The Simpsons (season 3)
|The Simpsons (season 3)|
|Country of origin||United States|
|No. of episodes||24|
|Original release||September 19, 1991– August 27, 1992|
The Simpsons' third season originally aired on the Fox network between September 19, 1991 and August 27, 1992. The showrunners for the third production season were Al Jean and Mike Reiss who executive produced 22 episodes for the season, while two other episodes were produced by James L. Brooks, Matt Groening, and Sam Simon. An additional episode, "Brother, Can You Spare Two Dimes?", aired on August 27, 1992 after the official end of the third season and is included on the Season 3 DVD set. Season three won six Primetime Emmy Awards for "Outstanding Voice-Over Performance" and also received a nomination for "Outstanding Animated Program" for the episode "Radio Bart". The complete season was released on DVD in Region 1 on August 26, 2003, Region 2 on October 6, 2003, and in Region 4 on October 22, 2003.
Al Jean and Mike Reiss, who had written for The Simpsons since the start of the show, took over as showrunners this season. Their first episode as showrunners was "Mr. Lisa Goes to Washington" and they felt a lot of pressure about running the show. They also ran the following season and Jean would return as executive producer in season 13. There were two episodes, "Kamp Krusty" and "A Streetcar Named Marge", that were produced at the same time, but aired during season four as holdover episodes. Two episodes that aired during this season, "Stark Raving Dad" and "When Flanders Failed", were executive produced during the previous season by James L. Brooks, Matt Groening and Sam Simon.
Carlos Baeza and Jeffrey Lynch received their first directing credits this season. Alan Smart, an assistant director and layout artist, would receive his only directing credit. One-time writers from this season include Robert Cohen, Howard Gewirtz, Ken Levine and David Isaacs. Bill Oakley and Josh Weinstein, who would later become executive producers, became a part of the writing staff to replace Jay Kogen and Wallace Wolodarsky both of whom had decided to leave the next season. The current arrangement of the theme song was introduced during this season.
A crossover episode with the live-action sitcom Thirtysomething, titled "Thirtysimpsons", was written by David Stern for this season, but was never produced because it "never seemed to work". The crossover would involve Homer meeting a group of Yuppies and hanging out with them.
The season premiere episode was "Stark Raving Dad", which guest starred Michael Jackson as the speaking voice of Leon Kompowsky. One of Jackson's conditions for guest starring was that he voiced himself under a pseudonym. While he recorded the voice work for the character, all of his singing was performed by Kipp Lennon, because Jackson wanted to play a joke on his brothers. Michael Jackson's lines were recorded at a second session by Brooks. The January 30, 1992 rerun of the episode featured a brief alternate opening, which was written in response to a comment made by then-President of the United States George H. W. Bush. On January 27, 1992 Bush made a speech during his re-election campaign where he said, "We are going to keep on trying to strengthen the American family, to make American families a lot more like The Waltons and a lot less like The Simpsons." The writers decided that they wanted to respond by adding a response to the next broadcast of The Simpsons, which was a rerun of "Stark Raving Dad" on January 30. The broadcast included a new tongue-in-cheek opening where they watch Bush's speech. Bart replies, "Hey, we're just like the Waltons. We're praying for an end to the Depression, too".
"Homer at the Bat" is the first episode in the series to feature a large supporting cast of guest stars. The idea was suggested by Sam Simon, who wanted an episode filled with real Major League Baseball players. They did manage to get nine players who agreed to guest star and they were recorded over a period of six months. Several new characters were introduced this season, including Lunchlady Doris, Fat Tony, Legs and Louie, Rabbi Hyman Krustofski, Lurleen Lumpkin, and Kirk and Luann Van Houten.
This season's production run (8F) was the last to be animated by Klasky Csupo, before the show's producers Gracie Films opted to switch domestic production of the series to Film Roman. Sharon Bernstein of the Los Angeles Times wrote that "Gracie executives had been unhappy with the producer Csupo had assigned to The Simpsons and said the company also hoped to obtain better wages and working conditions for animators at Film Roman." Klasky Csupo co-founder Gábor Csupó had been "asked [by Gracie Films] if they could bring in their own producer [to oversee the animation production]," but declined, stating "they wanted to tell me how to run my business."
The season was critically acclaimed and remains popular among the show's fanbase. In 2003, Entertainment Weekly published a list of its 25 favorite episodes and placed "Homer at the Bat", "Flaming Moe's" and "Radio Bart" at 15th, 16th and 20th positions, respectively. IGN.com made a list of the best guest appearances in the show's history, and placed Aerosmith at 24, Spinal Tap at 18, the "Homer at the Bat" baseball players at 17, Jon Lovitz at eight, and Michael Jackson at number five. IGN would later name "Flaming Moe's" the best episode of the third season. Chris Turner, the author of the book Planet Simpson, believes that the third season marks the beginning of "the Golden Age" of The Simpsons and pinpoints "Homer at the Bat" as the first episode of the era. Bill Oakley has described the season as "the best season of any TV show of all time", pinpointing its success to the fact that "a lot of the stories were pretty grounded, but they took a couple of crazy leaps out into space with like, ‘Homer at the Bat’", stating that he and Josh Weinstein used the season as a model when they were The Simpsons' showrunners for seasons 7 and 8.
1992 was The Simpsons' most successful year at the Primetime Emmy Awards, with the series receiving six Emmys, all for "Outstanding Voice-Over Performance", a category which is juried rather than competitive. The recipients were: Nancy Cartwright as Bart Simpson in "Separate Vocations"; Dan Castellaneta as Homer Simpson in "Lisa's Pony"; Julie Kavner as Marge Simpson in "I Married Marge"; Jackie Mason as Rabbi Hyman Krustofski in "Like Father, Like Clown"; Yeardley Smith as Lisa Simpson in "Lisa the Greek"; and Marcia Wallace as Edna Krabappel in "Bart the Lover". Mason is the only irregular guest star from the show to win an Emmy. The series received three other Emmy nominations: for "Outstanding Animated Program" with the episode "Radio Bart"; for "Outstanding Individual Achievement in Music Composition for a Series (Dramatic Underscore)" (Alf Clausen) and "Outstanding Individual Achievement in Sound Mixing for a Comedy Series or a Special" (Brad Brock, Peter Cole, Anthony D'Amico, Gary Gegan), both for the episode "Treehouse of Horror II".
The series also won an Annie Award for Best Animated Television Production, an Environmental Media Award nomination for "Best Television Episodic Comedy" for the episode "Mr. Lisa Goes to Washington", and a People's Choice Award nomination for "Favorite Series Among Young People".
|Title||Directed by||Written by||Original air date||Prod.|
|36||1||"Stark Raving Dad"||Rich Moore||Al Jean & Mike Reiss||September 19, 1991||7F24||22.9|
Homer's sanity is called into question when he arrives at work wearing a pink shirt. After Bart takes Homer's mental stability test for him, Homer is committed to a mental hospital where he meets a big, hulking bald man who says his name is Michael Jackson. Meanwhile, Lisa is depressed over her upcoming eighth birthday, but is very happy in the end to receive a song that is written specially for her birthday.|
Guest star: Michael Jackson (under the pseudonym of "John Jay Smith") and Kipp Lennon.
|37||2||"Mr. Lisa Goes to Washington"||Wes Archer||George Meyer||September 26, 1991||8F01||20.2|
|While reading a copy of Reading Digest, Homer finds an entry form for an essay contest for which Lisa signs up. When she wins the contest, she and the family travel to Washington, D.C. where the finals are to be held. Here, Lisa bears witness to the seedy underbelly of politics and becomes bitterly disappointed after learning of a bribery scandal involving Springfield's state congressman. In her final essay, she disdains and condemns the government system, which leads to the arrest of the corrupt congressman. While she fails to win the contest, her faith in government is restored.|
|38||3||"When Flanders Failed"||Jim Reardon||Jon Vitti||October 3, 1991||7F23||22.8|
|Homer makes a wish for Ned Flanders to be a financial failure. The wish comes to life when Flanders's store catering to left-handed people goes out of business, causing the Flanders family to end up financially in trouble. When finding out that Ned's house is to be repossessed, Homer feels guilty and decides to help by telling all the left-handed population of Springfield about the Leftorium and calling in a few favors from his friends. This helps Ned keep the store and get his house back. Meanwhile, Bart goes to the Japanese bartender Akira and takes karate lessons, but quits after he discovers that it is not as interesting as he had expected it to be.|
|39||4||"Bart the Murderer"||Rich Moore||John Swartzwelder||October 10, 1991||8F03||20.8|
After having a terrible day at school, Bart stumbles upon the "Legitimate Businessman's Social Club" Mafia bar where the leader, Fat Tony, hires him to work as their permanent bartender. However, when Principal Skinner ends up missing for nearly a week, Bart is immediately blamed for murdering him, causing Bart to get sent to court. As Bart is about to get convicted, the principal shows up which leads to Bart being cleared of all the charges.|
Guest star: Joe Mantegna, Neil Patrick Harris.
|40||5||"Homer Defined"||Mark Kirkland||Howard Gewirtz||October 17, 1991||8F04||20.6|
Homer accidentally saves the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant and is ashamed when people mistake him for a hero. When another impending meltdown threatens the Shelbyville plant, he is asked to perform his heroic deeds once again. He is lucky again, but this time he is derided as a lucky imbecile, even more so than he was hailed as a hero. Meanwhile, Milhouse's mom forbids him to be friends with Bart as she feels he is a bad influence on him.|
Guest star: Magic Johnson, Chick Hearn and Jon Lovitz.
|41||6||"Like Father, Like Clown"||Jeffrey Lynch & Brad Bird||Jay Kogen & Wallace Wolodarsky||October 24, 1991||8F05||20.2|
When Krusty comes over to the Simpsons' house for dinner, he reveals to them that he is of Jewish heritage, and that his father, Rabbi Krustofski disowned him for pursuing a career in comedy, and not a successful career as a rabbi. Krusty starts to fall apart and Bart and Lisa decide to contact the rabbi and convince him to forgive Krusty. The rabbi at first refuses to see Krusty, but Bart convinces him to do so, and the two reunite.|
Guest star: Jackie Mason.
|42||7||"Treehouse of Horror II"||Jim Reardon||Al Jean, Mike Reiss, Jeff Martin, George Meyer, Sam Simon & John Swartzwelder||October 31, 1991||8F02||20|
When Homer, Bart, and Lisa eat a ton of candy, the three begin having various nightmares:|
Lisa's nightmare (The Monkey's Paw): The Simpsons visit Morocco and find a monkey's paw that makes all their wishes come true – with dire consequences.
Bart's nightmare (The Bart Zone): In this parody of the Twilight Zone episode "It's a Good Life", the town of Springfield must think happy thoughts or suffer the powers of Bart's twisted imagination.
Homer's nightmare (If I Only Had a Brain): In a parody of the 1931 film Frankenstein, Mr. Burns kills Homer so he can transplant his brain into a robot to create a super-efficient worker.
|43||8||"Lisa's Pony"||Carlos Baeza||Al Jean & Mike Reiss||November 7, 1991||8F06||23|
When Lisa requires a new saxophone reed for her talent recital, she asks Homer, who immediately promises to buy her one. Though when Homer breaks his promise, he makes up for it by giving Lisa the one thing she had always wanted, a pony named Princess. With a new pony in the house, Homer struggles with two jobs to cover the cost. Lisa, upon seeing what Homer must go through to pay for the pony, decides to sell it.|
Guest star: Frank Welker.
|44||9||"Saturdays of Thunder"||Jim Reardon||Ken Levine & David Isaacs||November 14, 1991||8F07||24.7|
|After taking a fatherhood quiz, Homer realizes that he knows nothing about Bart, and in the result, strives to be a better father after learning that Bart is one of the racers in the Soapbox Derby. Their entry is not very good, so Bart decides to drive Martin Prince's much nicer racer. Homer is at first devastated, but decides that he must be a good father and support Bart. Bart later goes on to win the race.|
|45||10||"Flaming Moe's"||Rich Moore & Alan Smart||Robert Cohen||November 21, 1991||8F08||23.9|
One night at Moe's Tavern, Homer tells Moe Szyslak of a secret alcoholic cocktail made with cough syrup and fire that he calls "Flaming Homer". When Moe tries Homer's recipe in the bar, he finds it boosts his business and patronage, so Moe steals the recipe from Homer. Later, Moe is about to sell the recipe for $1,000,000 but Homer comes and divulges the secret ingredient, only to find out that Moe was planning to split the million with him.|
Guest star: Aerosmith.
|46||11||"Burns Verkaufen der Kraftwerk"||Mark Kirkland||Jon Vitti||December 5, 1991||8F09||21.1|
The stock in the Nuclear Plant skyrockets amid rumors of a takeover meaning that all the workers get rich, except for Homer who has sold his stockholding for a mere $25 and fears that he will lose his job. The rumors prove true as two German businessmen buy the plant from Mr. Burns for $100 million and fire Homer for incompetence. Mr. Burns decides to buy the plant back when he discovers that his former employees no longer fear him.|
Guest star: Phil Hartman.
|47||12||"I Married Marge"||Jeffrey Lynch||Jeff Martin||December 26, 1991||8F10||21.9|
|After worrying that she may yet again be pregnant, Marge drives to Dr. Hibbert's office. While anxiously waiting, Homer begins to tell Bart, Lisa, and Maggie about how he and Marge got married at a quickie wedding chapel, and how he attempted to prove to Marge's sisters that he can provide for their upcoming child.|
|48||13||"Radio Bart"||Carlos Baeza||Jon Vitti||January 9, 1992||8F11||24.2|
When Bart's birthday party turns into a disaster, he uses a radio transmitter microphone Homer gave him to play pranks on other citizens. He decides to throw a radio down an old well and tricks the town into thinking a little boy is stuck in it. At first he is successful, but Lisa reminds him that he left a "property of Bart Simpson" label on the radio and goes to retrieve it. Bart becomes trapped in the well and the town gets angry and decide to leave him there. Homer later gets fed up with the townspeople's ignorance and frantically tries to rescue him. He digs a hole near the well, which helps the townspeople realise the error of their ways and offer help.|
Guest star: Sting.
|49||14||"Lisa the Greek"||Rich Moore||Jay Kogen & Wallace Wolodarsky||January 23, 1992||8F12||23.2|
|Homer begins to bond with Lisa after learning her unique and convenient ability to pick winning American football teams. However, Homer secretly takes advantage of Lisa's ability, using it to gamble money off Moe. When Homer selfishly chooses going bowling with Barney instead of going on a mountain hike with Lisa, Lisa finds out Homer had only been using her for gambling, and refuses to speak to him until he fully understands her.|
|50||15||"Homer Alone"||Mark Kirkland||David M. Stern||February 6, 1992||8F14||23.7|
The family's dependence on Marge causes Marge to suffer a nervous breakdown during her early morning errands, and she decides to go to a spa resort to calm down. Homer, meanwhile, has to care for the troublesome Maggie while Bart and Lisa spend their time with their spinster aunts, Patty and Selma. The entire family realizes how much they need Marge to take care of things, and everybody is happy when she eventually returns from the spa.|
Guest star: Phil Hartman.
|51||16||"Bart the Lover"||Carlos Baeza||Jon Vitti||February 13, 1992||8F16||20.5|
|When a yo-yo craze sweeps over Springfield Elementary School, Bart's errant yo-yo happens to break a fish tank, killing the class goldfish. Edna Krabappel sentences Bart to a month of detention. Bart decides to write phony love letters to her under the guise of a man who responded to her personal ad. Meanwhile, Homer tries to cut back on swearing after Flanders complains that Todd is picking up on the foul language.|
|52||17||"Homer at the Bat"||Jim Reardon||John Swartzwelder||February 20, 1992||8F13||24.6|
The Springfield Nuclear Power Plant softball team proves to be a huge success with Homer as their official star player. But after Mr. Burns makes a bet with Shelbyville Nuclear Power Plant owner Aristotle Amadopoulis, he hires nine professional baseball players to fill out the team. However, eight of those ringers fall victim to separate misfortunes, and Burns is forced to turn to his regular employees, who win the game.|
Guest star: Wade Boggs, Jose Canseco, Roger Clemens, Ken Griffey, Jr., Don Mattingly, Steve Sax, Mike Scioscia, Ozzie Smith, Terry Cashman and Darryl Strawberry.
|53||18||"Separate Vocations"||Jeffrey Lynch||George Meyer||February 27, 1992||8F15||23.7|
The school makes the students take an aptitude test, and it ends up suggesting Bart become a policeman and Lisa become a homemaker instead of a professional jazz musician. While Lisa becomes a troublemaker, Bart improves his grades and behavior and is chosen to be Principal Skinner's newest hall monitor.|
Guest star: Steve Allen.
|54||19||"Dog of Death"||Jim Reardon||John Swartzwelder||March 12, 1992||8F17||23.4|
|Santa's Little Helper falls ill and the family must make budget cuts in order to pay for his operation. Although his own life is saved, the family begins getting angry with him for losing out on their favorite things so he runs away. Santa's Little Helper ends up in the possession of Mr. Burns, who trains him to become a vicious attack dog. Bart stumbles across the new Santa's Little Helper and is attacked, but Santa's Little Helper recognizes Bart and decides to stop the attack.|
|55||20||"Colonel Homer"||Mark Kirkland||Matt Groening||March 26, 1992||8F19||25.5|
After his behavior at the movie theater embarrasses Marge, Homer and Marge have a large argument, causing Homer to head to a redneck bar where he meets a beautiful barmaid named Lurleen Lumpkin with a talent for singing. Homer becomes her manager and does everything he can to make Lurleen famous, but it takes a very long time for him to notice Lurleen has fallen in love with him. With Marge already upset and thinking Homer's the one with the roving eyes, it is time for him to decide on his romantic future.|
Guest star: Beverly D'Angelo.
|56||21||"Black Widower"||David Silverman||Story by : Thomas Chastain & Sam Simon |
Teleplay by : Jon Vitti
|April 9, 1992||8F20||17.3|
Selma reveals that she has a new boyfriend that she met through the prison pen-pal program, Sideshow Bob. Bart is immediately suspicious of Bob, but Bob does everything he can to romance Selma and prove he's changed. After Selma and Bob are married, Bob reveals that he plans to kill Selma, but he is stopped by Bart.|
Guest star: Kelsey Grammer.
|57||22||"The Otto Show"||Wes Archer||Jeff Martin||April 23, 1992||8F21||17.5|
Otto crashes the school bus, and is later discovered that he never actually owned a real driver's license, prompting authorities to fire him. Otto then moves in with the Simpsons after he has been evicted, and attempts to teach Bart to learn to play the guitar, though with difficulty. But it's the way he enrages Homer that might provide an inadvertent return ticket to his beloved bus-driving job.|
Guest star: Christopher Guest and Michael McKean.
|58||23||"Bart's Friend Falls in Love"||Jim Reardon||Jay Kogen & Wallace Wolodarsky||May 7, 1992||8F22||19.5|
Milhouse falls in love with the new girl, Samantha Stankey, jeopardizing Bart and Milhouse's friendship. Bart eventually calls Samantha's father and lets him know what is happening. Her father takes her away, which leads to Bart and Millhouse having a fight. Meanwhile, Homer orders a subliminal cassette tape to help him lose weight, but is sent one that helps him increase his vocabulary after the weight-loss tapes were sold out.|
Guest star: Kimmy Robertson.
|59||24||"Brother, Can You Spare Two Dimes?"||Rich Moore||John Swartzwelder||August 27, 1992||8F23||17.2|
When the radiation from the Nuclear Power Plant causes Homer to become infertile, he is awarded a complete $2,000 compensation. Meanwhile, Homer's half-brother, Herb, now living on the streets, returns with a plan on how to regain his name, wealth, and life back and reluctantly turns to Homer for help. Herb asks for Homer's $2,000 so he can develop a new product that will translate baby gibberish into speech.|
Guest star: Danny DeVito and Joe Frazier.
The DVD boxset for season three was released by 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment in the United States and Canada on August 26, 2003, eleven years after it had completed broadcast on television. As well as every episode from the season, the DVD release features bonus material including commentaries for every episode.
|The Complete Third Season|
|Set details||Special features|
|Region 1||Region 2||Region 4|
|August 26, 2003||October 6, 2003||October 22, 2003|
- Jean, Al & Reiss, Mike. (2003). Commentary for "Mr. Lisa Goes to Washington", in The Simpsons: The Complete Third Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Richmond & Coffman 1997, pp. 92-93.
- Lynch, Jeffrey. (2003). Commentary for "Like Father, Like Clown", in The Simpsons: The Complete Third Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Oakley, Bill & Weinstein, Josh. (2006). Easter egg Commentary for "Lisa the Simpson", in The Simpsons: The Complete Third Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Oakley, Bill (2005-10-25). "Ask Bill and Josh Q&A Thread – Post #24". NoHomers.net. Retrieved 2008-03-04.
- Brooks, James L. (2003). Commentary for "Stark Raving Dad", in The Simpsons: The Complete Third Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Reiss, Mike. (2003). Easter Egg Commentary for "Stark Raving Dad", in The Simpsons: The Complete Third Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Jean, Al (2003). The Simpsons season 3 DVD commentary for the episode "Homer at the Bat" (DVD). 20th Century Fox.
- Brooks, James L. (2004). "Bush vs. Simpsons", in The Simpsons: The Complete Fourth Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Turner 2004, pp. 230-231.
- Ortved, John (August 2007). "Simpson Family Values". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 2008-08-26.
- Reiss, Mike (2003). The Simpsons season 3 DVD commentary for the episode "Homer at the Bat" (DVD). 20th Century Fox.
- Reiss, Mike. (2003). Commentary for "Homer Defined", in The Simpsons: The Complete Third Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
- Kirkland, Mark (2004). The Simpsons The Complete Fourth Season DVD commentary for the episode "Kamp Krusty" (DVD). 20th Century Fox.
- Bernstein, Sharon (1992-01-21). "'The Simpsons' Producer Changes Animation Firms". Los Angeles Times. p. 18. Retrieved 2011-08-24.
- "The best Simpsons episodes, Nos. 11-15". Entertainment Weekly. 2003-02-02. Retrieved 2017-11-01. "The best Simpsons episodes, Nos. 16-20". Entertainment Weekly. 2003-02-02. Retrieved 2017-11-01.
- Goldman, Eric; Iverson, Dan; Zoromski, Brian. "Top 25 Simpsons Guest Appearances". IGN. Archived from the original on June 22, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-03.
- Goldman, Eric; Dan Iverson, Brian Zoromski (2006-09-08). "The Simpsons: 17 Seasons, 17 Episodes". IGN. Archived from the original on September 28, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-31.
- Turner 2004, p. 39.
- Fox, Jesse David (13 July 2017). "An Oral History of The Simpsons' Classic Planet of the Apes Musical". vulture.com. Retrieved 16 July 2017.
- "Primetime Emmy Awards Advanced Search". Emmys.org. Archived from the original on February 15, 2009. Retrieved 2008-04-27.
- Castellaneta, Dan (2003). Commentary for the episode "Like Father, Like Clown". The Simpsons: The Complete Third Season (DVD). 20th Century Fox.
- "Legacy: 20th Annual Annie Award Nominees and Winners (1992)". Annie Awards. Archived from the original on 2008-05-09. Retrieved 2008-04-27.
- "'Dinosaurs', 'Trials' up for environmental nods". Daily Variety. 1992-08-06.
- "Roberts, Costner among nominees for 18th People's Choice Awards". The Pantagraph. Associated Press. 1992-02-06.
- Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 62.
- Eugene Sloan (September 25, 1991). "New faces try to save 'One Life to Live'". USA Today. p. 03.D.
- Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 63.
- Brian Donlon (October 2, 1991). "'Roseanne' comes out on top". USA Today. p. 03.D.
- Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 64.
- Brian Donlon (October 9, 1991). "Cable pulls network's plug". USA Today. p. 03.D.
- Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 65.
- Brian Donlon (October 16, 1991). "Hearings score a win for NBC". USA Today. p. 03.D.
- Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 66.
- Brian Donlon (October 23, 1991). "CBS bats one out of the park". USA Today. p. 03.D.
- Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 67.
- Brian Donlon (October 30, 1991). "Close Series wins big for CBS". USA Today. p. 03.D.
- Richmond & Coffman 1997, pp. 68-69.
- Brian Donlon (November 6, 1991). "Ratings contest narrows". USA Today. p. 03.D.
- Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 70.
- Brian Donlon (November 13, 1991). "NBC's hurricane windfall". USA Today. p. 03.D.
- Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 71.
- Brian Donlon (November 20, 1991). "'60 Minutes' clocks a 3rd win". USA Today. p. 03.D.
- Richmond & Coffman 1997, pp. 72-73.
- Brian Donlon (November 27, 1991). "CBS scores a strong win". USA Today. p. 03.D.
- Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 74.
- Brian Donlon (December 11, 1991). "Football a winner for NBC". USA Today. p. 03.D.
- Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 75.
- Brian Donlon, Graham Jefferson & Matt Roush (December 31, 1991). "'Cheers' stays open; cartoons all day". USA Today. p. 03.D.
- Richmond & Coffman 1997, pp. 76-77.
- "Pigskin plays in to CBS win". USA Today. January 15, 1992. p. 03.D.
- Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 78.
- Peter Johnson, Donna Gable, Brian Donlon and Tom Green (January 30, 1992). "'Murder,' she writes on: Lansbury to return". USA Today. p. 03.D.
- Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 79.
- Brian Donlon (February 13, 1992). "CBS mines Olympic gold". USA Today. p. 03.D.
- Richmond & Coffman 1997, pp. 80-81.
- Brian Donlon (February 21, 1992). "CBS wins, but ABC gets silver". USA Today. p. 03.D.
- Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 82.
- Brian Donlon (February 26, 1992). "CBS' all-around Olympic win". USA Today. p. 03.D.
- Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 83.
- Brian Donlon (March 4, 1992). "Last-place Fox is rising fast". USA Today. p. 03.D.
- Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 84.
- "Hit comedies lift ABC". USA Today. March 18, 1992. p. 03.D.
- Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 85.
- Brian Donlon (April 1, 1992). "'Room' in the top 10 for ABC". USA Today. p. 03.D.
- Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 86.
- Donna Gable (April 15, 1992). "CBS' historic jump". USA Today. p. 03.D.
- Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 87.
- Donna Gable (April 29, 1992). "ABC wins with news, goodbyes". USA Today. p. 03.D.
- Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 88.
- Brian Donlon (May 13, 1992). "Finales put NBC in first". USA Today. p. 03.D.
- Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 89.
- Donna Gable (September 2, 1992). "Storm blows in CBS' favor". USA Today. p. 03.D.
- "Simpsons, The — The Complete 3rd Season". TVShowsOnDVD.com. Archived from the original on 2012-10-18. Retrieved 2008-03-14.
- "The Simpsons Season 3 DVD". The Simpsons Shop. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved 2008-03-14.
- Groening, Matt (1997). Richmond, Ray; Coffman, Antonia, eds. The Simpsons: A Complete Guide to Our Favorite Family (1st ed.). New York: HarperPerennial. ISBN 978-0-06-095252-5. LCCN 98141857. OCLC 37796735. OL 433519M.
- Turner, Chris (2004). Planet Simpson: How a Cartoon Masterpiece Documented an Era and Defined a Generation. Foreword by Douglas Coupland. (1st ed.). Toronto: Random House Canada. ISBN 978-0-679-31318-2. OCLC 55682258.
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