in good condition today, while some much nitrate had to be scrapped as unsalvageable when it was 20 years old. Much depends on the environment. Ideal conditions of low temperature, low humidity, adequate ventilation can preserve nitrate film for centuries, but in practice, the storage conditions were far from ideal; when a film on nitrate base is said to have been "preserved", this always means that it has been copied onto safety film or, more digitized. Eastman Kodak introduced a nonflammable 35 mm film stock in spring 1909. However, the plasticizers used to make the film flexible evaporated too making the film dry and brittle, causing splices to part and perforations to tear. By 1911, the major American film studios were back to using nitrate stock. "Safety film" was relegated to sub-35 mm formats such as 16 mm and 8 mm until improvements were made in the late 1940s. Some pre-1931 sound films made by Warner Bros. and First National have been lost because they used a sound-on-disc system with a separate soundtrack on special phonograph records.
If some of a film's soundtrack discs could not be found in the 1950s when 16 mm sound-on-film reduction prints of early "talkies" were being made for inclusion in television syndication packages, that film's chances of survival plummeted: many sound-on-disc films have survived only by way of those 16 mm prints. Before the eras of sound film and home video, films were viewed as having little future value when their theatrical runs ended. Thus, many were deliberately destroyed to save the cost of storage. Many Technicolor two-color negatives from the 1920s and 1930s were thrown out when the studios refused to reclaim their films, still being held by Technicolor in its vaults; some used prints were sold to scrap dealers and cut up into short segments for use with small, hand-cranked 35 mm movie projectors, which were sold as a toy for showing brief excerpts from Hollywood movies at home. As a consequence of this widespread lack of care, the work of many early filmmakers and performers has made its way to the present in fragmentary form.
A high-profile example is the case of Theda Bara. One of the best-known actresses of the early silent era, she made 40 films, but only six are now known to exist. Clara Bow was celebrated in her heyday, but 20 of her 57 films are lost, another five are inc
Edith Ellis (playwright)
Edith Ellis was an American actress and playwright. She began her career as a child actress, began writing and producing. Ellis operated several theatres and touring companies throughout her lifetime, she is the author of over thirty-five plays. While not an outspoken feminist, Ellis’s work continuously focused on the issues of women, she developed her own theory on directing, with a focus on the agency of the actor. Numerous times throughout her life, Ellis directed her own writing, she died in 1960 after a lifelong career as a dramatist. Ellis was born in Branch County, Michigan. Ellis's father, Edward Ellis, was a Shakespearean actor who began Edith Ellis's career by putting her behind the curtain and on the stage from a early age, her first part was at age six, by ten she was a star. Three plays were written for her before her twelfth birthday. At fourteen, Ellis fell ill. During this time, she turned her attention to writing plays rather than acting. In 1901, she married a theatre manager; the two were married in 1901.
They were married until his death in 1907. Their daughter, Ellis Baker, became an actress. Edith Ellis married C. Becher Furness, a Canadian. Ellis began her work as a director with the help of theatre manager Frank Baker. Edith Ellis-Baker and Frank Baker secured and managed the Park Theatre in Brooklyn from 1901 to 1902. Ellis was the primary stage director there and her husband managed the administrative end until the theatre burned down at the end of the 1902 season. Ellis and Baker leased the Criterion Theatre in Brooklyn, where Ellis continued to direct plays. While there, Ellis formed the Baker Stock Company. According to Ellis, this is when she did the "hardest work of life, playing the leading roles in a new play every week, directing rehearsals, rewriting plays, planning scenery and properties and living in the theatre.” They moved to the Berkeley Lyceum in New York City where she directed her own play, The Point of View. In 1907, Frank Baker died. After his death, Edith Ellis took back her maiden name and resumed directing and writing.
Several times Ellis was head of her own stock companies, travelling or stationary, wrote, produced and acted in many plays. In 1908, Ellis acquired the New York Playhouse in Brooklyn. In 1909, Edith Ellis joined the Society of a feminist group for women dramatics. Including members like Rachel Crothers, this group was a way for Ellis to network with other women in the industry, her first writing attempt was out of necessity, when she and her brother, were stranded on the road by the unexpected disbanding of their theatrical company. The play was successful enough to pay their way home. Ellis' plots followed one of three trajectories. All three centered around women's issues; the unhappy life of a married woman Women in the workforce Women above the age of forty Ellis had difficulty in getting some of her plays produced, as in the case of The White Villa. The White Villa is a play about a woman in an unfulfilled marriage; the play ends with the leading woman now living her life alone while her ex-husband has remarried a younger woman.
One male producer wouldn't produce it. Another male reader said that he would never let his wife star in it. A third producer claimed that he would produce the play, except that women in the audience would hate the play’s truthful narrative, saying “Women won’t stand for the truth.” Edith Ellis produced the play herself and would self-produce a majority of her works. In 1936, Ellis began transcribing works about life after death, she said this idea came from a New England farm boy, killed by a British soldier in 1781. These works include: Incarnation: A Plea from the Masters, Open the Door!, We Knew These Men, Love in the Afterlife, She wrote silent film scenarios for Samuel Goldwyn. In 1909, Edith Ellis joined the Society of a feminist group for women dramatics. Including members like Rachel Crothers, this group was a way for Ellis to network with other women in the industry. Although Ellis rejected the suffragette title, she was the most vocal directress at the time when it came to her political beliefs concerning women.
Ellis’s commercial success as a playwright and director meant that she could present productions with feminist narratives. Having never categorized her work as feminist, she was able to present plays that disrupted expectations of gender roles the notion that women were passively happy in the domestic sphere. Additionally, most of the plays that Ellis directed were not written by her, but written by other women. Edith Ellis produced women’s plays exclusively. Edith Ellis developed a feminist directing theory. In her words: “My methods differ somewhat from those of the men directors; the men like first to put the company through the rough outline of the play, the mechanics as we say, leaving the characterizations to be developed along with details and business. I prefer to stay ‘living’ the play from the first and working out the detail as we go along. In this way the sense of reality is created, the play is properly colored.” According to Ellis, women biologically made better directors because women had an ability to impart their knowledge to the cast, whereas male directors did not have the inborn emotional inclination or intuition of women.
The only advantage that men had as directors, ac