A basement or cellar is one or more floors of a building that are either or below the ground floor. They are used as a utility space for a building where such items as the boiler, water heater, breaker panel or fuse box, car park, air-conditioning system are located. However, in cities with high property prices such as London, basements are fitted out to a high standard and used as living space. In British English, the word basement is used for underground floors of, for example, department stores, but the word is only used with houses when the space below their ground floor is habitable, with windows and its own access; the word cellar or cellars is used to apply to the whole underground level or to any large underground room. A subcellar is a cellar. A basement can be used in exactly the same manner as an additional above-ground floor of a house or other building. However, the use of basements depends on factors specific to a particular geographical area such as climate, seismic activity, building technology, real estate economics.
Basements in small buildings such as single-family detached houses are rare in wet climates such as Great Britain and Ireland where flooding can be a problem, though they may be used on larger structures. However, basements are considered standard on all but the smallest new buildings in many places with temperate continental climates such as the American Midwest and the Canadian Prairies where a concrete foundation below the frost line is needed in any case, to prevent a building from shifting during the freeze-thaw cycle. Basements are much easier to construct in areas with soft soils and may be foregone in places where the soil is too compact for easy excavation, their use may be restricted in earthquake zones, because of the possibility of the upper floors collapsing into the basement. Adding a basement can reduce heating and cooling costs as it is a form of earth sheltering, a way to reduce a building's surface area-to-volume ratio; the housing density of an area may influence whether or not a basement is considered necessary.
Basements have become much easier to build since the industrialization of home building. Large powered excavation machines such as backhoes and front-end loaders have reduced the time and manpower needed to dig a basement as compared to digging by hand with a spade, although this method may still be used in the developing world. For most of its early history, the basement took one of two forms, it could be little more than a cellar, or it could be a section of a building containing rooms and spaces similar to those of the rest of the structure, as in the case of basement flats and basement offices. However, beginning with the development of large, mid-priced suburban homes in the 1950s, the basement, as a space in its own right took hold, it was a large, concrete-floored space, accessed by indoor stairs, with exposed columns and beams along the walls and ceilings, or sometimes, walls of poured concrete or concrete cinder block. A daylight basement is contained in a house where at least part of the floor goes above ground to provide reasonably-sized windows.
The floor's ceiling should be enough above ground to provide nearly full-size windows. Some daylight basements are located on slopes, such that one portion of the floor is at-grade with the land. A walk-out basement always results from this. Most daylight basements result from raised bungalows and at-grade walk-out basements. However, there are instances where the terrain dips enough from one side to another to allow for 3/4 to full-size windows, with the actual floor remaining below grade. In most parts of North America, it is legal to set up apartments and legal bedrooms in daylight basements, whether or not the entire basement is above grade. Daylight basements can be used for several purposes—as a garage, as maintenance rooms, or as living space; the buried portion is used for storage, laundry room, hot water tanks, HVAC. Daylight basement homes appraise higher than standard-basement homes, since they include more viable living spaces. In some parts of the US, the appraisal for daylight basement space is half that of ground and above ground level square footage.
Designs accommodated include split-level homes. Garages on both levels are sometimes possible; as with any multilevel home, there are savings on roofing and foundations. A walk-out basement is any basement, underground but nonetheless allows egress directly outdoors and has floating walls; this can either be through a stairwell leading above ground, or a door directly outside if a portion of the basement is at or above grade. Many walk-out basements are daylight basements; the only exceptions are when the entire basement is nearly underground, a stair well leads up nearly a floors worth of vertical height to lead to the outdoors. Basements with only an emergency exit well do not count as walk-out. Walk-out basements with at-grade doors on one side are worth a lot more, but are more costly to construct since the foundation is still constructed to reach below the frost line. At-grade walk-out basements are on the door-side used as livable space for the house, with the buried portion used for utilities and storage.
A subbasement is a floor below the basement floor. In the homes where there is any type of basement mentioned above, such as a look-out basement, all
An address is a collection of information, presented in a fixed format, used to give the location of a building, apartment, or other structure or a plot of land using political boundaries and street names as references, along with other identifiers such as house or apartment numbers and organization name. Some addresses contain special codes, such as a postal code, to make identification easier and aid in the routing of mail. Addresses have several functions: providing a means of physically locating a building in a city where there are many buildings and streets. Addresses may have drawbacks: Their standard formats are different in different places; until the 18th and 19th centuries, most houses and buildings were not numbered. Street naming and numbering began under the age of Enlightenment as part of campaigns for census and military conscription, such as in the dominions of Maria Theresa in the mid 18th century. Numbering allowed everyone to efficiently receive mail, as the postal system evolved in the 18th and 19th century to reach widespread usage.
Comprehensive addressing of all buildings is still not complete in developed countries. For example, the Navajo Nation in the United States was still assigning rural addresses as of 2015 and the lack of addresses can be used for voter disenfranchisement in USA. In many cities in Asia, most minor streets were never named, this is still the case today in much of Japan. A third of houses in Ireland lacked unique numbers until the introduction of Eircode in 2014. In most English-speaking countries, the usual method of house numbering is an alternating numbering scheme progressing in each direction along a street, with odd numbers on one side and numbers on the other side, although there is significant variation on this basic pattern. Many older towns and cities in the UK have "up and down" numbering where the numbers progress sequentially along one side of the road, sequentially back down the other side. Cities in North America those planned on a grid plan incorporate block numbers and cardinal directions into their street numbers, so that in many such cities, addresses follow a Cartesian coordinate system.
Some other cities around the world have their own schemes. Although house numbering is the principal identification scheme in many parts of the world, it is common for houses in the United Kingdom and Ireland to be identified by name, rather than number in villages. In these cases, the street name will follow the house name; such an address might read: "Smith Cottage, Frog Lane, Barsetshire, BZ9 9BA" or "Dunroamin, Emo, Co. Laois, Ireland". In cities with Cartesian-coordinate-based addressing systems, the streets that form the north-south and east-west dividing lines constitute the x and y axes of a Cartesian coordinate plane and thus divide the city into quadrants; the quadrants are identified in the street names, although the manner of doing so varies from city to city. For example, in one city, all streets in the northeast quadrant may have "NE" prefixed or suffixed to their street names, while in another, the intersection of North Calvert Street and East 27th Street can be only in the northeast quadrant.
Street names may follow a variety of themes. In many North American cities, such as, San Francisco USA, Edmonton, Canada, streets are numbered sequentially across the street grid. Washington, D. C. has its numbered streets running north-south and lettered or alphabetically named streets running east-west, while diagonal avenues are named after states. In Salt Lake City, many other Utah cities, streets are in a large grid and are numbered in increments of 100 based on their location relative to the center of the city in blocks. A similar system is in use in Detroit with the Mile Road System. In some housing developments in North America and elsewhere, street names may all follow the same theme, or start with the same letter. Streets in Continental Europe, the Middle East, Latin America are named after famous people or significant dates. Postal codes are a recent development in addressing, designed to speed the sorting and processing of mail by assigning unique numeric or alphanumeric codes to each geographical locality.
For privacy and other purposes, postal services have made it possible to receive mail without revealing one's physical address or having a fixed physical address. Examples are service addresses and poste restante. In most of the world, addresses are written in order from most specific to general, i.e. finest to coarsest information, starting with the addressee and ending with the largest geographical unit. For example: In English-speaking countries, the postal code comes last. In much of Europe, the code precedes the town name, thus: "1010 Lausanne". Sometimes, the country code is placed in front of the postal code: "CH-1010 Lausanne". If a house number is provided, it is written on the same line as the street name; when addresses are written inline, line breaks are replaced by commas. Conventions on the placing of house numbers differ: either after the street name. There are differences in the placement of postal codes: in the UK, they are
Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86. It is a radioactive, odorless, tasteless noble gas, it occurs in minute quantities as an intermediate step in the normal radioactive decay chains through which thorium and uranium decay into lead and various other short-lived radioactive elements. Its most stable isotope, 222Rn, has a half-life of only 3.8 days, making radon one of the rarest elements since it decays away so quickly. However, since thorium and uranium are two of the most common radioactive elements on Earth, they have three isotopes with long half-lives, on the order of several billions of years, radon will be present on Earth long into the future in spite of its short half-life as it is continually being generated; the decay of radon produces many other short-lived nuclides known as radon daughters, ending at stable isotopes of lead. Unlike all the other intermediate elements in the aforementioned decay chains, radon is, under normal conditions and inhaled. Radon gas is considered a health hazard.
It is the single largest contributor to an individual's background radiation dose, but due to local differences in geology, the level of the radon-gas hazard differs from location to location. Despite its short lifetime, radon gas from natural sources, such as uranium-containing minerals, can accumulate in buildings due to its high density, in low areas such as basements and crawl spaces. Radon can occur in ground water – for example, in some spring waters and hot springs. Epidemiological studies have shown a clear link between breathing high concentrations of radon and incidence of lung cancer. Radon is a contaminant. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, radon is the second most frequent cause of lung cancer, after cigarette smoking, causing 21,000 lung cancer deaths per year in the United States. About 2,900 of these deaths occur among people. While radon is the second most frequent cause of lung cancer, it is the number one cause among non-smokers, according to EPA estimates.
As radon itself decays, it produces decay products, which are other radioactive elements called radon daughters. Unlike the gaseous radon itself, radon daughters are solids and stick to surfaces, such as dust particles in the air. If such contaminated dust is inhaled, these particles can cause lung cancer. Radon is a colorless and tasteless gas and therefore is not detectable by human senses alone. At standard temperature and pressure, radon forms a monatomic gas with a density of 9.73 kg/m3, about 8 times the density of the Earth's atmosphere at sea level, 1.217 kg/m3. Radon is the densest of the noble gases. Although colorless at standard temperature and pressure, when cooled below its freezing point of 202 K, radon emits a brilliant radioluminescence that turns from yellow to orange-red as the temperature lowers. Upon condensation, radon glows. Radon is sparingly more soluble than lighter noble gases. Radon is appreciably more soluble in organic liquids than in water. Being a noble gas, radon is chemically not reactive.
However, the 3.8-day half-life of radon-222 makes it useful in physical sciences as a natural tracer. Because radon is a gas at standard conditions, unlike its parents, it can be extracted from them for research. Radon is a member of the zero-valence elements, it is inert to most common chemical reactions, such as combustion, because the outer valence shell contains eight electrons. This produces a stable, minimum energy configuration in which the outer electrons are bound. 1037 kJ/mol is required to extract one electron from its shells. In accordance with periodic trends, radon has a lower electronegativity than the element one period before it, is therefore more reactive. Early studies concluded that the stability of radon hydrate should be of the same order as that of the hydrates of chlorine or sulfur dioxide, higher than the stability of the hydrate of hydrogen sulfide; because of its cost and radioactivity, experimental chemical research is performed with radon, as a result there are few reported compounds of radon, all either fluorides or oxides.
Radon can be oxidized by powerful oxidizing agents such as fluorine. It decomposes back to its elements at a temperature of above 250 °C, is reduced by water to radon gas and hydrogen fluoride: it may be reduced back to its elements by hydrogen gas, it has a low volatility and was thought to be RnF2. Because of the short half-life of radon and the radioactivity of its compounds, it has not been possible to study the compound in any detail. Theoretical studies on this molecule predict that it should have a Rn–F bond distance of 2.08 Å, that the compound is thermodynamically more stable and less volatile than its lighter counterpart XeF2. The octahedral molecule RnF6 was predicted to have an lower enthalpy of formation than the difluoride; the higher fluorides RnF4 and RnF6 have been claimed, are calculated to be stable, but it is doubtful whether they have yet been synthesized. The + ion is believed to form by the following reaction: Rn + 2 +− → +− + 2 O2 For this reason, antimony pentafluoride together with chlorine trifluoride and N2F2Sb2F11 have been considered for radon gas removal in uranium mines due to the formation of radon–fluorine compounds.
The existence of RnF2 allows
Burns, Baby Burns
"Burns, Baby Burns" is the fourth episode of The Simpsons' eighth season. It aired on the Fox network in the United States on November 17, 1996. Mr. Burns' long lost son Larry returns and although they at first get along well, Mr. Burns begins to see that his son has turned out to be an oaf, it was the first episode written by Ian Maxtone-Graham. It guest starred Rodney Dangerfield as Larry Burns. Mr. Burns and Smithers take a train back to Springfield after attending the annual Harvard-Yale football game; the train makes an unexpected stop and a man named Larry comes up to the train and tries to sell merchandise. He takes out an old picture of a man who looks similar and compares the two; the train pulls away, leaving Larry behind. Meanwhile, the Simpson family are on their way home from visiting a cider mill and see Larry hitchhiking. After much discussion, the family picks up the hitchhiker. Larry asks the Simpsons about Mr. Burns and they agree to take Larry to his house. In Springfield, Larry reveals that he is Burns' son.
Mr. Burns is at first shocked, but after acknowledging the resemblance admits that Larry was the product of a one-night stand with the daughter of a former flame at a college reunion. At first, Mr. Burns tries to shape Larry after himself. Burns takes Larry to fancy parties and tries to have him enrolled in Yale, but Larry keeps acting like an oaf and proves to be an embarrassment. Larry is put to work in Sector 7G at the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant alongside Homer and the two become friends. Larry invites Homer to dinner, at dinner, Mr. Burns becomes frustrated due to Larry's boorishness and tells him that he wishes he had no son. Homer tries to convince Larry to fake a kidnapping so that Burns will admit that he loves his son, although Larry at first opposes the idea, he agrees to do it and moves into the Simpsons' basement. Homer says that he can have Larry back if he admits that he loves him. Marge discovers the plan and convinces Homer and Larry to abandon their plot, but as they leave the house, they are spotted.
The two are chased into a cinema where they climb out onto the marquee and have a brief standoff with the police. Homer gives a heartfelt speech to justify Larry's actions and Mr. Burns forgives them for the hoax, but explains he cannot be the family whom Larry needs. Larry understands and announces that he has a wife and children back home who are worrying about him. Burns and Larry say the people of Springfield party outside the cinema. Ian Maxtone-Graham wrote the episode and it was his first writing credit for The Simpsons, although he had served as a consultant on the show for several months. Maxtone-Graham had worked with showrunners Bill Oakley and Josh Weinstein on a game show and the two had wanted to hire him as a writer on The Simpsons; the episode started out as a story about Mr. Burns and Grampa both being stationed in Paris during World War II and falling in love with the same woman, who had a love child. Maxtone-Graham had wanted this episode to be about Burns having a child, where it went.
The other episode idea became'Raging Abe Simpson and His Grumbling Grandson in "The Curse of the Flying Hellfish"', which aired in the previous season. The episode opens with the family visiting Mt. Swartzwelder Historic Cider Mill because the writers had wanted to do something involving autumn and a cider mill seemed like a good setting for that. Rodney Dangerfield guest stars in this episode and was a huge favorite of many of the show's writers. Many of the jokes in the episode were written to be "Dangerfield jokes", which were much tougher to write than the staff had thought. Dangerfield made a few key changes to his script during the recording of his part. Designing Larry Burns was a challenge because the director had wanted him to look like Dangerfield but still have Burns' characteristics such as the pointed nose; the title of the episode is a reference to a line in the Trammps song "Disco Inferno" After discovering that Larry Burns is working in Sector 7G, Homer frantically cleans up and puts away an entirely assembled jigsaw puzzle which has an image of Snoopy the dog lying on his doghouse.
The puzzle is missing several pieces over where Snoopy's nose should be, intentionally drawn that way to avoid copyright laws. The character from Yale that Mr. Burns talks to is based on the fictional character Dink Stover from the book Dink Stover at Yale by Owen Johnson; the episode contains several references to the film Caddyshack in which Dangerfield stars, such as the scene where Larry tries to fit in with Mr. Burns' associates; the final street party, which features the song "Any Way You Want It" by Journey parodies the way that several films, including Caddyshack, end. The episode ends at a movie theater, a reference to several famous criminals who were involved with theatres, such as John Dillinger, Lee Harvey Oswald, John Wilkes Booth. In its original broadcast, "Burns, Baby Burns" finished 64th in ratings for the week of November 11–17, 1996, with a Nielsen rating of 7.7, equivalent to 7.5 million viewing households. It was the fourth-highest-rated show on the Fox network that week, following The X-Files, Melrose Place, Beverly Hills, 90210.
The authors of the book I Can't Believe It's a Bigger and Better Updated Unofficial Simpsons Guide, Warren Martyn and Adrian Wood, called it "A fun episode, with Rodney Dangerfield putting a lot of pathos into Larry
A dining room is a room for consuming food. In modern times it is adjacent to the kitchen for convenience in serving, although in medieval times it was on an different floor level; the dining room is furnished with a rather large dining table and a number of dining chairs. In the Middle Ages, upper class Britons and other European nobility in castles or large manor houses dined in the great hall; this was a large multi-function room capable of seating the bulk of the population of the house. The family would sit at the head table on a raised dais, with the rest of the population arrayed in order of diminishing rank away from them. Tables in the great hall would tend to be long trestle tables with benches; the sheer number of people in a Great Hall meant it would have had a busy, bustling atmosphere. Suggestions that it would have been quite smelly and smoky are by the standards of the time, unfounded; these rooms had large chimneys and high ceilings and there would have been a free flow of air through the numerous door and window openings.
It is true that the owners of such properties began to develop a taste for more intimate gatherings in smaller'parlers' or'privee parlers' off the main hall but this is thought to be due as much to political and social changes as to the greater comfort afforded by such rooms. Over time, the nobility took more of their meals in the parlour, the parlour became, functionally, a dining room, it migrated farther from the Great Hall accessed via grand ceremonial staircases from the dais in the Great Hall. Dining in the Great Hall became something, done on special occasions. Toward the beginning of the 18th Century, a pattern emerged where the ladies of the house would withdraw after dinner from the dining room to the drawing room; the gentlemen would remain in the dining room having drinks. The dining room tended to take on a more masculine tenor as a result. A typical North American dining room will contain a table with chairs arranged along the sides and ends of the table, as well as other pieces of furniture such as sideboards and china cabinets, as space permits.
Tables in modern dining rooms will have a removable leaf to allow for the larger number of people present on those special occasions without taking up extra space when not in use. Although the "typical" family dining experience is at a wooden table or some sort of kitchen area, some choose to make their dining rooms more comfortable by using couches or comfortable chairs. In modern American and Canadian homes, the dining room is adjacent to the living room, being used only for formal dining with guests or on special occasions. For informal daily meals, most medium size houses and larger will have a space adjacent to the kitchen where table and chairs can be placed, larger spaces are known as a dinette while a smaller one is called a breakfast nook. Smaller houses and condos may have a breakfast bar instead of a different height than the regular kitchen counter. If a home lacks a dinette, breakfast nook, or breakfast bar the kitchen or family room will be used for day-to-day eating; this was traditionally the case in Britain, where the dining room would for many families be used only on Sundays, other meals being eaten in the kitchen.
In Australia, the use of a dining room is still prevalent, yet not an essential part of modern home design. For most, it is considered a space to be used during formal celebrations. Smaller homes, akin to the USA and Canada, use a breakfast bar or table placed within the confines of a kitchen or living space for meals. Cafeteria Refectory
Marjorie Jacqueline "Marge" Simpson is a fictional character in the American animated sitcom The Simpsons and part of the eponymous family. She is voiced by Julie Kavner and first appeared on television in The Tracey Ullman Show short "Good Night" on April 19, 1987. Marge was created and designed by cartoonist Matt Groening while he was waiting in the lobby of James L. Brooks' office. Groening had been called to pitch a series of shorts based on Life in Hell but instead decided to create a new set of characters, he named the character after his mother Margaret Groening. After appearing on The Tracey Ullman Show for three seasons, the Simpson family received their own series on Fox, which debuted December 17, 1989. Marge is the matriarch of the Simpson family. With her husband Homer, she has three children: Bart and Maggie. Marge is the moralistic force in her family and provides a grounding voice in the midst of her family's antics by trying to maintain order in the Simpson household, she is portrayed as a stereotypical television mother and is included on lists of top "TV moms".
She has appeared in other media relating to The Simpsons—including video games, The Simpsons Movie, The Simpsons Ride and comic books—and inspired an entire line of merchandise. Marge's distinctive blue beehive hairstyle was inspired by a combination of the Bride's in Bride of Frankenstein and the style that Margaret Groening wore in the 1960s. Julie Kavner, a member of the original cast of The Tracey Ullman Show, was asked to voice Marge so that more voice actors would not be needed. Kavner has won several awards for voicing Marge, including a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Voice-Over Performance in 1992, she was nominated for an Annie Award for Best Voice Acting in an Animated Feature for her performance in The Simpsons Movie. In 2000, along with the rest of her family, was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame; the Simpsons uses a floating timeline, as such the show is assumed to be set in the current year. In several episodes, events have been linked to specific time periods, although this timeline has been contradicted in subsequent episodes.
Marge Simpson is the wife of Homer and mother of Bart and Maggie Simpson. She was raised by her parents and Clancy Bouvier, she has a pair of the joyless Patty and Selma, both of whom vocally disapprove of Homer. In "The Way We Was", it is revealed via flashback that Marge attended Springfield High School, in her final year met Homer Simpson, after they both were sent to detention—Homer for smoking in the bathroom with Barney, Marge for burning her bra in a feminist protest, she was at first wary of Homer, but agreed to go to the prom with him, although she ended up going with Artie Ziff after Homer received tutoring lessons were a means to get to know her better, while knowing that she needed to sleep for a school meet. However, she regretted going with Artie. At the end of the evening, while Artie drove her home after receiving a slap, she spied Homer walking along the side of the road with the corsage meant for her. After hearing her parents voicing their negative opinions about Homer, she took her own car and went back to give him a ride.
She told Homer she should've gone to the prom with him and he fixes her snapped shoulder strap with the corsage. During the ride, he tells her he will kiss her and never be able to let her go. After the two had been dating for several years, Marge discovered she was pregnant with Bart, she and Homer were married in a small wedding chapel across the state line. Bart was born soon after, the couple bought their first house; the episode "That'90s Show" contradicted much of the established back-story. As with many Simpsons characters, Marge's age and birthday changes to serve the story. In season one episodes "Life on the Fast Lane" and "Some Enchanted Evening", Marge was said to be 34. In "Homer's Paternity Coot", Marge states that Emerald would have been her birthstone if she had been born three months placing her birthday sometime in February. In "Regarding Margie", Homer mentioned that Marge was his age, meaning she could have been anywhere between 36 and 40. During this episode, Lisa questions Homer's memory of Marge's birthday.
When he can not remember, Marge yells. In the season eighteen episode "Marge Gamer" she states that she and actor Randy Quaid share the same birthdate. Marge has been nonworking for most of the series, choosing to be a homemaker and take care of her family. However, she has held several one-episode jobs in the course of the series; these include working as a nuclear technician alongside Homer at Springfield Nuclear Power Plant in "Marge Gets a Job". While Marge has never expressed discontent with her role as a homemaker, she has become bored with it. In "The Springfield Connection", Marge decided that she needed more excitement in her life and became a police officer. However, by the end of the episode, she quit. Matt Groening first conceived Marge and the rest of the Simpson family in 1986 in the lobby of producer James L. Brooks' office. Groe